State of the First Amendment Survey 1997

Data Archive > U.S. Surveys > General Population > National > State of the First Amendment > Codebook


All frequencies are raw numbers (no weights used).
1) Sequential record ID (CASEID)
NMeanStd.Deviation
TOTAL1025513296
2) Case Identification (ID)
NMeanStd.Deviation
TOTAL10252469.1341591
3) As you know the U.S. Constitution provides citizens many rights and freedoms. Are there any particular rights or freedoms that you feel are most important to American society? [Do not read list provided below] (Circle all responses) PROBE: Are there any others? (IMRT1)
TOTAL%
1) Freedom of the press252.4
2) Freedom of speech44243.1
3) Freedom not to practice religion353.4
4) Freedom to practice religion787.6
5) Right to petition60.6
6) Right of assembly/Right to association202.0
7) Right to bear arms/own guns424.1
8) Right to trial by jury/fair trial50.5
9) Right to privacy80.8
10) Freedom from unreasonable search and seizure30.3
12) Other858.3
99) DK/REF27626.9
TOTAL1025100.0
4) As you know the U.S. Constitution provides citizens many rights and freedoms. Are there any particular rights or freedoms that you feel are most important to American society? [Do not read list provided below] (Circle all responses) PROBE: Are there any others? (IMRT2)
TOTAL%
1) Freedom of the press197.5
2) Freedom of speech5923.4
3) Freedom not to practice religion166.3
4) Freedom to practice religion5421.4
6) Right of assembly/Right to association135.2
7) Right to bear arms/own guns3313.1
8) Right to trial by jury/fair trial83.2
9) Right to privacy72.8
10) Freedom from unreasonable search and seizure10.4
12) Other2710.7
99) DK/REF156.0
Missing773 
TOTAL252100.0
5) As you know the U.S. Constitution provides citizens many rights and freedoms. Are there any particular rights or freedoms that you feel are most important to American society? [Do not read list provided below] (Circle all responses) PROBE: Are there any others? (IMRT3)
TOTAL%
1) Freedom of the press23.7
2) Freedom of speech59.3
3) Freedom not to practice religion47.4
4) Freedom to practice religion1222.2
5) Right to petition11.9
6) Right of assembly/Right to association47.4
7) Right to bear arms/own guns59.3
8) Right to trial by jury/fair trial23.7
9) Right to privacy11.9
10) Freedom from unreasonable search and seizure47.4
12) Other916.7
99) DK/REF59.3
Missing971 
TOTAL54100.0
6) As you know the U.S. Constitution provides citizens many rights and freedoms. Are there any particular rights or freedoms that you feel are most important to American society? [Do not read list provided below] (Circle all responses) PROBE: Are there any others? (IMRT4)
TOTAL%
4) Freedom to practice religion218.2
5) Right to petition19.1
6) Right of assembly/Right to association19.1
7) Right to bear arms/own guns436.4
10) Freedom from unreasonable search and seizure218.2
12) Other19.1
Missing1014 
TOTAL11100.0
7) As you know the U.S. Constitution provides citizens many rights and freedoms. Are there any particular rights or freedoms that you feel are most important to American society? [Do not read list provided below] (Circle all responses) PROBE: Are there any others? (IMRT5)
TOTAL%
12) Other2100.0
Missing1023 
TOTAL2100.0
8) As you may know, the First Amendment is part of the U.S. Constitution. Can you name any of the specific rights that are guaranteed by the First Amendment? (SPAMEND1)
TOTAL%
1) Freedom of the press568.8
2) Freedom of speech40162.9
3) Freedom of religion619.6
4) Right to petition91.4
5) Right of assembly/right to association243.8
6) Other284.4
9) DK/Refused599.2
Missing387 
TOTAL638100.0
9) As you may know, the First Amendment is part of the U.S. Constitution. Can you name any of the specific rights that are guaranteed by the First Amendment? (SPAMEND2)
TOTAL%
1) Freedom of the press3712.9
2) Freedom of speech7024.4
3) Freedom of religion10235.5
4) Right to petition72.4
5) Right of assembly/right to association4616.0
6) Other258.7
Missing738 
TOTAL287100.0
10) As you may know, the First Amendment is part of the U.S. Constitution. Can you name any of the specific rights that are guaranteed by the First Amendment? (SPAMEND3)
TOTAL%
1) Freedom of the press1616.3
2) Freedom of speech66.1
3) Freedom of religion2929.6
4) Right to petition33.1
5) Right of assembly/right to association3232.7
6) Other1212.2
Missing927 
TOTAL98100.0
11) As you may know, the First Amendment is part of the U.S. Constitution. Can you name any of the specific rights that are guaranteed by the First Amendment? (SPAMEND4)
TOTAL%
1) Freedom of the press312.0
2) Freedom of speech14.0
3) Freedom of religion312.0
4) Right to petition312.0
5) Right to assembly/right to association728.0
6) Other832.0
Missing1000 
TOTAL25100.0
12) As you may know, the First Amendment is part of the U.S. Constitution. Can you name any of the specific rights that are guaranteed by the First Amendment? (SPAMEND5)
TOTAL%
5) Right of assembly/right to association150.0
6) Other150.0
Missing1023 
TOTAL2100.0
13) The U.S. Constitution protects certain rights, but not everyone considers each right important. I am going to read you some rights guaranteed by the U.S. Constitution. Please tell me how important it is that you have that right. First, how important is it that you have the right to assemble, march, protest or petition the government about causes and issues? Is it essential that you have this right, important but not essential, or not that important? (IMRGHT1)
