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Typology of Dutch Catholic Parishes, 2003 (Added: May 25, 2012)

This dataset examines characteristics of Dutch Catholic Parishes, including their purpose, activities, participants, target group, visitors, and slogan or motto.

Survey of Chicago Catholics, 2007 (Added: January 21, 2011)

This 2007 telephone survey examined the attitudes of 524 former and current Catholics living in the Chicago Archdiocese, which encompasses Cook and Lake counties and is home to 2.5 million Catholics. Current Catholics were asked a wide range of questions about their views of the church, as well as aspects of Catholic identity and commitment. Former Catholics were asked about reasons for leaving the church.

Harris 1967 Survey on Catholics' View of their Church (Added: September 24, 2010)

This 1967 survey of a national sample of Catholic adults conducted for Newsweek Magazine focused on the changes within the Catholic Church since the Vatican Council II and attitudes of Catholics toward the changes and the Church in general. Questions include belief in various church teachings, attitudes toward priests and papal authority, church attendance, and birth control.

Second Vatican Council Votes (Added: August 01, 2010)

The study aimed to examine the factors that predicted bishops’ votes at the Second Vatican Council, or Vatican II. Votes were obtained from the Vatican Secret Archive and entered into an electronic database, along with other biographical, diocesan, and national-level information which were used as independent variables.

Orange & San Diego Catholic Priest Survey: Religion and Politics, 2001 (Added: October 23, 2009)

This is a survey on the religious and political views of Catholic priests in the Dioceses of San Diego and Orange, California. It was constructed both with original questions and questions derived from the National Election Study, General Social Survey, and Ted G. Jelen's The Political World of the Clergy.

Gallup Poll of Catholics, 2005 (Added: June 12, 2009)

This survey is a follow-up survey to the 1999, 1993, 1992, and 1987 Surveys of American Catholics. The survey included interviews with 875 self-described Catholics. Most of the items in the survey also were asked in the previous surveys. By asking the same questions at different points in time, trends can by measured. D'Antonio and his associates published these survey results in the 2007 book, American Catholics Today, the fourth in a series to monitor trends among American Catholics.

Survey of American Catholic Priests, 2001 (Added: July 01, 2004)

This 2001 survey of Catholic priests is a replication of two earlier surveys, the first being the 1970 study carried out by Andrew Greeley and Richard Schoenherr. American Catholic priests were surveyed about satisfaction with their training, their Presbyteral Council, and particularly their priestly ministry. Topics include their views on church authority, the role of the laity, the challenges of the priestly life, public perceptions of the priesthood, and sexuality.

System For Catholic Research, Information and Planning (1990), 1990 (Added: October 15, 2003)

The aim of this project was to develop a dataset describing the U.S. Catholic Church at the diocesan level. The total project consists of six decades' worth of data, from 1940 through 1990. Diocesan information collected from churches and other sources was merged with U.S. Census data describing population and other characteristics of the counties that make up each diocese.

System For Catholic Research, Information and Planning (1950), 1990 (Added: July 07, 2003)

The aim of this project was to develop a dataset describing the U.S. Catholic Church at the diocesan level. The total project consists of six decades' worth of data, from 1940 through 1990. Diocesan information collected from churches and other sources were merged with U.S. Census data describing population and other characteristics of the counties that make up each diocese.

System For Catholic Research, Information and Planning (1960), 1990 (Added: July 07, 2003)

The aim of this project was to develop a dataset describing the U.S. Catholic Church at the diocesan level. The total project consists of six decades' worth of data, from 1940 through 1990. Diocesan information collected from Church and other sources was merged with U.S. Census data describing population and other characteristics of the counties that make up each diocese.

Gallup Poll of Catholics, 1999 (Added: May 23, 2003)

This survey is a follow-up survey to the 1993, 1992, and 1987 Surveys of American Catholics. The survey included interviews with 877 self-described Catholics. Most of the items in the survey also were asked in the 1987 and 1993 surveys. By asking the same questions at different points in time, trends can by measured. D'Antonio and his associates published these survey results in the 2001 book, American Catholics: Gender, Generation, and Commitment, the third in a series to monitor trends among American Catholics.

