Measurement Wizard > Single-Item Measures > Moral/Social Attitudes >


Measures how an individual defines the "correct" roles for men and women to play in society. May include familial, occupational, or religious roles 

Below are 180 questions from surveys in the ARDA that attempt to measure this concept. The ARDA staff further categorized these questions into 9 types:

[ Equality? | Feminism | Household Roles | Politics | Religious Behaviors | Religious Leaders? | Should Work? | Traditional Roles | Workplace ]

Mouse over a survey name to see further details on a survey. Click on "More" to see the response frequencies for a question, or click here to view all frequency tables.



Category 1:Equality?
 

This question type asks the respondent where they fall on a scale ranging from equality between the sexes to more traditional views of gender.

Some questions fit within the "Equality?" subcategory but varied in a notable way. ARDA staff identified 3 such variants.

[ Equal Rights? | Greater Freedom for Men? | Traditional Role ]

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FEMEQL FTF from American National Election Studies, 2000

FEMEQL FTE from American National Election Studies, 2000

FEMEQL FTC from American National Election Studies, 2000

FEMEQL ST from American National Election Studies, 2000

FEMEQL BRE from American National Election Studies, 2000

FEMEQL CPH from American National Election Studies, 2000

FEMEQL SUP from American National Election Studies, 2000

WOMEN_EQ from American National Election Studies, 2004

V083166 from American National Election Studies, Time Series Study, 2008

DSRVWOMN from Middletown Area Study, 2000


Variant:Equal Rights? (Equality? variant)
 

This variant asks the respondent if women should have the same rights as men.

[ Back to Equality? ]


WOMEN1 from Houston Area Survey, 1982-2010

YWMNRTS from Young Adolescents and Their Parents: A National Study, 1984 - Youth Component

FSAMERTS from Young Adolescents and Their Parents: A National Study, 1984 - Father Component

WOMEN from Tulsa, Oklahoma Area Survey, 1986

MSAMERTS from Young Adolescents and Their Parents: A National Study, 1984 - Mother Component

WOMEN from Tulsa, Oklahoma Area Survey, 1985


Variant:Greater Freedom for Men? (Equality? variant)
 

This variant asks if men should have greater freedoms than women.

[ Back to Equality? ]


YMENFREE from Young Adolescents and Their Parents: A National Study, 1984 - Youth Component

FMENFREE from Young Adolescents and Their Parents: A National Study, 1984 - Father Component

MMENFREE from Young Adolescents and Their Parents: A National Study, 1984 - Mother Component


Variant:Traditional Role (Equality? variant)
 

This variant asks if women have moved "too far" from traditional roles or should return to a traditional role in society.

[ Back to Equality? ]


C1FEMROL from State of Disunion Survey, 1996

FEMTRAD from Trends in Political Values and Core Attitudes, 1987-2009

TRADWMN from December 2006 Values Update Survey

AGREE2J from July 2003 Values Update Survey


Category 2:Feminism
 

This question type concerns the respondent's attitude about the feminist movement or self identification as a feminist.

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FEMINIST from Baylor Religion Survey, Wave II (2007)

WOMEN from Middletown Area Study (Autumn), 1981


Category 3:Household Roles
 

This question concerns the roles of husbands and wives in the household.

Some questions fit within the "Household Roles" subcategory but varied in a notable way. ARDA staff identified 2 such variants.

[ Chores | Income ]

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WMNCARE from Baylor Religion Survey, Wave II (2007)


Variant:Chores (Household Roles variant)
 

This variant asks if husbands and wives should share equally in household chores.

[ Back to Household Roles ]


EQCHORES from Baylor Religion Survey, Wave II (2007)

SHRCHR80 from Marital Instability over the Life Course: A Five-Wave Panel Study, Wave I (1980)

MENSHR from National Survey of Family Growth - Wave 5 (1995) Respondent File


Variant:Income (Household Roles variant)
 

This variant asks if husbands should earn more than their wives.

[ Back to Household Roles ]


SALARY from Baylor Religion Survey, Wave II (2007)

HUBBYWRK from General Social Survey, 1991

HEARN80 from Marital Instability over the Life Course: A Five-Wave Panel Study, Wave I (1980)

HRSPNS80 from Marital Instability over the Life Course: A Five-Wave Panel Study, Wave I (1980)

ROLESHAR from Middletown Area Study, 2000


Category 4:Politics
 

This question type asks about the role of women in politics

Some questions fit within the "Politics" subcategory but varied in a notable way. ARDA staff identified 2 such variants.

