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Measures how much religious involvement a respondent has overall 

Below are 81 questions from surveys in the ARDA that attempt to measure this concept. The ARDA staff further categorized these questions into 6 types:

[ How Religious? | Influence of Religion | Necessity | Over Time | Relative Strength | Strength of Religious Preference ]

Mouse over a survey name to see further details on a survey. Click on "More" to see the response frequencies for a question, or click here to view all frequency tables.



Category 1:How Religious?
 

This question type asks the respondent to describe their level of religiosity. Wording of this question type and response categories have varied considerably across surveys.

Some questions fit within the "How Religious?" subcategory but varied in a notable way. ARDA staff identified 3 such variants.

[ Four Option | Seven Option | Three Option ]

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TRAIT13 from Small Groups Survey, 1991 (Groups Sample)

FOLLOWFA from Spirituality and the Elderly: Survey of Staff and Residents From Long-Term Care Facilities, 1998

HOWREL from Tulsa Oklahoma Area Science and Technology Survey, 1981

RELSTRN from Middletown Area Study, 1995


Variant:Four Option (How Religious? variant)
 

This variant uses four options to determine the strength of religiosity, most often using categories ranging from "not at all" religious to "very."

[ Back to How Religious? ]


RELPERSN from General Social Survey 2008 Cross-Section and Panel Combined

RELPERSN from General Social Survey 2010 Cross-Section and Panel Combined

RELGIOUS from Baylor Religion Survey, Wave II (2007)

RELPERSN from General Social Survey, 2006

RELIG from ABC News Religion Poll, 1997

RELPERSN from General Social Survey, 1998

Q13 from Faith in Flux: Changes in Religious Affiliation in the U.S.

REL_STR from Carnegie Council National Surveys of Higher Education, Graduate Student Sample (1975)

REL7 from Survey of Religion and Community Life in Indianapolis, 1999

RELVIEW from Carnegie Foundation National Survey of Higher Education, Faculty Sample (1984)

RELLEVEL from Carnegie Foundation National Survey of Higher Education, Faculty Sample (1975)

RELIMP from Middletown Area Study, 1999

RELINTEN from Middletown Area Study, 1982


Variant:Seven Option (How Religious? variant)
 

This variant uses a seven-point scale ranging from "Extremely Religious" to "Extremely Non-Religious" to determine strength of religiosity.

[ Back to How Religious? ]


FEELREL from General Social Survey 2008 Cross-Section and Panel Combined

FEELREL from General Social Survey, 1991

FEELREL from General Social Survey, 1998


Variant:Three Option (How Religious? variant)
 

This variant uses three possible responses to determine strength of religiosity.

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DEM15 from ABC News Church in Crisis Poll, 2002

HOWRELIG from Spirituality and the Elderly: Survey of Staff and Residents From Long-Term Care Facilities, 1998


Category 2:Influence of Religion
 

This question type asks the respondent how their religious beliefs impact other aspects of life.

Some questions fit within the "Influence of Religion" subcategory but varied in a notable way. ARDA staff identified 3 such variants.

[ Daily Life | Decision Making | Marital ]

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ARA_1D from Portraits of American Life Study, 1st Wave, 2006

RELBEHAV from Lilly Survey of Attitudes and Social Networks

YBELINFL from Young Adolescents and Their Parents: A National Study, 1984 - Youth Component

YBELLIVE from Young Adolescents and Their Parents: A National Study, 1984 - Youth Component

RELFAM from Middletown Area Study (Autumn), 1981

FRELINFL from Young Adolescents and Their Parents: A National Study, 1984 - Father Component

MRELINFL from Young Adolescents and Their Parents: A National Study, 1984 - Mother Component

MLEADLIF from Young Adolescents and Their Parents: A National Study, 1984 - Mother Component


Variant:Daily Life (Influence of Religion variant)
 

This variant asks respondents how important religious faith is in shaping daily life.

[ Back to Influence of Religion ]


RLINF80 from Marital Instability Over the Life Course [United States]: A Five-Wave Panel Study, 1980, 1983, 1988, 1992-1994, 1997

RELIG88 from Marital Instability Over the Life Course [United States]: A Five-Wave Panel Study, 1980, 1983, 1988, 1992-1994, 1997

RELI192 from Marital Instability Over the Life Course [United States]: A Five-Wave Panel Study, 1980, 1983, 1988, 1992-1994, 1997

RELI392O from Marital Instability Over the Life Course [United States]: A Five-Wave Panel Study, 1980, 1983, 1988, 1992-1994, 1997

REL197 from Marital Instability Over the Life Course [United States]: A Five-Wave Panel Study, 1980, 1983, 1988, 1992-1994, 1997

