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Features of Constitution1

Is there a constitution? No, but law functions in its place
Does the constitution provide for freedom of religion? Yes, the law does in place of a constitution


Constitution Year 1997
Last Amended not amended
Source Centre for Human Rights (University of Pretoria)
Translation Source is an English translation
Current as of May 11, 2011

Constitution Excerpts (clauses that reference religion)2

[ARDA Note: Per The World Factbook, while Eritrea’s constitution was adopted in 1997, it has not yet been fully implemented throughout the country.

Article 14 – Equality under the Law

1. All persons are equal under the law.
2. No person may be discriminated against on account of race, ethnic origin, language, color, gender, religion, disability, age, political view, or social or economic status or any other improper factors.
3. The National Assembly shall enact laws that can assist in eliminating inequalities existing in the Eritrean society.

Article 19 – Freedom of Conscience, Religion, Expression of Opinion, Movement, Assembly and Organization

1. Every person shall have the right to freedom of thought, conscience and belief.
2. Every person shall have the freedom of speech and expression, including freedom of the press and other media.
3. Every citizen shall have the right to access to information.
4. Every person shall have the freedom to practice any religion and to manifest such practice.
5. All persons shall have the right to assemble and to demonstrate peaceably together with others.
6. Every citizen shall have the right to form organizations for political, social, economic and cultural ends.


1.  Data under the "Features of Constitution" heading are drawn from coding of the U.S. State Department's 2008 International Religious Freedom Reports conducted by researchers at the Association of Religion Data Archives. The article by Brian Grim and Roger Finke describes the coding of the International Religious Freedom reports. A dataset with these and the other international measures highlighted on the country pages can be downloaded from this website. Used with permission.

2.  The constitutional excerpts shown above are reproduced from the websites given in the "Source" field; the links to these websites were active as of May 2011. Where the constitutional text shown on these websites was provided in a language other than English, this text was translated to English by ARDA staff with assistance from web-based translation utilities such as Google Translate and Yahoo! Babel Fish. Constitutional text was converted to American English where applicable. Constitutional clauses were judged to contain religious content based largely on the standards used in the construction of the Religion and State Constitutions Dataset collected by Jonathan Fox. Emphases were added to the text by ARDA staff to highlight religious content in articles that also contain content that does not pertain to matters of religion. The data on this page were correct to the best of the knowledge of the ARDA as of the date listed in the "Current as of" field shown above. Please contact us at if you are aware of any incorrect information provided on this page.

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