Springfield, Massachusetts Catholic Education Survey, No. 1902 (Added: May 21, 2003)

This study was produced by Louis Harris and Associates, Inc. In the study, "A special sample of Catholics in Springfield Massachusetts, were questioned about post-Vatican II church and parochial education." (The Odum Institute) Questions were asked concerning the possible financial support from the federal government for Catholic schools for religious teaching and charities.

System For Catholic Research, Information and Planning (1940), 1990 (Added: April 16, 2003)

The aim of this project was to develop a dataset describing the U.S. Catholic Church at the diocesan level. The total project consists of six decades' worth of data, from 1940 through 1990. Diocesan information collected from Church and other sources were merged with U.S. Census data describing population and other characteristics of the counties that make up each diocese.

System For Catholic Research, Information and Planning (1970), 1990 (Added: April 16, 2003)

The aim of this project was to develop a dataset describing the U.S. Catholic Church at the diocesan level. The total project consists of six decades' worth of data, from 1940 through 1990. Diocesan information collected from Church and other sources was merged with U.S. Census data describing population and other characteristics of the counties that make up each diocese.

System For Catholic Research, Information and Planning (1980), 1990 (Added: March 24, 2003)

The aim of this project was to develop a dataset describing the U.S. Catholic Church at the diocesan level. The total project consists of six decades' worth of data, from 1940 through 1990. Diocesan information collected from Church and other sources were merged with U.S. Census data describing population and other characteristics of the counties that make up each diocese.

New Parish Ministers Survey of Parishes, 1992 (Added: June 19, 2001)

This study was a national survey of Catholic parishes, comprising Phase I of the larger study of New Parish Ministers. The purpose of this study was to gather information on the locale, population characteristics, sacramental activity, ministerial programs and general finances of parishes. This was done in order to enter into Phase II of the study, which gathered information on the laypersons, religious and clergy serving the parishes, to learn what factors foster and what obstacles limit the practices of parish ministry by lay ecclesial ministers.

New Parish Ministers Survey of Pastors, 1992 (Added: June 19, 2001)

This study was part of Phase II of the New Parish Ministers study, based on a national survey of Catholic parishes, which comprised Phase I of the larger study. The purpose of this study was to focus on the work of lay ecclesial ministers. Phase II sought to obtain information on the laypersons, religious and clergy serving parishes, to learn what factors foster and what obstacles limit the practices of parish ministry by lay ecclesial ministers. This study looks specifically at the parish pastors.

New Parish Ministers Survey of Lay and Religious, 1992 (Added: June 19, 2001)

This study was part of Phase II of the New Parish Ministers study, based on a national survey of Catholic parishes, which comprised Phase I of the larger study. The purpose of this study was to focus on the work of lay ecclesial ministers. Phase II sought to obtain information on the laypersons, religious and clergy serving parishes to learn what factors foster and what obstacles limit the practices of parish ministry by lay ecclesial ministers. This study looks specifically at lay and religious parish ministers.

New Parish Ministers Survey of Parishioners, 1992 (Added: June 19, 2001)

This study was part of Phase II of the New Parish Ministers study, based on a national survey of Catholic parishes, which comprised Phase I of the larger study. The purpose of this study was to focus on the work of lay ecclesial ministers. Phase II sought to obtain information on the laypersons, religious and clergy serving parishes to learn what factors foster and what obstacles limit the practices of parish ministry by lay ecclesial ministers. This study looks specifically at well-informed parishioners, as chosen by the parish pastor.

Notre Dame Study of Catholic Parish Life: Parishioners Sample, 1984 (Added: October 12, 2000)

The Notre Dame Study of Catholic Parish Life attempts to describe Catholic parishes in the United States roughly twenty years after the reforms of the Second Vatican Council. Beyond the broad descriptive sample of all U.S. parishes, its contextual sampling design permits the scholar to examine both laity, and ordained and non-ordained leadership in various types of parishes. It yields data on participation and organizational involvement, styles of religiosity, church-related attitudes, civic involvement and sociopolitical attitudes, organizational designs and decision-making, and liturgical experience and satisfaction. This is the parishioner component within the series of studies.

"This comprehensive study was an attempt to understand contemporary parish life and the attitudes and behaviors of presumably the most active Catholics, namely, registered parishioners. (Leege and Welch 1989:143).

