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  • "Baba has come to civilize us": Developmental idealism and framing the strict demands of the Brahma Kumaris.
    McKendry-Smith, Emily (2016)
    Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 55:4: 698-716.

    Based on 2008-09 interviews with 47 women who attended Brahma Kumari centers in Nepal, as well as participation observation in the centers. The women accepted strict practices that seemed modern but not celibacy, which did not seem modern.

    Associated Search Terms: Brahma Kumari, Nepal; Celibacy; Frame alignment; Modern; Nepal; New religions; Participant observation; Strictness
  • The optimal level of srictness and congregational growth.
    Ferguson, Todd W. (2014)
    Religions 5:3: 703-719.

    Associated Search Terms: Strictness; Congregation
  • Parental Religiosity, Religious Homogamy, and Young Children's Well-being.
    Petts, Richard J. (2011)
    Sociology of Religion 72:4: 389-414.

    Analyzes 1998 & 2000 interview data from fragile families in U.S.A. cities. Attendance by 2 parents & religious homogamy are related positively to children's well-being, strictness negatively so.

    Associated Search Terms: Children; Well-being, psychological; Marriage; Panel study; Practice; Salience; Strictness; Family
  • Testing the Strictness Thesis and Competing Theories of Congregtional Growth.
    Thomas, Jeremy, and Daniel V.A. Olson (2010)
    Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 49:4: 619-639.

    Analyzes U.S. Congregtional Life Survey data (2001); both strictness & other factors contribute to congregational growth.

    Associated Search Terms: Membership; Parish; Strictness
  • Social Sources of the Spirit: Connecting Rational Choice and Intractive Ritual Theories in the Study of Religion.
    Baker, Joseph O. (2010)
    Sociology of Religion 71:4: 432-456.

    Based on 1998 key informant data from American congregations; strictness predicts expressive worship.

    Associated Search Terms: Strictness; Rational choice theory; Ritual
  • Any Given Sunday: Weekly Church Attendance in a Midwestern City.
    Olsen, Paul J. (2008)
    Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 47:3: 443-461.

    Analyzes attendance patterns in one city; practice ebbs & flows with feasts & external events such as weather, moreso for liturgical denominations than others. Stricness alone is not determinative of practice rates.

    Associated Search Terms: Strictness; Practice; Rational choice theory
  • Church Growth and Decline: A Test of the Market-based Approach.
    Stoll, Laurie Cooper, and Larry R. Petersen (2008)
    Review of Religious Research 49:3: 251-268.

    Based on data from a sample of congregations in Shelby County, Tennessee (Memphis); strictness predicted the supply of volunteers, financial contributions, & church growth, but not recruitment activity or extensiveness of programs.

    Associated Search Terms: United States, Tennessee, Memphis; Strictness; Volunteering; Contributions; Market model; Membership; Rational choice theory
  • What Americans Really Believe.
    Stark, Rodney, et al. (2008)
    Waco, Texas: Baylor University Press.

    Based on the 2006 Baylor Survey on Religion.

    Associated Search Terms: Assemblies of God, U.S.A.; Proselytizing; United States; Belief; Denomination (organizational entity); Atheist, U.S.A.; Strictness; Catholic, U.S.A.; Megachurch; Mormon, U.S.A.; Church of God (Cleveland, Tennessee); Pentecostal, U.S.A.; Experience; Church of God in Christ, U.S.A.; United Methodist, U.S.A.; Communality; Contributions; Women; Nazarene, U.S.A.; State; Unitarian Universalist; Seventh-day Adventist, U.S.A.; Evangelical Lutheran Church in America; Disciples of Christ; Practice; Politics, U.S.A.; New age; United Church of Christ; Membership; Social capital; Education; Media; Episcopal; Southern Baptist; Jehovah´s Witness, U.S.A.; Foursquare Gospel; Presbyterian Church in the U.S.A.; Evangelical, U.S.A.
  • Free and Cheap Riding in Strict, Conservative Churches.
    Olson, Daniel V.A., and Paul Perl (2005)
    Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 44:2: 123-142.

    Examines skewness of contributions in 582 congregations.

    Associated Search Terms: Conservative, U.S.A.; Strictness; Contributions
  • Does Strictness Explain the Appeal of Working-class Conservative Protestant Congregations?
    Tamney, Joseph B. (2005)
    Sociology of Religion 66:3: 283-302.

    Interviews with new members of working class congregations did not support the strictness hypothesis; feeling the presence of the Spirit, family-like atmosphere, & pastor qualities attracted the new members.

    Associated Search Terms: Membership; Conversion; Strictness; Class; United States, Indiana, Muncie
  • The Powerlessness of Religious Power in a Pluralist Society.
    Repstad, Pål (2003)
    Social Compass 50:2: 161-173.

    Illustrates the voluntary & individual nature of religion in Norway, using published poll results & anecdotes.

    Associated Search Terms: Privatization; Conservative, Norway; Lutheran, Norway; Strictness; Rational choice theory; Pluralism; Individualism; Norway
  • Strictness and Congregational Growth in Middletown.
    Tamney, Joseph B., Stephen D. Johnson, Kevin McElmurry, and George Saunders (2003)
    Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 42:3: 363-375.

    Strictness correlated with congregation growth in size only in working class congregations; it correlated inversely with growth in middle class congregations.

    Associated Search Terms: United States, Indiana, Muncie; Parish; Stratification; Strictness; Protestant, U.S.A.; Modernization
  • Religion without a Net: Strictness in the Religious Pratices of West Coast Urban Liberal Christian Congregtions.
    Wellman, James K., Jr. (2002)
    Review of Religious Research 44:2: 184-199.

