This survey contains measures for exceptional, or paranormal, experiences. Topics include positive spiritual experiences (i.e., being illumined by divine light and strength), negative spiritual experiences (i.e., worldview falling apart), psychopathological experiences (i.e., hearing voices), and visionary dream experiences (i.e., dreaming so vividly that dreams reverberate when awake). Other data include basic demographic characteristics.
- Data File
- Cases: 711
Weight Variable: None
- Data Collection
- Date Collected: 2009
- Original Survey (Instrument)
- Freiburger Questionnaires in English
- Freiburger Questionnaires in German
- Collection Procedures
- Six hundred questionnaires were disseminated by post together with an introduction letter, a consent form and a pre-paid envelope for returning the survey. Forty-three letters could not be delivered. In total, 111 questionnaires and signed consent forms were returned from the 600 for an overall return rate of 18.5 percent. Two questionnaires were not completely answered and were excluded from the analysis.
- Sampling Procedures
- The questionnaire battery, which consisted of the scales described below, was administered to chronically ill patients that were randomly selected from a patient database within a single medically managed private integrative medicine
clinic (Southampton, U.K.). Inclusion criteria were recent treatment (< 3 years), age (> 18 years), and a diagnosis of one of the three main disorders treated in that outpatient clinic: migraine, irritable bowel or chronic fatigue syndrome. The sample consisted of 71 cases with chronic fatigue (65%), 29 (27%) individuals with irritable bowel syndrome, and 9 (8%) patients suffering from migraines. Participants were offered no reimbursement. Ethics approval was obtained from the University of Northampton ethics review board.
- Principal Investigators
- Niko Kohls
- Related Publications
- Kohls, Niko, Harald Walach, and George Lewith. 2009. "The Impact of Positive and Negative Spiritual Experiences on Distress and the Moderating Role of Mindfulness." Archive for the Psychology of Religion 31:357-374.