National Election Studies

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American National Election Studies, Time Series Study, 2016 (2016)

"The ANES 2016 Time Series is a continuation of the series of election studies conducted by the ANES since 1948 to support analysis of public opinion and voting behavior in U.S. presidential elections. This yearís study features a dual-mode design with both traditional face-to-face interviewing (n=1,181) and surveys conducted on the Internet (n=3,090), and a total sample size of 4,271.

"Study Content Highlights:
Data collection for the ANES 2016 Time Series Study began in early September and continued into January 2017. Pre election interviews were conducted with study respondents during the two months prior to the 2016 elections and were followed by post-election re-interviewing beginning November 9, 2016.

"As in 2012, face-to-face interviewing was complemented with data collection on the Internet. Data collection was conducted in the two modes independently, using separate samples but substantially identical questionnaires. Web-administered cases constituted a representative sample separate from the face-to-face.

(ANES. 2017. Userís Guide and Codebook for the ANES 2016 Time Series Study. Ann Arbor, MI and Palo Alto, CA: the University of Michigan and Stanford University.)

American National Election Studies, Time Series Study, 2012 (2012)

The ANES 2012 Time Series Study is the 29th study in a series of election studies conducted during years of Presidential elections since 1948 (the "ANES Time Series"). As with all Time Series studies conducted during years of presidential elections, respondents were interviewed during the two months preceding the November election (Pre-election interview), and then re-interviewed during the two months following the election (Post-election interview).

For the first time in Time Series history, face-to-face interviewing was supplemented with data collection on the Internet. Data collection was conducted in the two modes independently, using separate samples. For the face-to-face mode, all sampled persons were interviewed in person using Computer-Assisted Personal Interviewing (CAPI), which also incorporated an interview segment in each wave that was self-administered (CASI). For the Internet mode, all study participants were members of the KnowledgePanel, a panel of regular survey participants administered by GfK (formerly Knowledge Networks).

(ANES. 2014. Userís Guide and Codebook for the ANES 2012 Time Series Study. Ann Arbor, MI and Palo Alto, CA: the University of Michigan and Stanford University.)

American National Election Studies, Panel Study, 2008-2009 (2008)

The 2008-2009 ANES Panel Study is a series of surveys of a representative sample of the American electorate recruited by telephone. Panelists began completing monthly surveys on the Internet in January 2008. The study is intended to support research on candidate choice and voter turnout in the 2008 presidential election. The chief purpose of the advance release is to make interim data available to the user community as quickly as possible after the presidential election. The advance release includes all survey responses to questions about the election that were asked in 2008, except for a small amount of data that has been redacted because its release could pose a risk to respondent privacy.

To minimize panel attrition and conditioning effects, only seven of the twenty-one monthly surveys are about politics. Other surveys are about a variety of non-political topics. The panelists answered political questions prepared by ANES in January, February, June, September, October and November 2008. With certainty, the panel will answer more political questions in May 2009. It is also possible that panelists will answer a limited number of political questions on other 2009 waves. The advance release includes data from the six ANES-created political surveys of 2008, as well as the recruitment and profile surveys. The full release will include data from all 21 waves. Note that the 2008-2009 ANES Panel Study is entirely separate from the 2008 ANES Time Series study, which was conducted using the traditional ANES method of face-to-face interviews before and after the 2008 election. Although there are a few questions common to both studies, the samples and methods are different.

For more information, see the User's Guide.

American National Election Studies, Time Series Study, 2008 (2008)

The ANES 2008 Time Series Study is the 28th study in a series of biennial election studies conducted since 1948 (the "ANES Time Series"). The main goal of the study is to allow a broad cross-section of scholars and citizens analyze survey data pertinent to important questions about vote choice, turnout and related matters in the context of the 2008 federal election. In addition to content on electoral participation, voting behavior, and public opinion, the 2008 ANES Time Series Study contains questions in other areas such as media exposure, cognitive style, and values and predispositions. Special-interest and topical content provided significant coverage of foreign policy, including the "war on terrorism" and the war in Iraq. In addition, the study carried expanded instrumentation on organizational membership, unemployment, the federal budget, modern sexism, and race and gender politics. The post-election interview also included Module 3 from the Comparative Study of Electoral Systems (CSES).