Notre Dame Study of Catholic Parish Life: Liturgical Observation, 1983 (Added: October 12, 2000)

The Notre Dame Study of Catholic Parish Life attempts to describe Catholic parishes in the United States roughly twenty years after the reforms of the Second Vatican Council. Beyond the broad descriptive sample of all U.S. parishes, its contextual sampling design permits the scholar to examine both laity, and ordained and non-ordained leadership in various types of parishes. It yields data on participation and organizational involvement, styles of religiosity, church-related attitudes, civic involvement and sociopolitical attitudes, organizational designs and decision-making, and liturgical experience and satisfaction. This is the liturgical observation component within the series of studies.

Notre Dame Study of Catholic Parish Life: the Pastors Sample, 1983 (Added: October 12, 2000)

The Notre Dame Study of Catholic Parish Life attempts to describe Catholic parishes in the United States roughly twenty years after the reforms of the Second Vatican Council. Beyond the broad descriptive sample of all U.S. parishes, its contextual sampling design permits the scholar to examine both laity, and ordained and non-ordained leadership in various types of parishes. It yields data on participation and organizational involvement, styles of religiosity, church-related attitudes, civic involvement and sociopolitical attitudes, organizational designs and decision-making, and liturgical experience and satisfaction. This is the pastors component within the series of studies.

Notre Dame Study of Catholic Parish Life: Paid Professional Staff Sample, 1983 (Added: October 12, 2000)

The Notre Dame Study of Catholic Parish Life attempts to describe Catholic parishes in the United States roughly twenty years after the reforms of the Second Vatican Council. Beyond the broad descriptive sample of all U.S. parishes, its contextual sampling design permits the scholar to examine both laity, and ordained and non-ordained leadership in various types of parishes. It yields data on participation and organizational involvement, styles of religiosity, church-related attitudes, civic involvement and sociopolitical attitudes, organizational designs and decision-making, and liturgical experience and satisfaction. This is the professional staff component within the series of studies.

Notre Dame Study of Catholic Parish Life: Volunteer Leaders Sample, 1983 (Added: October 12, 2000)

The Notre Dame Study of Catholic Parish Life attempts to describe Catholic parishes in the United States roughly twenty years after the reforms of the Second Vatican Council. Beyond the broad descriptive sample of all U.S. parishes, its contextual sampling design permits the scholar to examine both laity, and ordained and non-ordained leadership in various types of parishes. It yields data on participation and organizational involvement, styles of religiosity, church-related attitudes, civic involvement and sociopolitical attitudes, organizational designs and decision-making, and liturgical experience and satisfaction. This is the volunteer leaders component within the series of studies.

National Religious Attitudes Survey of Catholics, 1997 (Added: July 05, 2000)

This study was designed to examine controversial issues facing the Catholic Church today. Four broad categories of issues were examined. First, the investigators studied attitudes towards Church teachings (e.g., abortion, women in the priesthood, etc.). Second, they analyzed religious practices. Third, the researchers were interested in respondents' reactions toward a number of assertions about the Church and its role in American society. Finally, they assessed various dimensions of Mass, including its primary purpose and the role of "inclusive language."

Parish Background Behind Priestly Vocations: Pastors' Survey, 1998 (Added: March 07, 2000)

Most vocation research focuses on individuals, not communities. While individual attitudes towards vocations are key, parish life itself may ultimately be as important in shaping vocations as individual attitudes or the influence of parents, mentors, or priests. The present study was designed to examine the effects of parish life on vocation. As such, it is more interested in the parishes that produce vocations than in the personal experiences and background of individuals. This study used a random sample survey to explore the effects of different forms of parish life on vocations.

There are two questionnaires archived here. A survey of pastors (this survey), and a survey of recently ordained priests (archived under the name NEWPRST). Both questionnaires were designed to help profile "multiple vocations parishes," or those that have produced three or more vocations in the past 20 years.

Parish Background Behind Priestly Vocations: Recently Ordained Priests' Survey, 1998 (Added: March 07, 2000)

Most vocation research focuses on individuals, not communities. While individual attitudes towards vocations are key, parish life itself may ultimately be as important in shaping vocations as individual attitudes or the influence of parents, mentors, or priests. The present study was designed to examine the effects of parish life on vocation. As such, it is more interested in the parishes that produce vocations than in the personal experiences and background of individuals. This study used a random sample survey to explore the effects of different forms of parish life on vocations.