[ Emotion | Stay home? ]

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WOMEN2 from Spirit and Power: Survey of Pentecostals in South Korea

WOMEN2 from Spirit and Power: Survey of Pentecostals in Nigeria

WOMEN2 from Spirit and Power: Survey of Pentecostals in Chosen Regions of India

VCF0836 from American National Election Studies, Cumulative Data File, 1948-2004

WOMEN2 from Spirit and Power: A 10-Country Survey of Pentecostals

WOMEN2 from Spirit and Power: Survey of Pentecostals in Brazil

WOMEN2 from Spirit and Power: Survey of Pentecostals in Chile

WOMEN2 from Spirit and Power: Survey of Pentecostals in the Philippines

WOMEN2 from Spirit and Power: Survey of Pentecostals in South Africa

WOMEN2 from Spirit and Power: Survey of Pentecostals in the United States

WOMEN2 from Spirit and Power: Survey of Pentecostals in Kenya

WOMEN2 from Spirit and Power: Survey of Pentecostals in Guatemala

WOMNPRES from National Survey of Family Growth - Wave 5 (1995) Respondent File

EQROLES from Middletown Area Study, 1990


Variant:Emotion (Politics variant)
 

This variant asks if men are more "emotionally suited" for politics than women.

[ Back to Politics ]


FEPOL from General Social Survey 2008 Cross-Section and Panel Combined

FEPOL from General Social Survey 2010 Cross-Section and Panel Combined

FEPOL from General Social Survey, 2002

SUITED from Baylor Religion Survey, Wave II (2007)

FEPOL from General Social Survey, 2004

FEPOL from General Social Survey, 2006

FEPOL from General Social Survey, 2000

FEPOL from General Social Survey, 1990

FEPOL from General Social Survey, 1996

FEPOL from General Social Survey, 1988

FEPOL from General Social Survey, 1991

FEPOL from General Social Survey, 1998

FEPOL from General Social Survey, 1978

FEPOL from General Social Survey, 1994

FEPOL from General Social Survey, 1993


Variant:Stay home? (Politics variant)
 

This variant asks if women should stay home and leave running of the country up to men.

[ Back to Politics ]


FEHOME from General Social Survey, 1990

FEHOME from General Social Survey, 1996

FEHOME from General Social Survey, 1988

FEHOME from General Social Survey, 1991

FEHOME from General Social Survey, 1998

FEHOME from General Social Survey, 1978

FEHOME from General Social Survey, 1994

FEHOME from General Social Survey, 1993

SEXROLES from Middletown Area Study, 1985

SEXROLES from Middletown Area Study, 1987


Category 5:Religious Behaviors
 

This question type asks about the behavior of women within their religion. Should women keep silent in church? Should women wear a veil?

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Q59D from Sub-Saharan Africa Religion Survey, 2010

QG3 from Muslim American Survey, 2007

AGREE5 from Survey of Northern California Church Bodies, 1963

AGRWMSIL from Dimensions of Religious Commitment, 1988

PANTS from Middletown Area Study, 1998

RELGC22A from Dimensions of Religious Commitment, 1986

RELGC22A from Dimensions of Religious Commitment, 1987


Category 6:Religious Leaders?
 

Should women be ordained/be allowed to have leadership positions in the church?

Some questions fit within the "Religious Leaders?" subcategory but varied in a notable way. ARDA staff identified 2 such variants.

[ Leader | Ordained ]

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PRWOMEN from ABC News Church in Crisis Poll, 2002


Variant:Leader (Religious Leaders? variant)
 

This variant asks if women should be allowed to hold other roles in the church, such as lector, administrator, deacon, etc.

[ Back to Religious Leaders? ]


WLECTOR from Gallup Poll of Catholics, 1999

WEUCHMIN from Gallup Poll of Catholics, 1999

WDEACONS from Gallup Poll of Catholics, 1999

WMALTAR from Gallup Poll of Catholics, 2005

WMEUCHMN from Gallup Poll of Catholics, 2005

WMDEACON from Gallup Poll of Catholics, 2005

WMADMIN from Gallup Poll of Catholics, 2005

WMNLECHT from Gallup Poll of Catholics, 1992

WMNEUCHR from Gallup Poll of Catholics, 1992

WMNSERVR from Gallup Poll of Catholics, 1992

WMNDEACN from Gallup Poll of Catholics, 1992


Variant:Ordained (Religious Leaders? variant)
 

