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Features of Constitution1

Is there a constitution? Yes
Does the constitution provide for freedom of religion? Yes


Constitution Year 1945
Last Amended 2002
Source Embassy of the Republic of Indonesia in Kyiv (Ukraine)
Translation Source is an English translation
Current as of May 11, 2011

Constitution Excerpts (clauses that reference religion)2


By the grace of God Almighty and impelled by the noble desire to live a free national life, the people of Indonesia hereby declare their independence.
Subsequent thereto, to form a government of the state of Indonesia which shall protect all the people of Indonesia and their entire native land, and in order to improve the public welfare, to advance the intellectual life of the people and to contribute to the establishment of a world order based on freedom, abiding peace and social justice, the national independence of Indonesia shall be formulated into a constitution of the sovereign Republic of Indonesia which is based on the belief in the One and Only God, just and humanity, the unity of Indonesia, democracy guided by the inner wisdom of deliberations amongst representatives and the realization of social justice for all of the people of Indonesia.

Article 9

(1) Prior to taking office, the President and Vice President shall swear an oath in accordance with their respective religions or shall make a solemn promise before the MPR or DPR. The oath or promise shall be as follows:

Presidential (Vice-Presidential) Oath:
"I swear before God that, to the best of my ability, I shall fulfill as justly as possible my duties as President (Vice-President) of the Republic of Indonesia, that I shall uphold faithfully the Constitution, conscientiously implement all statues and regulations, and shall devote myself to the service of Country and Nation."

Presidential (Vice-Presidential) Promise:
"I solemnly promise that, to the best of my ability, I shall fulfill as justly as possible my duties as President (Vice-President) of the Republic of Indonesia, that I shall uphold faithfully the Constitution, conscientiously implement all statues and regulations, and shall devote myself to the service of Country and Nation."

Article 22D

(3)...The DPD may oversee the implementation of laws concerning regional autonomy, the formation, expansion and merger of regions, the relationship of central and local government, management of natural resources and other economic resources, implementation of the State Budget, taxation, education, or religion and shall in addition submit the result of such oversight to the DPR in the form of material for its further consideration.

Article 24

(1)The judicial power shall be independent and shall possess the power to organize the judicature in order to enforce law and justice.
(2) The judicial power shall be implemented by a Supreme Court and judicial bodies underneath it in the form of public courts, religious affairs courts, military tribunals, and state administrative courts, and by a Constitutional Court.
(3) Other institutions whose functions have a relation with the judicial powers shall be regulated by law.

Article 28E

(1) Every person shall be free to choose and to practice the religion of his/her choice, to choose one's education, to choose one's employment, to choose one's citizenship, and to choose one's place of residence within the state territory, to leave it and to subsequently return to it.
(2) Every person shall have the right to the freedom to believe his/her faith (kepercayaan), and to express his/her views and thoughts, in accordance with his/her conscience.
(3) Every person shall have the right to the freedom to associate, to assemble and to express opinions.

Article 28I

(1) The rights to life, freedom from torture, freedom of thought and conscience, freedom of religion, freedom from enslavement, recognition as a person before the law, and the right not to be tried under a law with retrospective effect are all human rights that cannot be limited under any circumstances.
(2) Every person shall have the right to be free from discriminative treatment based upon any grounds whatsoever and shall have the right to protection from such discriminative treatment.
(3) The cultural identities and rights of traditional communities shall be respected in accordance with the development of times and civilizations.
(4) The protection, advancement, upholding and fulfillment of human rights are the responsibility of the state, especially the government
(5) For the purpose of upholding and protecting human rights in accordance with the principle of a democratic and law-based state, the implementation of human rights shall be guaranteed, regulated and set forth in laws and regulations.

Article 28J

(1) Every person shall have the duty to respect the human rights of others in the orderly life of the community, nation and state.
(2) In exercising his/her rights and freedoms, every person shall have the duty to accept the restrictions established by law for the sole purposes of guaranteeing the recognition and respect of the rights and freedoms of others and of satisfying just demands based upon considerations of morality, religious values, security and public order in a democratic society.

Article 29

(1) The State shall be based upon the belief in the One and Only God.
(2) The State guarantees all persons the freedom of worship, each according to his/her own religion or belief.

Article 31

(1) Every citizen has the right to receive education.
(2) Every citizen has the obligation to undertake basic education, and the government has the obligation to fund this.
(3) The government shall manage and organize one system of national education, which shall increase the level of spiritual belief, devoutness and moral character in the context of developing the life of the nation and shall be regulated by law.
(4) The state shall prioritize the budget for education to a minimum of 20% of the State Budget and of the Regional Budgets to fulfill the needs of implementation of national education.
(5) The government shall advance science and technology with the highest respect for religious values and national unity for the advancement of civilization and prosperity of humankind.


1.  Data under the "Features of Constitution" heading are drawn from coding of the U.S. State Department's 2008 International Religious Freedom Reports conducted by researchers at the Association of Religion Data Archives. The article by Brian Grim and Roger Finke describes the coding of the International Religious Freedom reports. A dataset with these and the other international measures highlighted on the country pages can be downloaded from this website. Used with permission.

2.  The constitutional excerpts shown above are reproduced from the websites given in the "Source" field; the links to these websites were active as of May 2011. Where the constitutional text shown on these websites was provided in a language other than English, this text was translated to English by ARDA staff with assistance from web-based translation utilities such as Google Translate and Yahoo! Babel Fish. Constitutional text was converted to American English where applicable. Constitutional clauses were judged to contain religious content based largely on the standards used in the construction of the Religion and State Constitutions Dataset collected by Jonathan Fox. Emphases were added to the text by ARDA staff to highlight religious content in articles that also contain content that does not pertain to matters of religion. The data on this page were correct to the best of the knowledge of the ARDA as of the date listed in the "Current as of" field shown above. Please contact us at if you are aware of any incorrect information provided on this page.

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