RELI397O from Marital Instability Over the Life Course [United States]: A Five-Wave Panel Study, 1980, 1983, 1988, 1992-1994, 1997

RELG397N from Marital Instability Over the Life Course [United States]: A Five-Wave Panel Study, 1980, 1983, 1988, 1992-1994, 1997

FAITH1 from National Study of Youth and Religion, Wave 2 (2005)

FAITH1 from National Study of Youth and Religion, Wave 3 (2007-2008)

RLINF80 from Marital Instability over the Life Course: A Five-Wave Panel Study, Wave I (1980)

FLEADLIF from Young Adolescents and Their Parents: A National Study, 1984 - Father Component


Variant:Decision Making (Influence of Religion variant)
 

This variant asks about the importance of religion in making key life decisions.

[ Back to Influence of Religion ]


RM_4 from Portraits of American Life Study, 1st Wave, 2006

RM_5 from Portraits of American Life Study, 1st Wave, 2006

RM_6 from Portraits of American Life Study, 1st Wave, 2006

RM_7 from Portraits of American Life Study, 1st Wave, 2006

RELPOL from Middletown Area Study (Autumn), 1981

RELWORK from Middletown Area Study (Autumn), 1981


Variant:Marital (Influence of Religion variant)
 

This variant focuses upon the importance of religion in one's marriage.

[ Back to Influence of Religion ]


BONDE83 from Marital Instability Over the Life Course [United States]: A Five-Wave Panel Study, 1980, 1983, 1988, 1992-1994, 1997

KEEP788 from Marital Instability Over the Life Course [United States]: A Five-Wave Panel Study, 1980, 1983, 1988, 1992-1994, 1997

TOG797N from Marital Instability Over the Life Course [United States]: A Five-Wave Panel Study, 1980, 1983, 1988, 1992-1994, 1997


Category 3:Necessity
 

This question type asks the respondent if it is "necessary" for them to be religious.

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NECBELIF from Religious Life Inventory, 1988

RELBELF from Religious Life Inventory, 1986

RELBELF from Religious Life Inventory, 1987


Category 4:Over Time
 

This question type asks the respondent how his/her level of religiosity has changed over time, or how religious he/she was in the past.

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MORREL83 from Marital Instability Over the Life Course [United States]: A Five-Wave Panel Study, 1980, 1983, 1988, 1992-1994, 1997

Q32 from Baylor Religion Survey, 2005

RELIG12 from Baylor Religion Survey, Wave II (2007)

RELCHANG from National Study of Youth and Religion, Wave 2 (2005)

RELCHANG from National Study of Youth and Religion, Wave 3 (2007-2008)

Q9 from Faith in Flux: Changes in Religious Affiliation in the U.S.

Q12 from Faith in Flux: Changes in Religious Affiliation in the U.S.


Category 5:Relative Strength
 

This question type asks the respondent how their level of religiosity compares to others.

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SPOUSR88 from Marital Instability Over the Life Course [United States]: A Five-Wave Panel Study, 1980, 1983, 1988, 1992-1994, 1997

RELI992 from Marital Instability Over the Life Course [United States]: A Five-Wave Panel Study, 1980, 1983, 1988, 1992-1994, 1997

RLI1092O from Marital Instability Over the Life Course [United States]: A Five-Wave Panel Study, 1980, 1983, 1988, 1992-1994, 1997

REL997 from Marital Instability Over the Life Course [United States]: A Five-Wave Panel Study, 1980, 1983, 1988, 1992-1994, 1997

COMR197O from Marital Instability Over the Life Course [United States]: A Five-Wave Panel Study, 1980, 1983, 1988, 1992-1994, 1997

RLG1097N from Marital Instability Over the Life Course [United States]: A Five-Wave Panel Study, 1980, 1983, 1988, 1992-1994, 1997


Category 6:Strength of Religious Preference
 

This question type references the respondent's chosen religious preference, asking if he or she is a strong (stated religious preference) or a not very strong (stated religious preference)?

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RELITEN from General Social Survey 2008 Cross-Section and Panel Combined

RELITEN from General Social Survey, 2002

RELITEN from General Social Survey, 2004

RELITEN from General Social Survey, 2000

RELITEN from General Social Survey, 1990

RELITEN from General Social Survey, 1996

RELITEN from General Social Survey, 1988

RELITEN from General Social Survey, 1991

RELITEN from General Social Survey, 1998

RELITEN from General Social Survey, 1980

RELITEN from General Social Survey, 1978

RELITEN from General Social Survey, 1994

RELITEN from General Social Survey, 1993

RELSTRG from Four-State Church Involvement Study, 1988

STRNGREL from Middletown Area Study, 1978



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