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Features of Constitution1

Is there a constitution? No
Does the constitution provide for freedom of religion? No


Constitution Year not applicable
Last Amended not applicable
Source International Constitutional Law (ICL)
Translation Source is an English translation
Current as of May 11, 2011

Constitution Excerpts (clauses that reference religion)2

[ARDA note: Libya does not have a formal constitution. Excerpts of the 1969 Constitutional Proclamation, which will remain in effect until a permanent constitution is issued per Article 37 of the Proclamation, are reproduced below.]

Article 2 [State Religion, Language]

Islam is the religion of the State and Arabic is its official Language. The state protects religious freedom in accordance with established customs.

Article 3 [Solidarity, Family]

Social solidarity constitutes the foundation of national unity. The family, based on religion, morality, and patriotism, is the foundation of society.

Article 6 [Socialism]

The aim of the state is the realization of socialism through the application of social justice which forbids any form of exploitation. The state endeavors, through the edification of a socialist community, to achieve self-sufficiency in production and equity in distribution. Its aim is to eliminate peacefully the disparities between social classes and to attain a society of prosperity. Its inspiration is its Arabic and Islamic heritage, humanitarian values and the specific conditions of the Libyan society.

Article 8 [Property]

Public ownership is the basis of the development of society, of its growth and of self-sufficiency in production. Private ownership, if it is non-exploitative, is protected. Expropriation will take place only in accordance with the law. Inheritance is a right which will be governed by the Islamic Shari'a.


1.  Data under the "Features of Constitution" heading are drawn from coding of the U.S. State Department's 2008 International Religious Freedom Reports conducted by researchers at the Association of Religion Data Archives. The article by Brian Grim and Roger Finke describes the coding of the International Religious Freedom reports. A dataset with these and the other international measures highlighted on the country pages can be downloaded from this website. Used with permission.

2.  The constitutional excerpts shown above are reproduced from the websites given in the "Source" field; the links to these websites were active as of May 2011. Where the constitutional text shown on these websites was provided in a language other than English, this text was translated to English by ARDA staff with assistance from web-based translation utilities such as Google Translate and Yahoo! Babel Fish. Constitutional text was converted to American English where applicable. Constitutional clauses were judged to contain religious content based largely on the standards used in the construction of the Religion and State Constitutions Dataset collected by Jonathan Fox. Emphases were added to the text by ARDA staff to highlight religious content in articles that also contain content that does not pertain to matters of religion. The data on this page were correct to the best of the knowledge of the ARDA as of the date listed in the "Current as of" field shown above. Please contact us at if you are aware of any incorrect information provided on this page.

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