Gibbons, James 
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Time Period
7/23/1834  - 3/24/1921
Description
In 1834, James Gibbons was born to Irish immigrants in Baltimore, the town where he would later become archbishop (1877) and then cardinal (1886). During his period of leadership, he attempted to address the needs of the growing immigrant population. In addition, Gibbons tried to reduce tensions with the Vatican under Pope Leo XIII, who was suspicious of how American culture was compromising the American Catholic Church. Gibbons had to defend his American clerics and deny rumors that some American clerics supported increased freedom in the Church and held different doctrinal views.

He also was a public figure who wrote popular explanations of Catholicism in America (e.g., his 1876 book Faith of Our Fathers) and served as an unofficial advisor to several presidents over Catholic issues. In 1917, Theodore Roosevelt referred to Gibbons as "the most respected and venerated and useful citizen of our country."
Interactive Timeline(s)
Prominent Religious Events and People in American History
Catholic Religious Events and People in American History
Browse Related Timeline Entries
Prominent Religious Events and People in American History
Catholic Religious Events and People in American History
Religious Groups
Catholicism (Western Liturgical Family): Other ARDA Links

Events
Publication of Encyclical Rerum Novarum
Plenary Councils of Baltimore
Publication of Encyclical Testem Benevolentiae Nostrae
Photographs

James Gibbons portrait- Library of Congress, LC-USZ62-63469

James Gibbons portrait- National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution; donated in memory of James Gibbons Burke by Mary Rose Shea Burke and children

James Gibbons portrait 2- Library of Congress, LC-USZ62-47785

James Gibbons ceremony- Internet Archive

James Gibbons Jubilee- Library of Congress, LC-DIG-hec-11712
Book/Journal Source(s)
Queen, Edward, Stephen Prothero and Gardiner Shattuck, 1996. The Encyclopedia of American Religious History. New York: Facts on File.
Glazier, Michael, and Thomas Shelley, 1997. The Encyclopedia of American Catholic History. Collegeville, Minnesota: The Liturgical Press..
Web Page Contributor
Benjamin T. Gurrentz
Affliated with: Pennsylvania State University, Ph.D. in Sociology

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