TOTAL%
1) Essential57355.9
2) Important35734.8
3) Not that important848.2
9) Don't know/Refused111.1
TOTAL1025100.0
14) The U.S. Constitution protects certain rights, but not everyone considers each right important. I am going to read you some rights guaranteed by the U.S. Constitution. Please tell me how important it is that you have that right. How important is it that you have the right to speak freely about whatever you want? Is it essential that you have this right, important but not essential, or not that important? (IMRGHT2)
TOTAL%
1) Essential74973.1
2) Important25324.7
3) Not that important161.6
9) Don't Know/Refused70.7
TOTAL1025100.0
15) The U.S. Constitution protects certain rights, but not everyone considers each right important. I am going to read you some rights guaranteed by the U.S. Constitution. Please tell me how important it is that you have that right. How important is it that you have the right to practice the religion of your choice? Is it essential that you have this right, important but not essential, or not that important? (IMRGHT3)
TOTAL%
1) Essential83381.3
2) Important17617.2
3) Not that important151.5
9) Don't know/Refused10.1
TOTAL1025100.0
16) The U.S. Constitution protects certain rights, but not everyone considers each right important. I am going to read you some rights guaranteed by the U.S. Constitution. Please tell me how important it is that you have that right. How important is it that you have the right to practice no religion? Is it essential that you have this right, important but not essential, or not that important? (IMRGHT4)
TOTAL%
1) Essential68066.3
2) Important23923.3
3) Not that important949.2
9) Don't know/Refused121.2
TOTAL1025100.0
17) The U.S. Constitution protects certain rights, but not everyone considers each right important. I am going to read you some rights guaranteed by the U.S. Constitution. Please tell me how important it is that you have that right. How important is it that you have the right to be informed by a free press? Is it essential that you have this right, important but not essential, or not that important? (IMRGHT5)
TOTAL%
1) Essential62661.1
2) Important32531.7
3) Not that important616.0
9) Don't know/Refused131.3
TOTAL1025100.0
18) The U.S. Constitution protects certain rights, but not everyone considers each right important. I am going to read you some rights guaranteed by the U.S. Constitution. Please tell me how important it is that you have that right. How important is it that you have the right to own firearms? Is it essential that you have this right, important but not essential, or not that important? (IMRGHT6)
TOTAL%
1) Essential33532.7
2) Important29729.0
3) Not that important36535.6
9) Don't know/Refused282.7
TOTAL1025100.0
19) The U.S. Constitution protects certain rights, but not everyone considers each right important. I am going to read you some rights guaranteed by the U.S. Constitution. Please tell me how important it is that you have that right. How important is it that you have the right to privacy? Is it essential that you have this right, important but not essential, or not that important? (IMRGHT7)
TOTAL%
1) Essential81879.8
2) Important19819.3
3) Not that important70.7
9) Don't know/Refused20.2
TOTAL1025100.0
20) The U.S. Constitution protects certain rights, but not everyone considers each right important. I am going to read you some rights guaranteed by the U.S. Constitution. Please tell me how important it is that you have that right. How important is it that you have the right to a fair trial? Is it essential that you have this right, important but not essential, or not that important? (IMRGHT8)
TOTAL%
1) Essential89287.0
2) Important13012.7
3) Not that important20.2
9) Don't know/Refused10.1
TOTAL1025100.0
21) The First Amendment became part of the U.S. Constitution over 200 years ago. This is what it says: "Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion or prohibiting the free exercise of religion; or of abridging the freedom of speech or of the press; or the right of people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the government for a redress of grievances." Imagine that the country was again voting to ratify the First Amendment. If you were voting on whether or not to approve it, how would you vote? (APPROVE1)
TOTAL%
1) Approve it95893.5
2) Not approve it333.2
9) Don't know/Refused343.3
TOTAL1025100.0
22) Why wouldn't you approve it? PROBE: What would have to be changed for you to approve it? (APPROVE2)
TOTAL%
1) Specify2167.7
9) Don't know/Refused1032.3
Missing994 
TOTAL31100.0
23) How closely do you pay attention to issues involving the First Amendment's freedoms of speech, pres, religion, assembly and petition—do you pay a lot of attention, some, just a little, or not much at all? (ATTENT)
TOTAL%
1) A lot40839.8
2) Some44343.2
3) Just a little989.6
4) Not much at all727.0
9) Don't know/Refused40.4
TOTAL1025100.0
24) Please tell me if you agree with the following statement: Americans don't appreciate First Amendment freedoms the way they ought to: PROBE: Do you strongly or mildly (agree/disagree)? (AMAPPR)
TOTAL%
1) Strongly agree48347.1
2) Mildly agree29628.9
3) Mildly disagree12912.6
4) Strongly disagree817.9
9) Don't know/Refused363.5
TOTAL1025100.0
25) Even though the U.S. Constitution guarantees freedom of the press, government has placed some restrictions on it. Overall, do you think the press in America has too much freedom to do what it wants, too little freedom to do what it wants, or is the amount freedom the press has about right? (FREPRESS)