There are two questionnaires archived here. A survey of pastors, and a survey of recently ordained priests (this survey). Both questionnaires were designed to help profile "multiple vocations parishes," or those that have produced three or more vocations in the past 20 years.

Catholics in Indiana: A Social and Religious Profile, 1994 (Added: October 19, 1999)

This statewide questionnaire was designed to gather information about the beliefs and practices of Indiana Catholics. This study was a follow-up to several focus group studies conducted in each Indiana diocese. A self-administered questionnaire was sent to Catholics at least 18 years of age. Respondents were asked questions regarding their religious upbringing, life course experiences and personal attitudes regarding faith and morals.

Toward Shaping the Agenda: A National Survey of Catholic Religious Education, Survey of Children Aged 12-14, 1993 (Added: September 21, 1998)

Relying on input from a panel of Catholic leaders in religious education, the Educational Testing Service designed a series of surveys on Catholic religious education, or catechesis. The surveys sought to answer questions in the following areas: the desired outcomes of catechesis; the effectiveness of programs in fostering these outcomes; the problems and issues facing catechetical leaders; the important characteristics of religious education/catechesis today; the use of video technology; and steps to improve the enterprise. This data file contains the Survey of Children Aged 12-14, which was completed by children between the ages of 12 and 14.

Toward Shaping the Agenda: A National Survey of Catholic Religious Education, Survey of Children Aged 15-18, 1993 (Added: September 21, 1998)

Relying on input from a panel of Catholic leaders in religious education, the Educational Testing Service designed a series of surveys on Catholic religious education, or catechesis. The surveys sought to answer questions in the following areas: the desired outcomes of catechesis; the effectiveness of programs in fostering these outcomes; the problems and issues facing catechetical leaders; the important characteristics of religious education/catechesis today; the use of video technology; and steps to improve the enterprise. This data file contains the Survey of Children Aged 15-18, which was completed by children between the ages of 15 and 18.

Toward Shaping the Agenda: A National Survey of Catholic Religious Education, Survey of Diocesan Leaders, 1993 (Added: September 21, 1998)

Relying on input from a panel of Catholic leaders in religious education, the Educational Testing Service designed a series of surveys on Catholic religious education, or catechesis. The surveys sought to answer questions in the following areas: the desired outcomes of catechesis; the effectiveness of programs in fostering these outcomes; the problems and issues facing catechetical leaders; the important characteristics of religious education/catechesis today; the use of video technology; and steps to improve the enterprise. This data file contains the Survey of Diocesan Leaders, which was completed by persons in leadership roles in youth ministry, catechesis and religious education at the diocesan level.

Toward Shaping the Agenda: A National Survey of Catholic Religious Education, Survey of Children Aged 10-11, 1993 (Added: September 21, 1998)

Relying on input from a panel of Catholic leaders in religious education, the Educational Testing Service designed a series of surveys on Catholic religious education, or catechesis. The surveys sought to answer questions in the following areas: the desired outcomes of catechesis; the effectiveness of programs in fostering these outcomes; the problems and issues facing catechetical leaders; the important characteristics of religious education/catechesis today; the use of video technology; and steps to improve the enterprise. This data file contains the Survey of Children Aged 10-11, which was completed by children between the ages of 10 and 11.

Toward Shaping the Agenda: A National Survey of Catholic Religious Education, Survey of Religion Teachers/catechists, 1993 (Added: September 21, 1998)

Relying on input from a panel of Catholic leaders in religious education, the Educational Testing Service designed a series of surveys on Catholic religious education, or catechesis. The surveys sought to answer questions in the following areas: the desired outcomes of catechesis; the effectiveness of programs in fostering these outcomes; the problems and issues facing catechetical leaders; the important characteristics of religious education/catechesis today; the use of video technology; and steps to improve the enterprise. This data file contains the Survey of Religion Teachers/Catechists, which was completed by catechists/religion teachers.

Toward Shaping the Agenda: A National Survey of Catholic Religious Education, Survey of All Adults, 1993 (Added: September 21, 1998)

Relying on input from a panel of Catholic leaders in religious education, the Educational Testing Service designed a series of surveys on Catholic religious education, or catechesis. The surveys sought to answer questions in the following areas: the desired outcomes of catechesis; the effectiveness of programs in fostering these outcomes; the problems and issues facing catechetical leaders; the important characteristics of religious education/catechesis today; the use of video technology; and steps to improve the enterprise. This data file contains the Survey of All Adults, which is a compilation of the Survey of Adults and Survey of Exemplary Adults.