This variant asks if women should be ordanined

[ Back to Religious Leaders? ]


WOMEN5 from Spirit and Power: Survey of Pentecostals in South Korea

WOMEN5 from Spirit and Power: Survey of Pentecostals in Nigeria

WOMEN5 from Spirit and Power: Survey of Pentecostals in Chosen Regions of India

WPRIESTS from Gallup Poll of Catholics, 1999

PRCELWOM from Gallup Poll of Catholics, 1999

PRMARWOM from Gallup Poll of Catholics, 1999

WNPRIEST from Gallup Poll of Catholics, 2005

ORDCELWN from Gallup Poll of Catholics, 2005

ORDMARWN from Gallup Poll of Catholics, 2005

WOMEN5 from Spirit and Power: A 10-Country Survey of Pentecostals

Q59C from Sub-Saharan Africa Religion Survey, 2010

WOMEN5 from Spirit and Power: Survey of Pentecostals in Brazil

WOMEN5 from Spirit and Power: Survey of Pentecostals in Chile

WOMEN5 from Spirit and Power: Survey of Pentecostals in the Philippines

WOMEN5 from Spirit and Power: Survey of Pentecostals in South Africa

WOMEN5 from Spirit and Power: Survey of Pentecostals in the United States

ORDAINMN from Gallup Poll of Catholics, 1987

QN35_B from Changing Faiths: Latinos and the Transformation of American Religion

FEMPR from ABC News the Pope & the Church, 2003

WOMEN5 from Spirit and Power: Survey of Pentecostals in Kenya

WOMEN5 from Spirit and Power: Survey of Pentecostals in Guatemala

ALLOWED from Lilly Survey of Attitudes and Social Networks

WMNORDND from Gallup Poll of Catholics, 1992

WMNPRST from Gallup Poll of Catholics, 1992

WMNBSHP from Gallup Poll of Catholics, 1992

PRSTWMN from Gallup Poll of Catholics, 1992

NOWMNORD from Gallup Poll of Catholics, 1993

WMPASTOR from Religious Influence and Identity Survey, 1996

WOMENORD from Four-State Church Involvement Study, 1988

INFLNC10 from National Survey of the Religious Life Futures Project, 1990

WOLEAD from Middletown Area Study, 1998


Category 7:Should Work?
 

Does the respondent think that women should work outside the home?

Some questions fit within the "Should Work?" subcategory but varied in a notable way. ARDA staff identified 3 such variants.

[ Children Suffer? | Take care of husband? | Women Happier? ]

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WRKNOKID from General Social Survey, 2002

WRKBABY from General Social Survey, 2002

WRKSCH from General Social Survey, 2002

WRKGROWN from General Social Survey, 2002

FEWKNOKD from General Social Survey, 2002

INF_WWRK from Religion and Politics Survey, 1996

I6HSWIFE from State of Disunion Survey, 1996

WRKNOKID from General Social Survey, 1994

WRKBABY from General Social Survey, 1994

WRKSCH from General Social Survey, 1994

WRKGROWN from General Social Survey, 1994

FEQLOPP from Young Adolescents and Their Parents: A National Study, 1984 - Father Component

MEQLOPP from Young Adolescents and Their Parents: A National Study, 1984 - Mother Component


Variant:Children Suffer? (Should Work? variant)
 

Does the respondent believe that children suffer if the mother works outside the home?

[ Back to Should Work? ]


SUFFER from Baylor Religion Survey, Wave II (2007)

GDRTLN80 from Marital Instability over the Life Course: A Five-Wave Panel Study, Wave I (1980)


Variant:Take care of husband? (Should Work? variant)
 

Is it more important for a woman to take care of her husband than to work?

[ Back to Should Work? ]


WFWKJ80 from Marital Instability Over the Life Course [United States]: A Five-Wave Panel Study, 1980, 1983, 1988, 1992-1994, 1997

WFWKJ80 from Marital Instability over the Life Course: A Five-Wave Panel Study, Wave I (1980)


Variant:Women Happier? (Should Work? variant)
 

This variant asks if women are happier when they stay home with children.

[ Back to Should Work? ]


HOMEKID from General Social Survey, 2002

GENDR4 from Faith and Family in America, 2005

STAYHOME from National Survey of Family Growth - Wave 5 (1995) Respondent File

HOMEKID from General Social Survey, 1994


Category 8:Traditional Roles
 

This question type asks about the importance of marriage to women, or if it is the role of women to care for children.