TOTAL%
1) Too much freedom39838.8
2) Too little freedom918.9
3) About right49848.6
9) Don't know/Refused383.7
TOTAL1025100.0
26) Even though the U.S. Constitution guarantees freedom of speech, government has placed some restrictions on it. Overall, do you think Americans have too much freedom to speak freely, too little freedom to speak freely, or is the amount of freedom people have to speak freely about right? (FRESPEAK)
TOTAL%
1) Too much freedom11010.7
2) Too little freedom18217.8
3) About right69968.2
9) Don't know/Refused343.3
TOTAL1025100.0
27) Even though the U.S. Constitution guarantees freedom of religion, government has placed some restrictions on it. Overall, do you think Americans have too much religious freedom, too little religious freedom, or is the amount of religious freedom people have about right? (FRERELIG)
TOTAL%
1) Too much freedom656.3
2) Too little freedom22121.6
3) About right71669.9
9) Don't know/Refused232.2
TOTAL1025100.0
28) Do you think that imposing curfews on young people violates their First Amendment rights or not? (CURYNG)
TOTAL%
1) Violates rights19819.3
2) Not violates rights78676.7
9) Don't know/Refused414.0
TOTAL1025100.0
29) Overall, would you say that the moral values in American society are improving, deteriorating, or aren't they changing all that much? (AMERMOR)
TOTAL%
1) Improving676.5
2) Deteriorating79077.1
3) Not changing15114.7
9) Don't know/Refused171.7
TOTAL1025100.0
30) Please tell me whether or not you have done any of the following in the past year: Displayed an American flag at your home. (PASTYR1)
TOTAL%
1) Yes63161.6
2) No39338.3
9) Don't know/Refused10.1
TOTAL1025100.0
31) Please tell me whether or not you have done any of the following in the past year: Voted in an election. (PASTYR2)
TOTAL%
1) Yes82180.1
2) No20319.8
9) Don't know/Refused10.1
TOTAL1025100.0
32) Please tell me whether or not you have done any of the following in the past year: Participated in a political rally. (PASTYR3)
TOTAL%
1) Yes14914.5
2) No87685.5
TOTAL1025100.0
33) Please tell me whether or not you have done any of the following in the past year: Attended a public meeting. (PASTYR4)
TOTAL%
1) Yes59257.8
2) No43142.0
9) Don't know/Refused20.2
TOTAL1025100.0
34) Please tell me whether or not you have done any of the following in the past year: Contacted an elected official. (PASTYR5)
TOTAL%
1) Yes44743.6
2) No57656.2
9) Don't know/Refused20.2
TOTAL1025100.0
35) Please tell me whether or not you have done any of the following in the past year: Sent a letter to the editor. (PASTYR6)
TOTAL%
1) Yes12912.6
2) No89587.3
9) Don't know/Refused10.1
TOTAL1025100.0
36) I'm going to read you some ways people might exercise their First Amendment right of free speech. For each, tell me if you agree or disagree that someone should be free to do it. People should be allowed to express unpopular opinions. Do you agree or disagree that people should be free to do this? PROBE: Do you strongly or mildly (agree/disagree)? (FRSPEX1)
TOTAL%
1) Strongly agree70668.9
2) Mildly agree22221.7
3) Mildly disagree525.1
4) Strongly disagree313.0
9) Don't know/Refused141.4
TOTAL1025100.0
37) I'm going to read you some ways people might exercise their First Amendment right of free speech. For each, tell me if you agree or disagree that someone should be free to do it. Companies should be allowed to advertise tobacco. Do you agree or disagree that people should be free to do this? PROBE: Do you strongly or mildly (agree/disagree)? (FRSPEX2)
TOTAL%
1) Strongly agree26826.1
2) Mildly agree31430.6
3) Mildly disagree11110.8
4) Strongly disagree30029.3
9) Don't know/Refused323.1
TOTAL1025100.0
38) I'm going to read you some ways people might exercise their First Amendment right of free speech. For each, tell me if you agree or disagree that someone should be free to do it. Companies should be allowed to advertise liquor and alcohol products. Do you agree or disagree that people should be free to do this? PROBE: Do you strongly or mildly (agree/disagree)? (FRSPEX3)
TOTAL%
1) Strongly agree26025.4
2) Mildly agree36235.3
3) Mildly disagree12412.1
4) Strongly disagree25725.1
9) Don't know/Refused222.1
TOTAL1025100.0
39) I'm going to read you some ways people might exercise their First Amendment right of free speech. For each, tell me if you agree or disagree that someone should be free to do it. The media should be allowed to broadcast pictures of nude or partially clothed persons. Do you agree or disagree that people should be free to do this? PROBE: Do you strongly or mildly (agree/disagree)? (FRSPEX4)
TOTAL%
1) Strongly agree817.9
2) Mildly agree20119.6
3) Mildly disagree18918.4
4) Strongly disagree53051.7
9) Don't know/Refused242.3
TOTAL1025100.0
40) I'm going to read you some ways people might exercise their First Amendment right of free speech. For each, tell me if you agree or disagree that someone should be free to do it. Musicians should be allowed to sing songs with words that others might find offensive. Do you agree or disagree that people should be free to do this? PROBE: Do you strongly or mildly (agree/disagree)? (FRSPEX5)
TOTAL%
1) Strongly agree23122.5
2) Mildly agree29028.3
3) Mildly disagree14914.5
4) Strongly disagree32231.4
9) Don't know/Refused333.2
TOTAL1025100.0