Toward Shaping the Agenda: A National Survey of Catholic Religious Education, Survey of Bishops, 1993 (Added: September 21, 1998)

Relying on input from a panel of Catholic leaders in religious education, the Educational Testing Service designed a series of surveys on Catholic religious education, or catechesis. The surveys sought to answer questions in the following areas: the desired outcomes of catechesis; the effectiveness of programs in fostering these outcomes; the problems and issues facing catechetical leaders; the important characteristics of religious education/catechesis today; the use of video technology; and steps to improve the enterprise. This data file contains the Survey of Bishops, which was completed by diocesan bishops.

Toward Shaping the Agenda: A National Survey of Catholic Religious Education, Survey of Elementary School Principals, 1993 (Added: September 21, 1998)

Relying on input from a panel of Catholic leaders in religious education, the Educational Testing Service designed a series of surveys on Catholic religious education, or catechesis. The surveys sought to answer questions in the following areas: the desired outcomes of catechesis; the effectiveness of programs in fostering these outcomes; the problems and issues facing catechetical leaders; the important characteristics of religious education/catechesis today; the use of video technology; and steps to improve the enterprise. This data file contains the Survey of Elementary School Principals, which was completed by elementary school principles.

Toward Shaping the Agenda: A National Survey of Catholic Religious Education, Survey of Exemplary Adults, 1993 (Added: September 21, 1998)

Relying on input from a panel of Catholic leaders in religious education, the Educational Testing Service designed a series of surveys on Catholic religious education, or catechesis. The surveys sought to answer questions in the following areas: the desired outcomes of catechesis; the effectiveness of programs in fostering these outcomes; the problems and issues facing catechetical leaders; the important characteristics of religious education/catechesis today; the use of video technology; and steps to improve the enterprise. This data file contains the Survey of Exemplary Adults, which was completed by adults nominated by parish pastors as exemplary Catholics.

Survey of American Catholic Priests, 1993 (Added: September 21, 1998)

Commissioned by the National Federation of Priests' Councils, this survey sought to obtain priests' views on the NFPC itself and to look at questions of morale and work satisfaction. Parts of the 1970 National Opinion Research Center (NORC) priest survey and the 1985 NORC priest survey were replicated for this study.

Toward Shaping the Agenda: A National Survey of Catholic Religious Education, Survey of Adults, 1993 (Added: September 21, 1998)

Relying on input from a panel of Catholic leaders in religious education, the Educational Testing Service designed a series of surveys on Catholic religious education, or catechesis. The surveys sought to answer questions in the following areas: the desired outcomes of catechesis; the effectiveness of programs in fostering these outcomes; the problems and issues facing catechetical leaders; the important characteristics of religious education/catechesis today; the use of video technology; and steps to improve the enterprise. This data file contains the Survey of Adults, which was completed by adults randomly sampled from the parish.

Catholic Pluralism Project, 1995 (Added: August 01, 1998)

The purpose of the project was to produce a social and religious profile of American Catholicism. This was accomplished by use of a national telephone survey of Catholics at least 18 years of age. Respondents were asked questions concerning their religious upbringing, life course experiences and personal faith and morals. The survey was conducted by Response Analysis, a professional polling company in New Jersey.

Ministry With Young Adults - A National Catholic Initiative, 1995 (Added: February 05, 1998)

This survey was conducted by the National Conference of Catholic Bishops to create a national pastoral plan for young adult ministry. Young adults are defined as people in their late teens, twenties and thirties who are married, single, divorced, widowed, or remarried. Young adults may have young children, live in rural, suburban, or urban areas and may be employed or in college.

Gallup Poll of Catholics, 1993 (Added: February 05, 1998)

This study is a "sequel" to the 1987 survey of American Catholics that resulted in the 1989 volume, American Catholic Laity in a Changing Church. The survey was designed to replicate the earlier study, repeating "most of the questions from 1987, deleting only those that seemed no longer relevant, thus making available space to add new questions. [The] major objective was to carry out a trend analysis, to find out just how much the Catholic laity might have changed..." (D'Antonio, William V., James D. Davidson, Dean R. Hoge, and Ruth A. Wallace, 1996, p. vi).

