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Economic Issues

Economic issues related to the environment.


Below are 90 questions from surveys in the ARDA that attempt to measure this concept. The ARDA staff further categorized these questions into 5 types:

Current PracticesEconomy vs. EnvironmentGrowth Harmful?Higher Prices/Cost of Living?Higher Taxes?

Current PracticesThis question type asks the respondent if he/she currently makes environmental choices, even at the cost of money or time.


Economy vs. EnvironmentThis question type asks the respondent about the relationship/preference between economic growth and environmental protection.

  • NOCOST from Houston Area Survey, 1982-2010LEARN MORE
    • Agree/Disagree: Protecting the environment is so important that continuing improvements must be made, regardless of cost. (82, 83, 85, 90, 99, 01) (NOCOST) EXPAND/COLLAPSE
  • NEWFIRM from Houston Area Survey, 1982-2010LEARN MORE
    • Would you favor or oppose locating a firm in the Houston area that would employ a thousand people but would also increase the risks to the local environment? (89) (NEWFIRM) EXPAND/COLLAPSE
  • ENVIRON from Southern Focus Poll, Non-South Survey, Fall 1993LEARN MORE
    • Here are two statements which people sometimes make when discussing the environment and economic growth. Which of these statements comes closer to your own point of view? 1. Protection of the environment should be given priority, even at the risk of curbing economic growth. Or, 2. Economic growth should be given priority even if the environment suffers to some extent. (ENVIRON) EXPAND/COLLAPSE
  • ENVIRON from Southern Focus Poll, Non-South Survey, Spring 1998LEARN MORE
    • Here are two statements which people sometimes make when discussing the environment and economic growth. Which of these statements comes closer to your own point of view? Protection of the environment should be given priority, even at the risk of curbing economic growth. Economic growth should be given priority even if the environment suffers to some extent. (ENVIRON) EXPAND/COLLAPSE
  • ENVIRON from Southern Focus Poll, South Survey, Fall 1993LEARN MORE
    • Here are two statements which people sometimes make when discussing the environment and economic growth. Which of these statements comes closer to your own point of view? 1. Protection of the environment should be given priority, even at the risk of curbing economic growth. Or, 2. Economic growth should be given priority even if the environment suffers to some extent. (ENVIRON) EXPAND/COLLAPSE
  • ENVIRON from Southern Focus Poll, South Survey, Spring 1998LEARN MORE
    • Here are two statements which people sometimes make when discussing the environment and economic growth. Which of these statements comes closer to your own point of view? Protection of the environment should be given priority, even at the risk of curbing economic growth. Economic growth should be given priority even if the environment suffers to some extent. (ENVIRON) EXPAND/COLLAPSE
  • NATRECON from General Social Survey, 1996LEARN MORE
    • How much do you agree or disagree with the following statements: C. Natural environments that support scarce or endangered species should be left alone, no matter how great the economic benefits to your community from developing them commercially might be. (NATRECON) EXPAND/COLLAPSE
  • BELIEF19 from God and Society in North America, 1996LEARN MORE
    • I would like to read you some statements that people have made about their personal religious beliefs. No matter how you answer the questions, you can be sure that many people feel the same way. As I read each statement, please tell me whether you agree or disagree, moderately or strongly. -- Strict rules to protect the environment are necessary, even if they raise prices or cost jobs. (BELIEF19) EXPAND/COLLAPSE
  • PROTECT from Lilly Survey of Attitudes and Social NetworksLEARN MORE
    • It is important to protect the natural environment, even if it hurts local business. (PROTECT) EXPAND/COLLAPSE
  • ENVGRTH from Comparative Values Survey of Islamic CountriesLEARN MORE
    • Here are two statements people sometimes make when discussing the environment and economic growth. Which of them comes closer to your own point of view? Protecting the environment should be given priority even if it causes slower economic growth and some loss of jobs; or economic growth and creating jobs should be the top priority even if the environment suffers to some extent. (ENVGRTH) EXPAND/COLLAPSE
  • ENECIMP from ABC News/ Washington Post Poll: Faith-Based Initiative, 2001LEARN MORE
    • On another subject, which is more important to you personally - (protecting the environment) or (encouraging economic growth)? [QUESTIONS ENECIMP AND BUSHENEC ASKED OF HALF THE SAMPLE---QUESTIONS ENVRESRC AND BSHENRSC ASKED OF OTHER HALF] (ENECIMP) EXPAND/COLLAPSE
  • ENVIRON1 from American National Election Studies, 2004LEARN MORE
    • Some people think it is important to protect the environment even if it costs some jobs or otherwise reduces our standard of living. Suppose these people are at one end of the scale, at point number 1. Other people think that protecting the environment is not as important as maintaining jobs and our standard of living. Suppose these people are at the other end of the scale, at point number 7. And of course, some other people have opinions somewhere in between, at points 2, 3, 4, 5, or 6. Where would you place YOURSELF on this scale, or havent you thought much about this? (ENVIRON1) EXPAND/COLLAPSE
  • V104 from World Values Survey, 2005LEARN MORE
    • Here are two statements people sometimes make when discussing the environment and economic growth. Which of them comes closer to your own point of view? 1) Protecting the environment should be given priority, even if it causes slower economic growth and some loss of jobs. Or 2) Economic growth and creating jobs should be the top priority, even if the environment suffers to some extent. (V104) EXPAND/COLLAPSE
  • ECONGRN from General Social Survey 2010 Cross-Section and Panel CombinedLEARN MORE