41) I'm going to read you some ways people might exercise their First Amendment right of free speech. For each, tell me if you agree or disagree that someone should be free to do it. People should be allowed to place sexually explicit material on the Internet. Do you agree or disagree that people should be free to do this? PROBE: Do you strongly or mildly (agree/disagree)? (FRSPEX6)
TOTAL%
1) Strongly agree11010.7
2) Mildly agree15615.2
3) Mildly disagree979.5
4) Strongly disagree63361.8
9) Don't know/Refused282.7
Missing1 
TOTAL1024100.0
42) I'm going to read you some ways people might exercise their First Amendment right of free speech. For each, tell me if you agree or disagree that someone should be free to do it. People should be allowed to burn or deface the American flag as a political statement. Do you agree or disagree that people should be free to do this? PROBE: Do you strongly or mildly (agree/disagree)? (FRSPEX7)
TOTAL%
1) Strongly agree10310.0
2) Mildly agree10610.3
3) Mildly disagree747.2
4) Strongly disagree72370.5
9) Don't know/Refused191.9
TOTAL1025100.0
43) I'm going to read you some ways people might exercise their First Amendment right of free speech. For each, tell me if you agree or disagree that someone should be free to do it. School students should be allowed to wear a T-shirt with a message or picture that others may find offensive. Do you agree or disagree that people should be free to do this? PROBE: Do you strongly or mildly (agree/disagree)? (FRSPEX8)
TOTAL%
1) Strongly agree908.8
2) Mildly agree16015.6
3) Mildly disagree23222.6
4) Strongly disagree49848.6
9) Don't know/Refused454.4
TOTAL1025100.0
44) I'm going to read you some ways people might exercise their First Amendment right of free speech. For each, tell me if you agree or disagree that someone should be free to do it. People should be allowed to use words in public that might be offensive to racial groups. Do you agree or disagree that people should be free to do this? PROBE: Do you strongly or mildly (agree/disagree)? (FRSPEX9)
TOTAL%
1) Strongly agree817.9
2) Mildly agree14213.9
3) Mildly disagree15314.9
4) Strongly disagree62861.3
9) Don't know/Refused212.0
TOTAL1025100.0
45) I'm going to read you some ways people might exercise their First Amendment right of free speech. For each, tell me if you agree or disagree that someone should be free to do it. People should be allowed to display in a public place art that has content that might be offensive to others. Do you agree or disagree that people should be free to do this? PROBE: Do you strongly or mildly (agree/disagree)? (FRSPEX10)
TOTAL%
1) Strongly agree20019.5
2) Mildly agree23923.3
3) Mildly disagree22622.0
4) Strongly disagree32231.4
9) Don't know/Refused383.7
TOTAL1025100.0
46) Which come closest to your own opinion: Novels that describe explicit sex acts… (NOVSEXA)
TOTAL%
1) Have no place in a school library and should be banned19939.3
2) Should be permitted in the library if they are worth while literature27854.8
3) Neither91.8
9) Don't know/Refused214.1
Missing518 
TOTAL507100.0
47) Would you say that giving government the power to decide which TV programs can or cannot be shown.. (GOVTVA)
TOTAL%
1) Violates the public's right to watch what it pleases32965.0
2) Is necessary to protect the public against violent or obscene shows15430.4
3) Neither91.8
9) Don't know/Refused142.8
Missing519 
TOTAL506100.0
48) Do you think that books that could show terrorists how to build bombs should be… (BOOKTERA)
TOTAL%
1) Banned from public libraries34868.8
2) Available in the library like every other book13827.3
3) Neither91.8
9) Don't know/Refused112.2
Missing519 
TOTAL506100.0
49) Which come closest to your own opinion: Novels that describe explicit sex acts… (NOVSEXB)
TOTAL%
1) Have no place in a school library and should be banned21741.9
2) Should be permitted in the library if they are worth while literature27853.7
3) Neither91.7
9) Don't know/Refused142.7
Missing507 
TOTAL518100.0
50) Would you say that giving government the power to decide which TV programs can or cannot be shown… (GOVTVB)
TOTAL%
1) Violates the public's right to watch what it pleases32963.4
2) Is necessary to protect the public against shows with violent or obscene shows15730.3
3) Neither214.0
9) Don't know/Refused122.3
Missing506 
TOTAL519100.0
51) Do you think that books that could show terrorists how to build bombs should be… (BOOKTERB)
TOTAL%
1) Banned from public libraries32262.0
2) Available in the library like every other book17433.5
3) Neither91.7
9) Don't know/Refused142.7
Missing506 
TOTAL519100.0
52) Some people feel that the U.S. Constitution should be amended to make it illegal to burn or desecrate the American Flag as a form of political dissent. Others say that the U.S. Constitution should not be amended to specifically prohibit flag burning. Do you think the U.S. Constitution should or should not be amended to prohibit burning or desecrating the flag? (AMFLAG)
TOTAL%
1) Should be amended49047.8
2) Should not be amended50249.0
5) Missing10.1
9) Don't know/Refused323.1
TOTAL1025100.0
53) IF "Should be amended" in AMFLAG, ask: If an amendment prohibiting flag burning were approved, it would be the first time any of the freedoms in the First Amendment have been amended in over 200 years. Knowing this, would you still support an amendment to prohibit flag burning? (FIRSTAM)
TOTAL%
1) Yes43187.8
2) No408.1
9) Don't know/Refused204.1
Missing534 
TOTAL491100.0