Survey of African-American Priests and Seminarians, 1992 (Added: February 05, 1998)

This study was conducted to gather information from African-American priests and seminarians. The study focuses on demographic characteristics, as well as attitudes, beliefs and experiences of African-American priests and seminarians.

Phase II of the National Study on the Permanent Diaconate: A Survey of Catholic Deacons' Wives, 1995 (Added: February 05, 1998)

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the Permanent Diaconate in the U.S. Catholic Church and help to determine its future direction. The National Study on the Permanent Diaconate of the Catholic Church in the United States consisted of a four-phase, two-year study. The Study of Deacons' Wives was Phase II.

Seminarians in the Nineties: A National Study of Seminarians in Theology, 1993 (Added: February 05, 1998)

This study was designed to better understand today's Catholic seminarian. Who is the seminarian as a person and what influenced him to consider the priesthood? How does he view the academic rigors and spiritual life of a seminarian? In light of a changing world, what are his thoughts on the church and the roles he will be expected to fulfill?

Gallup Poll of Catholics, 1992 (Added: February 05, 1998)

This 1992 survey of self-identified Catholics, called the "Catholics Speak Out" poll, like the 1987 Catholics Speak Out survey "probes the degree to which Catholics have changed their image of themselves and of their roles in the church. ...[The] study focuses on questions of individual freedom, personal autonomy, moral authority, and democratic versus autocratic decision-making in the Roman Catholic Church in the last years of the 20th century (D'Antonio, Davidson, Hoge, and Wallace, 1989, p. 1,3; 1996, p. vii)."

Phase III of the National Study on the Permanent Diaconate: A Survey of Catholic Deacons' Supervisors, 1995 (Added: February 05, 1998)

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the Permanent Diaconate in the U.S. Catholic Church and help to determine its future direction. The National Study on the Permanent Diaconate consisted of a four-phase, two-year study. The study of Catholic Deacons' Supervisors was Phase III.

Inventory of Diocesan Family Ministry Services, 1995 (Added: February 05, 1998)

Representatives of diocesan offices were surveyed in 1994 to assess the state of family life ministry and to draw up a profile of diocesan offices that offer services and programs for marriage and family life. This survey was similar to a survey of diocesan offices conducted in 1991 and was used to update the profile and to measure any changes in services and programs. The attached data file provides the results of the 1994 survey.

Phase I of the National Study on the Permanent Diaconate: A Survey of Catholic Deacons, 1995 (Added: February 05, 1998)

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the Permanent Diaconate in the U.S. Catholic Church and help to determine its future direction. The National Study on the Permanent Diaconate of the Catholic Church in the United States consisted of a four-phase, two-year study. The Study of the Permanent Deacons was Phase I.

Survey of American Catholic Priests, 1985 (Added: February 05, 1998)

This survey, part of a larger study of the priest shortage, uses important components from the 1970 National Opinion Research Center (NORC) priest survey conducted by Greeley and Schoenherr. One-third of the dioceses and religious institutes from the earlier survey were randomly selected. Questionnaires were sent to 28 dioceses and 29 institutes, with a return rate of 86.8 percent or N=1,062.

Readiness For Theological Studies: A Study of Faculty Perceptions On the Readiness of Seminarians, 1993 (Added: February 05, 1998)

This study was designed to identify, through the eyes of the seminary faculty, the strengths and weaknesses of seminarians in academics and formation. The study is one-dimensional in that everything in it is seen through the eyes of the faculty at Catholic seminaries. It is multi-dimensional in that the faculty were also asked to look not only at the students, but to examine themselves on how they can effectively educate today's seminarians. The study collected information in the following areas: seminarians as seen through the eyes of their teachers, teaching and formational loads that seminary faculty carry, major shifts influencing seminary formation, and faculty suggestions for future seminary preparation.

Gallup Poll of Catholics, 1987 (Added: February 05, 1998)

This 1987 survey of self-identified Catholics "probes the degree to which Catholics have changed their image of themselves and of their roles in the church. ...[The] study focuses on questions of individual freedom, personal autonomy, moral authority, and democratic versus autocratic decision-making in the Roman Catholic Church in the last years of the 20th century (D'Antonio, Davidson, Hoge, and Wallace, 1989, p. 1,3).