The ANES 2008 Time Series Study contains several questions on religion, including religious affiliation, views of the Bible, church attendance, frequency of prayer and spouse's religious affiliation. Detailed information on all the questions that were asked can be found in the report "Background Information on the 2008 ANES Time Series Questionnaires."

American National Election Studies, Cumulative Data File, 1948-2004 (2004)

From the ANES website: "The ANES Project Staff has merged into a single data file cases and variables from each of the biennial American National Election Studies conducted since 1948. This file is called the ANES Cumulative Data File. Questions that have been asked in three or more Election Studies usually appear in the Cumulative Data File. The variables are coded in a comparable fashion across years. The version of the Cumulative Data File that is currently available pools data through the 2004 National Election Study to yield 47,438 cases. Note that the Cumulative Data File only includes data from the Time Series data collections (that is the Pre-/Post-Election Study in presidential election years and the Post-Election Study in midterm years). Data from other ANES studies, such as the 1984 Continuous Monitoring Study, the 1988 Super Tuesday Study, or the 1988-90-92 Senate Election Study, are not included in the Cumulative Data File."

Religion variables include religious affiliation, church attendance, subjective importance of religion, beliefs about the Bible, and attitudes toward school prayer.

For additional information on this file, see the American National Election Studies website: http://www.electionstudies.org/studypages/cdf/cdf.htm

American National Election Studies, 2004 (2004)

From the ANES website (http://www.electionstudies.org/studypages/2004prepost/2004prepost.htm): The study, in part, maintains and extends the core of the NES time-series by collecting data on Americans' basic political beliefs, allegiances, and behaviors. It contains special instrumentation on American's views on foreign policy, the war on terrorism, and the Iraq War and its consequences. It extends the experiment on the measurement of voter turnout begun in 2002, and carries expanded instrumentation on inflation, immigration, gender politics, and gay and lesbian politics. It also includes the Comparative Studies of Electoral System's Module 2, which focuses on representation and accountability. The data also contain several religion variables, including questions about prayer frequency, importance of religion, attendance at religious services, and belief in the Bible.

American National Election Studies, 2002 (2002)

The NES/CPS American National Election Studies 2002 was conducted by the Center for Political Studies of the Institute for Social Research, under the general direction of Principal Investigators Nancy Burns and Donald R. Kinder. Dozens of substantive themes are covered including: interest in political campaigns, attentiveness to media coverage, and political participation. In this data file, variables 226 through 233 and variables 312 through 316 include indicators on religiosity, congregational affiliation, and church attendance. Respondents were also asked about financial contributions to their church (variable 685). For more information, go to: http://www.electionstudies.org/studypages/2002prepost/2002prepost.htm

American National Election Studies, 2000 (2000)

This study is the twenty-sixth in a series of national election studies produced by the Center for Political Studies and the Survey Research Center. The 2000 American National Election Studies entailed both a pre-election interview and a post-election re-interview. Hundreds of substantive themes are covered including: interest in political campaigns, attentiveness to media coverage, political participation and knowledge of the religious background of Presidential and Vice Presidential candidates. In this data file, variables 892 through 920 include indicators on religiosity, congregational affiliation, and church attendance. Local church activities with regard to politics are also included in the questionnaire. Finally, several new concepts in the 2000 study included questions designed to evaluate social trust, social networks and political knowledge. The NES/CPS American National Election Studies 2000 was conducted by the Center for Political Studies of the Institute for Social Research, under the general direction of Principal Investigators Nancy Burns and Donald R. Kinder.

United States Census of Religious Bodies, County File, 1906 (1906)

The United States Census of Religious Bodies is, as the name suggests, a census of religious organizations, not a census of individuals (the U.S. Census collected data on religious organizations through the 1936 census). This census provides measures of the number of members in various denominations, by geographic unit. This is the first of four complete surveys on the subject of religious membership undertaken by the U.S. Bureau of the Census (followed by the 1916, 1926, and 1936 censuses). The data are organized by counties (counties are the cases).

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