54) Please, tell me if you agree or disagree with the following statement. It's dangerous to restrict freedom of speech because restricting the freedom of one person could lead to restrictions on everybody. PROBE: Do you strongly or mildly (agree/disagree?) (DANGFSP)
TOTAL%
1) Strongly agree37858.7
2) Mildly agree16024.8
3) Mildly disagree487.5
4) Strongly disagree375.7
9) Don't know/Refused213.3
Missing381 
TOTAL644100.0
55) To the best of your recollection, have you read or heard anything about a recent U.S. Supreme Court ruling regarding the internet? If, YES: How much have you read or heard – a lot, some, or just a little? (SURULINT)
TOTAL%
1) No- Not read/heard51250.0
2) Yes- a lot797.7
3) Yes- some18618.1
4) Yes- a little23422.8
9) Don't know/refused141.4
TOTAL1025100.0
56) As you may know, courts have traditionally given broad First Amendment protections to books and newspapers which contain material that may be offensive to some people. Recently, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that material on the internet has the same First Amendment protections as printed material such as books and newspapers. Do you agree or disagree with this ruling? PROBE: Do you strongly or mildly (agree/disagree)? (AMENINT)
TOTAL%
1) Strongly agree31330.5
2) Mildly agree26926.2
3) Mildly disagree14914.5
4) Strongly disagree23923.3
9) Don't know/Refused555.4
TOTAL1025100.0
57) There has been a lot of talk lately about rating television programs. Do you think that government has a role to play in developing a system to rate television programs or do you think government should not be involved? (GOVTVRAT)
TOTAL%
1) Government should be involved45544.4
2) Government should not be involved53452.1
9) Don't know/Refused363.5
TOTAL1025100.0
58) Please, tell me whether you agree or disagree with the following statement: Tabloid newspapers such as The Star and the Inquirer should have the same freedom to publish what they want as other newspapers such as The New York Times and Wall Street Journal. PROBE: Do you strongly or mildly (agree/disagree)? (FREETAB)
TOTAL%
1) Strongly agree46345.2
2) Mildly agree31931.1
3) Mildly disagree727.0
4) Strongly disagree14514.1
9) Don't know/Refused262.5
TOTAL1025100.0
59) Overall, how would you rate the First Amendment's guarantee of freedom of the press in helping the public become informed about issues in government - - excellent, good, only fair, or poor? (RATFIRAM)
TOTAL%
1) Excellent16115.7
2) Good48947.7
3) Only fair27927.2
4) Poor595.8
9) Don't know/Refused373.6
TOTAL1025100.0
60) I'm going to read you some ways that freedom of the press may be exercised. For each, tell me if you agree or disagree that the press should be free to do it. First, newspapers should be allowed to publish freely without government approval of a story. Do you agree or disagree that the press should be free to do this? PROBE: Do you strongly or mildly (agree/disagree)? (FRPRES1)
TOTAL%
1) Strongly agree57255.8
2) Mildly agree24423.8
3) Mildly disagree10210.0
4) Strongly disagree757.3
9) Don't know/Refused323.1
TOTAL1025100.0
61) I'm going to read you some ways that freedom of the press may be exercised. For each, tell me if you agree or disagree that the press should be free to do it. Journalists should be allowed to keep a news source confidential. Do you agree or disagree that the press should be free to do this? PROBE: Do you strongly or mildly (agree/disagree)? (FRPRES2)
TOTAL%
1) Strongly agree59958.5
2) Mildly agree26826.2
3) Mildly disagree616.0
4) Strongly disagree706.8
9) Don't know/Refused262.5
Missing1 
TOTAL1024100.0
62) I'm going to read you some ways that freedom of the press may be exercised. For each, tell me if you agree or disagree that the press should be free to do it. Broadcasters should be allowed to televise courtroom trials. Do you agree or disagree that the press should be free to do this? PROBE: Do you strongly or mildly (agree/disagree)? (FRPRES3)
TOTAL%
1) Strongly agree30529.8
2) Mildly agree23623.0
3) Mildly disagree18618.2
4) Strongly disagree25725.1
9) Don't know/Refused403.9
Missing1 
TOTAL1024100.0
63) I'm going to read you some ways that freedom of the press may be exercised. For each, tell me if you agree or disagree that the press should be free to do it. Newspapers should be allowed to endorse or criticize political candidates. Do you agree or disagree that the press should be free to do this? PROBE: Do you strongly or mildly (agree/disagree)? (FRPRES4)
TOTAL%
1) Strongly agree46745.6
2) Mildly agree26025.4
3) Mildly disagree999.7
4) Strongly disagree17817.4
9) Don't know/Refused212.0
TOTAL1025100.0
64) I'm going to read you some ways that freedom of the press may be exercised. For each, tell me if you agree or disagree that the press should be free to do it. The news media should be allowed to report government secrets that have come to journalists' attention. Do you agree or disagree that the press should be free to do this? PROBE: Do you strongly or mildly (agree/disagree)? (FRPRES5)
TOTAL%
1) Strongly agree36635.7
2) Mildly agree25524.9
3) Mildly disagree14213.9
4) Strongly disagree21621.1
9) Don't know/Refused464.5
TOTAL1025100.0
65) I'm going to read you some ways that freedom of the press may be exercised. For each, tell me if you agree or disagree that the press should be free to do it. Television networks should be allowed to project winners of an election while people are still voting. Do you agree or disagree that the press should be free to do this? PROBE: Do you strongly or mildly (agree/disagree)? (FRPRES6)