    The demanding nature of a liberal religion creates a strong religious group in a niche market.

    Associated Search Terms: Liberal, U.S.A.; Strictness
  • The Resiliance of Conservative Religion: The Case of Popular, Conservative Protestant Congregations.
    Tamney, Joseph B. (2002)
    Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    Based on 1996 open-ended interviews in growing conservative congregations in Muncie (Middletown). Unlike traditionalist churches, conservative ones accommodate modernization & become popular in the process. Many converts left strict traditionalist ones.

    Associated Search Terms: Modernization; Accommodation; United States, Indiana, Muncie; Traditionalist; Parish; Conservative, U.S.A.; Traditionalism; Strictness; Conversion; Differentiation
  • Variations in Strictness and Religious Commitment within and among Five Denominations.
    Olson, Daniel V.A., and Paul Perl (2001)
    Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 40:4: 757-764.

    Analyzes survey data on 625 congregations; strictness correlates with time & financial commitment across denominations but not within them.

    Associated Search Terms: Presbyterian Church in the U.S.A.; Strictness; Assemblies of God, U.S.A.; Southern Baptist; Catholic, U.S.A.; Evangelical Lutheran Church in America; Contributions; Parish; Denomination (organizational entity)
  • Moralische Striktheit und Religiosität in Ost- und Westdeutschland 1990-1994. Über den Einfluss unterschiedlicher Sozialverfassungen auf die Korrelationen zwischen Einstellungen.
    Meulemann, Heiner (2000)
    In D. Pollack and G. Pickel (eds.) Religiöser und kirchlicher Wandel in Ostdeutschland 1989-1999. Opladen: Leske + Budrich, pp. 105-139.

    Associated Search Terms: Strictness; Moral; Religiosity; Germany, Western; Germany, East
  • The Popularity of Strict Churches.
    Tamney, Joseph B., and Stephen D. Johnson (1998)
    Review of Religious Research 39:3: 209-223.

    Analyzes 1994 telephone survey data from Muncie, Indiana; strictness appealed to the less educated, authoritativeness to fundamentalists.

    Associated Search Terms: Fundamentalist, U.S.A.; Authoritarianism; Education; United States, Indiana, Muncie; Strictness
  • Why Strict Churches are Strong.
    Iannaccone, Laurence R. (1994)
    American Journal of Sociology 99:5: 1180-1212. [Also in Nicholas J. Demerath III, et al. (eds.), Sacred Companies. Organizational Aspects of Religion and Religious Aspects of Organizations (New York: Oxford University Press, 1998), pp. 269-291]

    Strict norms strengthen organizations by screening out members who lack commitment; uses illustrative General Social Survey (U.S.A..) data.

    Associated Search Terms: Strictness; United States; Rational choice theory; Norm; Denomination (organizational entity)
  • Strictly Speaking?: Kelley's Quandary and the Vineyard Christian Fellowship.
    Perrin, Robin D., and Armand L. Mauss (1993)
    Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 32:2: 125-135.

    Analyzes 1988-89 questionnaire data from congregations of the Vineyard Christian Fellowship in southern California & Washington State; shows the independence of social strength from strictness.

    Associated Search Terms: Strictness; Vineyard Churches; Asceticism; Membership
  • Sacrifice and stigma: Reducing free-riding in cults, communes and other collectives.
    Iannaccone, Laurence R. (1992)
    Journal of Political Economy100:2: 271-291.

    Associated Search Terms: Freerider problem; Stigma; Strictness
  • Life Tradition and Book Tradition in the Development of Ultraorthodox Judaism.
    Friedman, Menachem (1987)
    In Harvey E. Goldberg (ed.), Judaism Viewed from Within and from Without: Anthropological Studies. Albany: SUNY Press, pp. 235-255. [Also Shlomo A. Deshen, et al. (eds.), Israeli Judaism. (New Brunswick: Transaction, 1995), pp. 127-147]

    Breaks with community amidst modernity allows for individualist stringency, especially when supported by the yeshivah gedolah; this is the social basis for change in the direction of more stringent observance.

    Associated Search Terms: Strictness; Change; Jewish, Ultraorthodox
  • Keeping the Faithful. Patterns of Membership Retention in the Christian Reformed Church.
    Bouma, Gary D. (1980)
    Sociological Analysis 41:3: 259-264.

    People leave the Christian Reformed Church when they find its community too demanding, constricting, & intolerant; stayers cite commitment to its conservative Calvinist theology & worship, & the importance of the church community to them.

    Associated Search Terms: Membership; Strictness; Christian Reformed Church
  • Conservatism and Social Strength in a Liberal Denomination.
    Hadaway, Christopher Kirk (1980)
    Review of Religious Research 21:3: 302-314.

    Reports 1975 survey data from 681 United Presbyterian congregations; shows conservatism to be generally unrelated to their growth patterns.

    Associated Search Terms: Membership; Strictness; Conservative, U.S.A.; United Presbyterian Church in the U.S.A.
  • The Real Reason One Conservative Church Grew.
    Bouma, Gary D. (1979)
    Review of Religious Research 20:2: 127-137. Reprinted 50:S: 45-52.

    Compares growth of the Christian Reformed Church & the Reformed Church in America; immigration & fertility explain the CRC's higher rate; demanding higher commitment levels helps the RCA retain members.

    Associated Search Terms: Fertility; Reformed Church in America; Christian Reformed Church; Membership; Strictness; Migration
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Citation data are provided by Anthony J. Blasi (Ph.D. in Sociology, University of Notre Dame; University of Texas at San Antonio).

The ARDA is not responsible for content or typographical errors.

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