Some questions fit within the "Traditional Roles" subcategory but varied in a notable way. ARDA staff identified 3 such variants.

[ Childcare | Femininity | Marriage ]

[ Back to Top ]



Variant:Childcare (Traditional Roles variant)
 

This variant asks if the primary role of women is to care for children.

[ Back to Traditional Roles ]


WIFTSK80 from Marital Instability Over the Life Course [United States]: A Five-Wave Panel Study, 1980, 1983, 1988, 1992-1994, 1997

ROLEA83 from Marital Instability Over the Life Course [United States]: A Five-Wave Panel Study, 1980, 1983, 1988, 1992-1994, 1997

ROLEA88 from Marital Instability Over the Life Course [United States]: A Five-Wave Panel Study, 1980, 1983, 1988, 1992-1994, 1997

RLS1092O from Marital Instability Over the Life Course [United States]: A Five-Wave Panel Study, 1980, 1983, 1988, 1992-1994, 1997

ROL197O from Marital Instability Over the Life Course [United States]: A Five-Wave Panel Study, 1980, 1983, 1988, 1992-1994, 1997

ROL197N from Marital Instability Over the Life Course [United States]: A Five-Wave Panel Study, 1980, 1983, 1988, 1992-1994, 1997

WFWKN80 from Marital Instability over the Life Course: A Five-Wave Panel Study, Wave I (1980)

WIFTSK80 from Marital Instability over the Life Course: A Five-Wave Panel Study, Wave I (1980)


Variant:Femininity (Traditional Roles variant)
 

This variant concerns the femininity of women. Does the respondent believe that women have become less feminine?

[ Back to Traditional Roles ]


FEMIN from Southern Focus Poll, South Survey, Fall 1996

GOODFEM from Southern Focus Poll, South Survey, Fall 1996

GOODFEM from Southern Focus Poll, Non-South Survey, Fall 1996

FEMIN from Southern Focus Poll, Non-South Survey, Fall 1996


Variant:Marriage (Traditional Roles variant)
 

This variant asks about the importance of being married to the life satisfaction of women.

[ Back to Traditional Roles ]


WOMMAR from National Study of Youth and Religion, Wave 2 (2005)

WOMMAR from National Study of Youth and Religion, Wave 3 (2007-2008)


Category 9:Workplace
 

This question type concerns the rights of women in the workplace.

Some questions fit within the "Workplace" subcategory but varied in a notable way. ARDA staff identified 2 such variants.

[ Discrimination | Jobs for Men ]

[ Back to Top ]


DEATHTA2 from American National Election Studies, 2002

DEATHTA3 from American National Election Studies, 2002

CLGYWMEN from Economic Values Survey, 1992

BOSS from National Survey of Family Growth - Wave 5 (1995) Respondent File

SAMEMON from National Survey of Family Growth - Wave 5 (1995) Respondent File


Variant:Discrimination (Workplace variant)
 

Does the respondent believe that women face more discrimination/have fewer opportunties than men?

[ Back to Workplace ]


MOREOPP from Baylor Religion Survey, Wave II (2007)

WOMJBDIS from American National Election Studies, 2004

A4MALES from State of Disunion Survey, 1996

LESSJOBS from Middletown Area Study, 1988


Variant:Jobs for Men (Workplace variant)
 

This variant asks if men should have more of a right to jobs when jobs are scarce.

[ Back to Workplace ]


WOMEN1 from Spirit and Power: Survey of Pentecostals in South Korea

WOMEN1 from Spirit and Power: Survey of Pentecostals in Nigeria

WOMEN1 from Spirit and Power: Survey of Pentecostals in Chosen Regions of India

WOMEN1 from Spirit and Power: A 10-Country Survey of Pentecostals

WOMEN1 from Spirit and Power: Survey of Pentecostals in Brazil

WOMEN1 from Spirit and Power: Survey of Pentecostals in Chile

Q11D from Sub-Saharan Africa Religion Survey, 2010

WOMEN1 from Spirit and Power: Survey of Pentecostals in the Philippines

WOMEN1 from Spirit and Power: Survey of Pentecostals in South Africa

WOMEN1 from Spirit and Power: Survey of Pentecostals in the United States

WOMEN1 from Spirit and Power: Survey of Pentecostals in Kenya

WOMEN1 from Spirit and Power: Survey of Pentecostals in Guatemala

WNTWK80 from Marital Instability over the Life Course: A Five-Wave Panel Study, Wave I (1980)



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