TOTAL%
1) Strongly agree14314.0
2) Mildly agree15915.5
3) Mildly disagree17417.0
4) Strongly disagree53452.1
9) Don't know/Refused151.5
TOTAL1025100.0
66) I'm going to read you some ways that freedom of the press may be exercised. For each, tell me if you agree or disagree that the press should be free to do it. High school students should be allowed to report controversial issues in their student newspaper without approval of school authorities. Do you agree or disagree that the press should be free to do this? PROBE: Do you strongly or mildly (agree/disagree)? (FRPRES7)
TOTAL%
1) Strongly agree25024.4
2) Mildly agree22421.9
3) Mildly disagree23122.5
4) Strongly disagree29528.8
9) Don't know/Refused252.4
TOTAL1025100.0
67) I'm going to read you some ways that freedom of the press may be exercised. For each, tell me if you agree or disagree that the press should be free to do it. Journalists should be allowed to use hidden cameras in their reporting. Do you agree or disagree that the press should be free to do this? PROBE: Do you strongly or mildly (agree/disagree)? (FRPRES8)
TOTAL%
1) Strongly agree13313.0
2) Mildly agree18518.0
3) Mildly disagree20319.8
4) Strongly disagree47246.0
9) Don't know/Refused323.1
TOTAL1025100.0
68) Please tell me which comes closest to your opinion: If a news photographer takes a picture of a famous person with a prostitute, the photos should be… (CELPHOTO)
TOTAL%
1) Permitted under the guarantees of a free press43242.1
2) Forbidden as an invasion of privacy51049.8
3) Neither343.3
9) Don't know/Refused494.8
TOTAL1025100.0
69) Do you think that jailing reporters who refuse to reveal their news sources during trial… (JAILREP)
TOTAL%
1) Is justified when the names are necessary for a fair trial37336.4
2) Is wrong because people with important information will be afraid to tell the truth to reporters55153.8
3) Neither232.2
9) Don't know/Refused787.6
TOTAL1025100.0
70) Before a criminal case come to trial, do you think that reporters who have found out certain facts of the case should be…: (TRIALREP)
TOTAL%
1) Forbidden to publish the information since it might bias jurors52050.7
2) Allowed to publish the information because no one, not even a judge, should be able to censor the press43842.7
3) Neither191.9
9) Don't know/Refused484.7
TOTAL1025100.0
71) I'm going to read you some ways people might exercise their First Amendment right of freedom of religion. For each, tell me if you agree or disagree that someone should be free to do it. People should be allowed to display religious symbols on government property. Do you agree or disagree that people should be free to do this? PROBE: do you strongly or mildly (agree/disagree)? (FRREL1)
TOTAL%
1) Strongly agree28427.7
2) Mildly agree20119.6
3) Mildly disagree20419.9
4) Strongly disagree29228.5
9) Don't know/Refused444.3
TOTAL1025100.0
72) I'm going to read you some ways people might exercise their First Amendment right of freedom of religion. For each, tell me if you agree or disagree that someone should be free to do it. Public school students should be allowed to form a religious club that meets on school property. Do you agree or disagree that people should be free to do this? PROBE: do you strongly or mildly (agree/disagree)? (FRREL2)
TOTAL%
1) Strongly agree46145.0
2) Mildly agree25925.3
3) Mildly disagree10910.6
4) Strongly disagree17617.2
9) Don't know/Refused202.0
TOTAL1025100.0
73) I'm going to read you some ways people might exercise their First Amendment right of freedom of religion. For each, tell me if you agree or disagree that someone should be free to do it. Teachers or other public school officials should be allowed to lead prayers in school. Do you agree or disagree that people should be free to do this? PROBE: do you strongly or mildly (agree/disagree)? (FRREL3)
TOTAL%
1) Strongly agree39538.6
2) Mildly agree20019.5
3) Mildly disagree14314.0
4) Strongly disagree26926.3
9) Don't know/Refused171.7
Missing1 
TOTAL1024100.0
74) Do you feel that freedom to worship as one please… (FRWORS)
TOTAL%
1) Applies to all religious groups regardless of how extreme their beliefs are69067.4
2) Was never meant to apply to religious groups that the majority of people consider extreme or on the fringe25825.2
3) Neither191.9
9) Don't know/Refused575.6
Missing1 
TOTAL1024100.0
75) Do you agree or disagree with the following statement: It's OK for a prayer to be said at a high school graduation ceremony if a majority of the graduation class favors it. PROBE: Do you strongly or mildly (agree/disagree) with this? (HSPRGRAD)
TOTAL%
1) Strongly agree64362.8
2) Mildly agree18618.2
3) Mildly disagree838.1
4) Strongly disagree1009.8
9) Don't know/Refused121.2
Missing1 
TOTAL1024100.0
76) Some people feel that the U.S. Constitution should be amended to let local communities decide on whether or not prayer should be allowed in public schools. Others say that the U.S. Constitution should not be amended to allow local communities to decide on prayer in the schools. Do you think the U.S. Constitution should or should not be amended to allow local communities to decide on prayer in the schools? (PRAYCOM1)
TOTAL%
1) Should be amended42241.2
2) Should not be amended57656.2
9) Don't know/Refused272.6
TOTAL1025100.0