    • How much do you agree or disagree with each of these statements? Economic progress in America will slow down unless we look after the environment better. (ECONGRN) EXPAND/COLLAPSE
  • ECONGRN from General Social Survey 2010 Cross-Section and Panel Combined, (Inapplicable Responses Coded as Missing)LEARN MORE
    • How much do you agree or disagree with each of these statements? Economic progress in America will slow down unless we look after the environment better. (ECONGRN) EXPAND/COLLAPSE
  • ECONGRN from General Social Survey, 2000LEARN MORE
    • How much do you agree or disagree with the following statements? -- Economic progress in America will slow down unless we look after the environment better. (ECONGRN) EXPAND/COLLAPSE
  • GRNECON from General Social Survey 2010 Cross-Section and Panel CombinedLEARN MORE
    • And please check one box for each of these statements to show how much you agree or disagree with it. A. We worry too much about the future of the environment, and not enough about prices and jobs today. (GRNECON) EXPAND/COLLAPSE
  • GRNECON from General Social Survey 2010 Cross-Section and Panel Combined, (Inapplicable Responses Coded as Missing)LEARN MORE
    • And please check one box for each of these statements to show how much you agree or disagree with it. A. We worry too much about the future of the environment, and not enough about prices and jobs today. (GRNECON) EXPAND/COLLAPSE
  • GRNECON from General Social Survey, 1993LEARN MORE
    • And please check one box for each of these statements to show how much you agree or disagree with it. We worry too much about the future of the environment, and not enough about prices and jobs today. (GRNECON) EXPAND/COLLAPSE
  • GRNECON from General Social Survey, 1994LEARN MORE
    • We worry too much about the future of the environment, and not enough about prices and jobs today. (GRNECON) EXPAND/COLLAPSE
  • GRNECON from General Social Survey, 2000LEARN MORE
    • We worry too much about the future of the environment, and not enough about prices and jobs today. (GRNECON) EXPAND/COLLAPSE
  • V083154 from American National Election Studies, Time Series Study, 2008LEARN MORE
    • Where would you place yourself on this scale, or havent you thought much about this? (V083154) EXPAND/COLLAPSE
  • ENVRESRC from ABC News/ Washington Post Poll: Faith-Based Initiative, 2001LEARN MORE
    • On another subject, which of these is more important to you personally - (protecting the environment) or (finding new sources of oil and natural gas)? [QUESTIONS ENECIMP AND BUSHENEC ASKED OF HALF THE SAMPLE---QUESTIONS ENVRESRC AND BSHENRSC ASKED OF OTHER HALF] (ENVRESRC) EXPAND/COLLAPSE
  • BUSGRN from General Social Survey 2010 Cross-Section and Panel CombinedLEARN MORE
    • Which of these approaches do you think would be the best way of getting business and industry in America to protect the environment? (BUSGRN) EXPAND/COLLAPSE
  • BUSGRN from General Social Survey 2010 Cross-Section and Panel Combined, (Inapplicable Responses Coded as Missing)LEARN MORE
    • Which of these approaches do you think would be the best way of getting business and industry in America to protect the environment? (BUSGRN) EXPAND/COLLAPSE
  • BUSGRN from General Social Survey 2012 Cross-Section and Panel CombinedLEARN MORE
    • Which of these approaches do you think would be the best way of getting business and industry in America to protect the environment? (BUSGRN) EXPAND/COLLAPSE
  • BUSGRN from General Social Survey 2012 Cross-Section and Panel Combined - Instructional DatasetLEARN MORE
    • Which of these approaches do you think would be the best way of getting business and industry in America to protect the environment? (BUSGRN) EXPAND/COLLAPSE
  • BUSGRN from General Social Survey 2012 Cross-Section and Panel Combined, (Inapplicable Responses Coded as Missing)LEARN MORE
    • Which of these approaches do you think would be the best way of getting business and industry in America to protect the environment? (BUSGRN) EXPAND/COLLAPSE
  • PEOPGRN from General Social Survey 2010 Cross-Section and Panel CombinedLEARN MORE
    • Which of these approaches do you think would be the best way of getting people and their families in America to protect the environment? (PEOPGRN) EXPAND/COLLAPSE
  • PEOPGRN from General Social Survey 2010 Cross-Section and Panel Combined, (Inapplicable Responses Coded as Missing)LEARN MORE
    • Which of these approaches do you think would be the best way of getting people and their families in America to protect the environment? (PEOPGRN) EXPAND/COLLAPSE
  • PEOPGRN from General Social Survey 2012 Cross-Section and Panel CombinedLEARN MORE
    • Which of these approaches do you think would be the best way of getting people and their families in America to protect the environment? (PEOPGRN) EXPAND/COLLAPSE
  • PEOPGRN from General Social Survey 2012 Cross-Section and Panel Combined - Instructional DatasetLEARN MORE
    • Which of these approaches do you think would be the best way of getting people and their families in America to protect the environment? (PEOPGRN) EXPAND/COLLAPSE
  • PEOPGRN from General Social Survey 2012 Cross-Section and Panel Combined, (Inapplicable Responses Coded as Missing)LEARN MORE
    • Which of these approaches do you think would be the best way of getting people and their families in America to protect the environment? (PEOPGRN) EXPAND/COLLAPSE
  • ENVIRO1 from Religion and Politics Survey Merged Data Set, 1994-1995LEARN MORE
    • Typology Q: Environmental protection -- 1) We should protect the environment at all costs . . . 2) Weve gone too far in protecting the environment (ENVIRO1) EXPAND/COLLAPSE

Growth Harmful?This question type asks the respondent if economic growth harms the environment.


Higher Prices/Cost of Living?This question type asks the respondent if people should be willing to pay higher prices for environmentally friendly products.


Higher Taxes?This question type asks respondent if he/she would be willing to pay higher taxes to protect the environment.

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