General Social Survey, 1988

Data Archive > U.S. Surveys > General Population > National > General Social Surveys > Analysis


GOD

Which statement comes closest to expressing what you believe about God: don't believe in God; don't know and no way to find out; believe in higher power; believe in God sometimes; some doubts, but believe in God; no doubts about God's existence.
  1) Don't believe
  2) Don't know, no way to find out
  3) High power
  4) Believe sometimes
  5) Believe with doubts
  6) No doubts
  9) No answer

Category Frequency Percentage Cumulative Percentage Z-Score
Don't believe 22 1.5% 1.5% -3.45
Don't know, no way to find out 56 3.8% 5.3% -2.64
High power 117 7.9% 13.2% -1.83
Believe sometimes 65 4.4% 17.6% -1.02
Believe with doubts 279 18.8% 36.4% -.22
No doubts 939 63.4% 99.8% .59
No answer 3 .2% 100% 3.02

Variable Comparisons


Sex (I-SEX)

Male Female TOTAL
Don't believe 1.9%
12
1.2%
10
1.5%
22
Don't know, no way to find out 5.3%
34
2.6%
22
3.8%
56
High power 11.4%
73
5.2%
44
7.9%
117
Believe sometimes 4.9%
31
4.0%
34
4.4%
65
Believe with doubts 21.0%
134
17.2%
145
18.8%
279
No doubts 55.3%
353
69.5%
586
63.4%
939
No answer 0.2%
1
0.2%
2
0.2%
3
TOTAL 100.0%
638
100.0%
843

1481


Race (I-RACE)

White Black Other TOTAL
Don't believe 1.5%
18
0.5%
1
4.9%
3
1.5%
22
Don't know, no way to find out 4.0%
49
3.8%
7
0.0%
0
3.8%
56
High power 8.4%
104
5.9%
11
3.3%
2
7.9%
117
Believe sometimes 4.4%
54
2.2%
4
11.5%
7
4.4%
65
Believe with doubts 19.5%
241
12.9%
24
23.0%
14
18.8%
279
No doubts 62.1%
766
74.2%
138
57.4%
35
63.4%
939
No answer 0.2%
2
0.5%
1
0.0%
0
0.2%
3
TOTAL 100.0%
1234
100.0%
186
100.0%
61

1481


Religious preference (I-RELIG)

Protestant Catholic Jewish None Other TOTAL
Don't believe 0.6%
5
0.3%
1
0.0%
0
11.9%
14
4.7%
2
1.5%
22
Don't know, no way to find out 1.5%
14
1.8%
7
30.0%
9
19.5%
23
7.0%
3
3.8%
56
High power 6.2%
56
5.2%
20
13.3%
4
23.7%
28
20.9%
9
7.9%
117
Believe sometimes 3.4%
31
4.4%
17
13.3%
4
10.2%
12
2.3%
1
4.4%
65
Believe with doubts 17.3%
157
24.5%
94
20.0%
6
15.3%
18
9.3%
4
18.8%
279
No doubts 70.6%
640
63.8%
245
23.3%
7
19.5%
23
55.8%
24
63.4%
939
No answer 0.3%
3
0.0%
0
0.0%
0
0.0%
0
0.0%
0
0.2%
3
TOTAL 100.0%
906
100.0%
384
100.0%
30
100.0%
118
100.0%
43

1481


Age (I-AGE)

18-25 yrs 26-35 yrs 36- 50 yrs 51-69 yrs 70+ yrs TOTAL
Don't believe 1.0%
2
2.1%
7
1.3%
5
1.5%
5
1.5%
3
1.5%
22
Don't know, no way to find out 3.8%
8
3.8%
13
5.0%
20
3.0%
10
2.5%
5
3.8%
56
High power 8.1%
17
7.0%
24
9.5%
38
7.6%
25
6.5%
13
7.9%
117
Believe sometimes 8.6%
18
3.8%
13
4.0%
16
3.7%
12
3.0%
6
4.4%
65
Believe with doubts 23.3%
49
22.3%
76
17.8%
71
16.8%
55
14.0%
28
18.9%
279
No doubts 55.2%
116
61.0%
208
62.1%
247
67.1%
220
72.0%
144
63.3%
935
No answer 0.0%
0
0.0%
0
0.3%
1
0.3%
1
0.5%
1
0.2%
3
TOTAL 100.0%
210
100.0%
341
100.0%
398
100.0%
328
100.0%
200

1477


Political party (I-POL PART)