77) If an amendment allowing communities to decide on school prayer were approved, it would be the first time any of the freedoms in the First Amendment have been amended in over 200 years. Knowing this, would you still support an amendment to let local communities decide on prayer in their local schools? (PRAYCOM2)
TOTAL%
1) Yes38190.3
2) No266.2
9) Don't know/Refused153.6
Missing603 
TOTAL422100.0
78) Please tell me if you agree or disagree with the following statement: It's dangerous to place restrictions on freedom of religion because restrictions on one type of religious activity could lead to restrictions on others. (PROBES: Do you strongly or mildly agree or disagree?) (PRAYCOM3)
TOTAL%
1) Strongly agree64563.0
2) Mildly agree24023.5
3) Mildly disagree626.1
4) Strongly disagree434.2
9) Don't know/Refused333.2
Missing2 
TOTAL1023100.0
79) Do you agree or disagree with the following: Any group that wants to should be allowed to hire people to influence government officials or policies? PROBE: Do you strongly or mildly (agree/disagree) with this? (GRHIREOF)
TOTAL%
1) Strongly agree14213.9
2) Mildly agree19118.6
3) Mildly disagree17917.5
4) Strongly disagree47646.4
9) Don't know/Refused373.6
TOTAL1025100.0
80) Do you agree or disagree with the following: Any group that wants to should be allowed to hold a rally for a cause or issue even if it may be offensive to others in the community? PROBE: Do you strongly or mildly (agree/disagree) with this? (GRRALLY)
TOTAL%
1) Strongly agree40139.1
2) Mildly agree32731.9
3) Mildly disagree10810.5
4) Strongly disagree14914.5
9) Don't know/Refused403.9
TOTAL1025100.0
81) Please, tell me whether you agree or disagree with the following statement. (PROBE: Do you agree strongly or mildly?) Once the government starts limiting certain rights it becomes easier for it to put limits on more rights. (GOVLIM)
TOTAL%
1) Strongly agree65864.2
2) Mildly agree20419.9
3) Mildly disagree777.5
4) Strongly disagree605.9
9) Don't know/Refused262.5
TOTAL1025100.0
82) To the best of your recollection, have you ever taken classes in either school or college that dealt with First Amendment freedoms? (CLAMEND)
TOTAL%
1) Yes51450.2
2) No49147.9
9) Don't know/Refused191.9
Missing1 
TOTAL1024100.0
83) Would that have been in grade school, high school or college? (Circle all that apply) (CLAMEND1)
TOTAL%
1) Grade school [Grades 1-8]8215.9
2) High school25048.5
3) College17934.8
9) Don't know/Refused40.8
Missing510 
TOTAL515100.0
84) Would that have been in grade school, high school or college? (Circle all that apply) (CLAMEND2)
TOTAL%
1) Grade school [Grades 1-8]21.3
2) High school7750.7
3) College6945.4
9) Don't know/Refused42.6
Missing873 
TOTAL152100.0
85) Would that have been in grade school, high school or college? (Circle all that apply) (CLAMEND3)
TOTAL%
1) Grade school [Grades 1-8]11.8
2) High school23.6
3) College5394.6
Missing969 
TOTAL56100.0
86) Overall, how would you rate the job that the American educational system does in teaching students about First Amendment freedoms - - excellent, good, only fair, or poor? (EDUFIRAM)
TOTAL%
1) Excellent474.6
2) Good26425.9
3) Only fair42141.3
4) Poor22622.2
9) Don't know/Refused626.1
Missing5 
TOTAL1020100.0
87) I'm going to read some situations in which you might find yourself. For each, tell me how free you feel to speak your mind. First, how free do you feel to speak what's really on your mind at work among your fellow workers? Do you feel very free, somewhat free, not very free, or not free at all? (SPMINFR1)
TOTAL%
1) Very free60258.7
2) Somewhat Free28627.9
3) Not very free686.6
4) Not free at all424.1
9) Don't know/Refused272.6
TOTAL1025100.0
88) I'm going to read some situations in which you might find yourself. For each, tell me how free you feel to speak your mind. First, how free do you feel to speak what's really on your mind at a public meeting in your community? Do you feel very free, somewhat free, not very free, or not free at all? (SPMINFR2)
TOTAL%
1) Very free53151.8
2) Somewhat Free35935.0
3) Not very free696.7
4) Not free at all292.8
9) Don't know/Refused373.6
TOTAL1025100.0
89) I'm going to read some situations in which you might find yourself. For each, tell me how free you feel to speak your mind. First, how free do you feel to speak what's really on your mind at a political rally? Do you feel very free, somewhat free, not very free, or not free at all? (SPMINFR3)
TOTAL%
1) Very free45244.1
2) Somewhat Free32531.7
3) Not very free888.6
4) Not free at all414.0
9) Don't know/Refused11911.6
TOTAL1025100.0
90) I'm going to read some situations in which you might find yourself. For each, tell me how free you feel to speak your mind. First, how free do you feel to speak what's really on your mind in a school classroom? Do you feel very free, somewhat free, not very free, or not free at all? (SPMINFR4)
TOTAL%
1) Very free50449.2
2) Somewhat Free34133.3
3) Not very free929.0
4) Not free at all444.3
9) Don't know/Refused434.2
Missing1 
TOTAL1024100.0
91) Over the past year, have you been in any situations when you did not express your opinions on something because you thought you might be punished or penalized for voicing your opinion? IF YES: Have you been in this situation frequently, a few times, or just once in the past year? (EXOPFR)
TOTAL%
1) No-not been in this situation73771.9
2) Yes-frequently656.3
3) Yes-a few times16916.5
4) Yes-just once525.1
9) Don't know/Refused20.2
TOTAL1025100.0
92) In what year were you born? (DOB)
NMeanStd.Deviation
