Haredi Judaism
Haredi Judaism emerged in the early nineteenth century as the most conservative wing of Orthodox Judaism. It opposed reform Judaism and attempted to push the mainstream to ever more conservative adherence to the Jewish Law. It has re-emergeged in strength in modern Israel with a goal of re-establishing the boundaries of King David's ancient kingdom. It is often referred to by its critics as the Ultra-Orthodox, and exists through several organizations, among the most famous being the Neturei Karta.