General Social Survey 2008 Cross-Section and Panel Combined

Data Archive > U.S. Surveys > General Population > National > General Social Surveys > Analysis


GETAHEAD

Some people say that people get ahead by their own hard work; others say that lucky breaks or help from other people are more important. Which do you think is most important?
  0) Inapplicable
  1) Hard work
  2) Both equally
  3) Luck or help
  8) Don't know
  9) No answer

Category Frequency Percentage Cumulative Percentage Z-Score
Inapplicable 1163 32.7% 32.7% -1.02
Hard work 1585 44.5% 77.2% 0
Both equally 515 14.5% 91.7% 1.02
Luck or help 284 8% 99.7% 2.04
Don't know 11 .3% 100% 7.14
No answer 1 0% 100% 8.16

Variable Comparisons


Age (I-AGE)

18-29 years old 30-44 years old 45-59 years old 60-74 years old 75 years and older TOTAL
Inapplicable 32.5%
187
34.4%
335
33.4%
337
31.2%
207
26.9%
82
32.5%
1148
Hard work 47.4%
273
43.8%
427
42.4%
428
45.4%
301
47.2%
144
44.6%
1573
Both equally 13.2%
76
14.7%
143
15.2%
153
14.8%
98
14.4%
44
14.6%
514
Luck or help 6.8%
39
6.9%
67
8.7%
88
8.0%
53
10.8%
33
7.9%
280
Don't know 0.2%
1
0.2%
2
0.2%
2
0.6%
4
0.7%
2
0.3%
11
No answer 0.0%
0
0.0%
0
0.1%
1
0.0%
0
0.0%
0
0.0%
1
TOTAL 100.0%
576
100.0%
974
100.0%
1009
100.0%
663
100.0%
305

3527


Worship attendance (I-ATTEND)

Never Several times a year or less 1-3 times a month Every week or nearly every week More than once a week TOTAL
Inapplicable 34.1%
252
34.2%
381
33.6%
182
30.1%
257
30.3%
90
32.8%
1162
Hard work 39.2%
290
42.0%
468
44.8%
243
49.6%
424
51.5%
153
44.5%
1578
Both equally 14.7%
109
17.1%
191
14.4%
78
12.0%
103
11.1%
33
14.5%
514
Luck or help 11.4%
84
6.5%
72
7.0%
38
8.0%
68
6.7%
20
8.0%
282
Don't know 0.5%
4
0.2%
2
0.2%
1
0.4%
3
0.0%
0
0.3%
10
No answer 0.0%
0
0.0%
0
0.0%
0
0.0%
0
0.3%
1
0.0%
1
TOTAL 100.0%
739
100.0%
1114
100.0%
542
100.0%
855
100.0%
297

3547


Education (I-EDUC)

Left high school High school Junior college Bachelor Graduate TOTAL
Inapplicable 34.0%
164
31.5%
554
37.3%
113
33.6%
220
31.0%
112
32.7%
1163
Hard work 48.1%
232
46.0%
809
40.6%
123
41.7%
273
41.0%
148
44.6%
1585
Both equally 8.7%
42
13.8%
242
14.2%
43
17.1%
112
20.5%
74
14.4%
513
Luck or help 8.7%
42
8.3%
146
7.9%
24
7.2%
47
6.9%
25
8.0%
284
Don't know 0.4%
2
0.3%
5
0.0%
0
0.3%
2
0.6%
2
0.3%
11
No answer 0.0%
0
0.1%
1
0.0%
0
0.0%
0
0.0%
0
0.0%
1
TOTAL 100.0%
482
100.0%
1757
100.0%
303
100.0%
654
100.0%
361

3557


Gender (I-GENDER)

Male Female TOTAL
Inapplicable 33.8%
531
31.8%
632
32.7%
1163
Hard work 42.0%
659
46.5%
926
44.5%
1585
Both equally 14.5%
227
14.5%
288
14.5%
515
Luck or help 9.2%
145
7.0%
139
8.0%
284
Don't know 0.4%
7
0.2%
4
0.3%
11
No answer 0.0%
0
0.1%
1
0.0%
1
TOTAL 100.0%
1569
100.0%
1990

3559


Race (I-RACE)

White Black Other TOTAL
Inapplicable 32.4%
896
33.8%
166
33.6%
101
32.7%
1163
Hard work 44.7%
1237
42.4%
208
46.5%
140
44.5%
1585
Both equally 15.0%
414
12.2%
60
13.6%
41
14.5%
515
Luck or help 7.6%
211
11.2%
55
6.0%
18
8.0%
284
Don't know 0.3%
9
0.2%
1
0.3%
1
0.3%
11
No answer 0.0%
0
0.2%
1
0.0%
0
0.0%
1
TOTAL 100.0%
2767
100.0%
491
100.0%
301

3559


Region (I-REGION)

Northeast Midwest South West TOTAL
Inapplicable 33.2%
202
33.1%
260
33.5%
441
30.6%
259
32.7%
1162
Hard work 40.8%
248
43.1%
339
46.3%
610
45.8%
388
44.5%
1585
Both equally 17.3%
105
15.6%
123
12.2%
161
14.9%
126
14.5%
515
Luck or help 8.2%
50
7.9%
62
7.6%
100
8.5%
72
8.0%
284
Don't know 0.5%
3
0.1%
1
0.4%
5
0.2%
2
0.3%
11
No answer 0.0%
0
0.1%
1
0.0%
0
0.0%
0
0.0%
1
TOTAL 100.0%
608
100.0%
786
100.0%
1317
100.0%
847

3558


Religion (I-RELIGION)

Protestant Catholic Jewish None Other (specify) TOTAL
Inapplicable 32.0%
583
32.8%
276
43.5%
27
33.5%
195
31.3%
76
32.6%
1157
Hard work 46.7%
850
45.5%
383
32.3%
20
39.3%
229
40.7%
99
44.6%
1581
Both equally 12.9%
235
14.6%
123
19.4%
12
16.2%
94
20.6%
50
14.5%
514
Luck or help 8.0%
146
6.9%
58
4.8%
3
10.3%
60
7.0%
17
8.0%
284
Don't know 0.3%
5
0.1%
1
0.0%
0
0.7%
4
0.4%
1
0.3%
11
No answer 0.1%
1
0.0%
0
0.0%
0
0.0%
0
0.0%
0
0.0%
1
TOTAL 100.0%
1820
100.0%
841
100.0%
62
100.0%
582
100.0%
243

3548


Political ideology (I-POLITICS)

Liberal Moderate Conservative TOTAL
Inapplicable 32.8%
315
32.1%
422
33.4%
384
32.7%
1121
Hard work 40.7%
391
45.7%
601
46.6%
536
44.6%
1528
Both equally 16.4%
158
15.2%
200
12.5%
144
14.7%
502
Luck or help 9.7%
93
6.6%
87
7.5%
86
7.8%
266
Don't know 0.4%
4
0.3%
4
0.0%
0
0.2%
8
No answer 0.0%
0
0.1%
1
0.0%
0
0.0%
1
TOTAL 100.0%
961
100.0%
1315
100.0%
1150

3426

Bookmark and Share