TOTAL102553.19317
93) What was the last grade of school you completed? Grade school or less, some high school, high school, some college, college graduate, post graduate (SCHOOL)
TOTAL%
1) Grade school or less131.3
2) Some high school515.0
3) High school27526.8
4) Some college31130.3
5) College graduate22421.9
6) Post graduate14914.5
9) Don't know/Refused20.2
TOTAL1025100.0
94) Are you white, black, Hispanic, Asian, or something else? (RACE)
TOTAL%
1) White84382.2
2) Black767.4
3) Hispanic454.4
4) Asian171.7
5) Other (Specify)323.1
9) Don't know/Refused121.2
TOTAL1025100.0
95) For classification purposes only, is the total yearly income of all the members of your family now living at home $40,000 or more or would it be less than $40,000? (ANNINC1)
TOTAL%
1) Less than $40,00042441.4
2) $40,000 or more55454.0
9) Don't know/Refused474.6
TOTAL1025100.0
96) (If less than $40,000) And is that… (ANNINC2)
TOTAL%
1) Under $10,000368.5
2) $10,000 to less than $20,00010224.1
3) $20,000 to less than $30,00013231.2
4) $30,000 to less than $40,00014033.1
9) Don't know/Refused133.1
Missing602 
TOTAL423100.0
97) (If more than $40,000) And is that… (ANNINC3)
TOTAL%
1) $40,000 to less than $50,00017531.5
2) $50,000 to less than $75,00018533.3
3) $75,000 to less than $100,0008515.3
4) $100,000 or more7212.9
9) Don't know/Refused397.0
Missing469 
TOTAL556100.0
98) From which news medium would you say you get most of your news - - from television, from newspapers, from radio, from magazines, from the Internet, or from some other source? (PROBE if necessary: If you had to choose one which would it be? (NEWSMED)
TOTAL%
1) From television49248.0
2) From newspapers23923.3
3) From radio959.3
4) From magazines121.2
5) From Internet80.8
6) Other source80.8
7) Combination15214.8
8) All 5 equally141.4
9) Don't know/Refused40.4
Missing1 
TOTAL1024100.0
99) Do you have access to the internet? If YES: How often do you use the internet - - every day, at least once a week, at least once a month, or less than once a month? (NEWSMED2)
TOTAL%
1) No access (vol.)56855.7
2) Every day15715.4
3) Once a week11511.3
4) Once a month737.2
5) Less than once a month918.9
9) Don't know/Refused161.6
Missing5 
TOTAL1020100.0
100) In politics, as of today, are you a Democrat, a Republican, an Independent or what? (POLAFF)
TOTAL%
1) Democrat35334.5
2) Republican30629.9
3) Independent25524.9
4) Other525.1
9) Don't know/Refused585.7
Missing1 
TOTAL1024100.0
101) Politically speaking, do you consider your self to be liberal, moderate, or conservative? (POLITICS)
TOTAL%
1) Liberal25925.3
2) Moderate36435.5
3) Conservative33532.7
4) None212.1
9) Don't know/Refused454.4
Missing1 
TOTAL1024100.0
102) Are you Catholic, Protestant, Jewish, or another religion? (RELIGION)
TOTAL%
1) Catholic27226.6
2) Protestant45644.5
3) Jewish202.0
4) Other (specify)16315.9
5) No religion929.0
9) Don't know/Refused212.1
Missing1 
TOTAL1024100.0
103) Do you attend religious services at least once a week, 2 or 3 times a month, once a month, or less than once a month? (RELATT)
TOTAL%
1) Once a week31136.0
2) Two or three times a month11313.1
3) Once a month8710.1
4) Less than once a month27231.5
9) Don't know/Refused809.3
Missing162 
TOTAL863100.0
104) What is your marital status? Are you single, married, divorced, separated or widowed? (MARSTAT)
TOTAL%
1) Single26125.5
2) Married57356.0
3) Divorced/separated12011.7
4) Widowed646.3
9) Don't know/Refused60.6
Missing1 
TOTAL1024100.0
105) Are you currently employed full time, employed part-time, retired, temporarily laid-off, or are you not employed? (EMPLOY)
TOTAL%
1) Full-time60258.8
2) Part-time14113.8
3) Retired15415.0
4) Temporarily laid off121.2
5) Not employed11010.7
9) Don't know/Refused50.5
Missing1 
TOTAL1024100.0
106) Are there are any children under the age of 18 living in your household? (CHLDUN18)
TOTAL%
1) Yes40839.9
2) No61059.6
9) Don't know/Refused50.5
Missing2 
TOTAL1023100.0
107) Are any of these children 11 year old or younger? (CHLDUN11)
TOTAL%
1) Yes29269.9
2) No12329.4
9) Don't know/Refused30.7
Missing607 
TOTAL418100.0
108) Record Sex (SEX)
TOTAL%
1) Male43342.6
2) Female58357.4
Missing9 
TOTAL1016100.0
109) I-GENDER: Record Sex (for use with online analysis) (I-GENDER)
TOTAL%
1) Male43342.6
2) Female58357.4
Missing9 
TOTAL1016100.0
110) I-EDUC: What was the last grade of school you completed? Grade school or less, some high school, high school, some college, college graduate, post graduate (Recoded for use with online analysis) (I-EDUC)
TOTAL%
1) Grade school or less131.3
2) Some high school515.0
3) High school27526.9
4) Some college31130.4
5) College graduate22421.9
6) Post graduate14914.6
Missing2 
TOTAL1023100.0
111) I-RACE: Are you white, black, Hispanic, Asian, or something else? (Recoded for use with online analysis) (I-RACE)
TOTAL%
1) White84383.2
2) Black767.5
3) Hispanic454.4
4) Asian171.7
5) Other (Specify)323.2
Missing12 
TOTAL1013100.0
112) I-RELIGION: Are you Catholic, Protestant, Jewish, or another religion? (Recoded for use with online analysis) (I-RELIGION)
TOTAL%
1) Catholic27227.1
2) Protestant45645.5
3) Jewish202.0
4) Other (specify)16316.3
5) No religion929.2
Missing22 
TOTAL1003100.0
113) I-MARITAL: What is your marital status? Are you single, married, divorced, separated or widowed? (Recoded for use with online analysis) (I-MARITAL)
TOTAL%
1) Single26125.6
2) Married57356.3
3) Divorced/separated12011.8
4) Widowed646.3
Missing7 
TOTAL1018100.0