Democrat Republican Other TOTAL
Don't believe 1.2%
9
0.9%
5
4.2%
8
1.5%
22
Don't know, no way to find out 3.6%
26
3.7%
21
4.7%
9
3.8%
56
High power 8.5%
62
7.3%
41
7.3%
14
7.9%
117
Believe sometimes 4.5%
33
3.4%
19
6.8%
13
4.4%
65
Believe with doubts 18.5%
135
18.7%
105
20.4%
39
18.8%
279
No doubts 63.5%
463
66.0%
370
55.5%
106
63.4%
939
No answer 0.1%
1
0.0%
0
1.0%
2
0.2%
3
TOTAL 100.0%
729
100.0%
561
100.0%
191

1481


Region (I-REGION)

New England North Central South & Mid Atlantic South Central Mountain/Pacific TOTAL
Don't believe 1.3%
1
1.7%
7
1.7%
8
0.4%
1
1.8%
5
1.5%
22
Don't know, no way to find out 5.0%
4
2.0%
8
5.3%
25
1.7%
4
5.3%
15
3.8%
56
High power 11.3%
9
8.8%
36
6.5%
31
3.8%
9
11.4%
32
7.9%
117
Believe sometimes 5.0%
4
6.4%
26
4.0%
19
2.5%
6
3.6%
10
4.4%
65
Believe with doubts 22.5%
18
19.7%
80
18.6%
88
18.4%
44
17.4%
49
18.8%
279
No doubts 55.0%
44
61.2%
249
63.9%
303
72.4%
173
60.5%
170
63.4%
939
No answer 0.0%
0
0.2%
1
0.0%
0
0.8%
2
0.0%
0
0.2%
3
TOTAL 100.0%
80
100.0%
407
100.0%
474
100.0%
239
100.0%
281

1481


Household income (I-INCOME)

<$10,000 $10K-24999 $25,000+ Refuse/Don't know TOTAL
Don't believe 1.4%
4
1.2%
5
1.8%
12
0.8%
1
1.5%
22
Don't know, no way to find out 3.9%
11
3.3%
14
4.3%
28
2.4%
3
3.8%
56
High power 6.4%
18
8.7%
37
7.6%
49
10.5%
13
7.9%
117
Believe sometimes 3.2%
9
4.7%
20
4.9%
32
3.2%
4
4.4%
65
Believe with doubts 14.6%
41
18.0%
77
22.8%
148
10.5%
13
18.8%
279
No doubts 69.8%
196
64.2%
274
58.4%
379
72.6%
90
63.4%
939
No answer 0.7%
2
0.0%
0
0.2%
1
0.0%
0
0.2%
3
TOTAL 100.0%
281
100.0%
427
100.0%
649
100.0%
124

1481


Education (I-EDUCATIO)

Less than high school High school 4 years college 4+ years college TOTAL
Don't believe 0.6%
1
1.0%
7
2.0%
10
3.3%
4
1.5%
22
Don't know, no way to find out 1.3%
2
2.8%
19
4.1%
21
10.8%
13
3.7%
55
High power 5.7%
9
6.3%
43
10.0%
51
10.8%
13
7.8%
116
Believe sometimes 3.8%
6
4.8%
33
3.9%
20
5.0%
6
4.4%
65
Believe with doubts 12.7%
20
17.6%
121
21.7%
111
22.5%
27
18.9%
279
No doubts 75.3%
119
67.4%
464
58.4%
299
46.7%
56
63.5%
938
No answer 0.6%
1
0.1%
1
0.0%
0
0.8%
1
0.2%
3
TOTAL 100.0%
158
100.0%
688
100.0%
512
100.0%
120

1478


Marital status (I-MARITAL)

Never married Married Widowed/Divorced/Separated TOTAL
Don't believe 2.0%
6
1.4%
11
1.3%
5
1.5%
22
Don't know, no way to find out 5.7%
17
3.3%
26
3.3%
13
3.8%
56
High power 11.4%
34
6.5%
51
8.1%
32
7.9%
117
Believe sometimes 7.4%
22
3.2%
25
4.6%
18
4.4%
65
Believe with doubts 21.5%
64
18.5%
146
17.5%
69
18.8%
279
No doubts 51.7%
154
67.0%
528
65.1%
257
63.4%
939
No answer 0.3%
1
0.1%
1
0.3%
1
0.2%
3
TOTAL 100.0%
298
100.0%
788
100.0%
395

1481

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