Pakistan
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  Preferred Religion (2015)1: Sunni

  Majority Religion (2015)2: Sunni Muslim (80.4%)

Features Of Constitution

Is there a constitution?3 yes
Does the constitution state an official religion?3 yes [Article 2]
Does the constitution provide for freedom of religion?3 yes [Article 20(a)]
Does the constitution protect religious equality/non-discrimination?3 partial [Articles 26, 27]

Constitution

Constitution Year3 1973
Last Amended3 2017
Source3 Constitute Project
Translation3 Original was written in English, edited by ARDA staff.
Current as of3 October 17, 2018

Constitution Excerpts (clauses that reference religion)3

Preamble

Whereas sovereignty over the entire Universe belongs to Almighty Allah alone, and the authority to be exercised by the people of Pakistan within the limits prescribed by Him is a sacred trust;

...

Wherein the principles of democracy, freedom, equality, tolerance and social justice, as enunciated by Islam, shall be fully observed;

Wherein the Muslims shall be enabled to order their lives in the individual and collective spheres in accordance with the teachings and requirements of Islam as set out in the Holy Quran and Sunnah;

Wherein adequate provision shall be made for the minorities freely to profess and practise their religions and develop their cultures;

Wherein shall be guaranteed fundamental rights, including equality ... and freedom of ... belief, faith, worship ..., subject to law and public morality;

...

Conscious of our responsibility before Almighty Allah and men;

...

Faithful to the declaration made by the Founder of Pakistan, Quaid-i-Azam Mohammad Ali Jinnah, that Pakistan would be a democratic State based on Islamic principles of social justice;

Article 1. The Republic and its territories.

Pakistan shall be [sic] Federal Republic to be known as the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, hereinafter referred to as Pakistan.

Article 2. Islam to be state religion.

Islam shall be the State religion of Pakistan.

Article 20. Freedom to profess religion and to manage religious institutions.

Subject to law, public order and morality,---

(a) every citizen shall have the right to profess, practice and propagate his religion; and

(b) every religious denomination and every sect thereof shall have the right to establish, maintain and manage its religious institutions.

Article 21. Safeguard against taxation for purposes of any particular religion.

No person shall be compelled to pay any special tax the proceeds of which are to be spent on the propagation or maintenance of any religion other than his own.

Article 22. Safeguards as to educational institutions in respect of religion, etc.

(1) No person attending any educational institution shall be required to receive religious instruction, or take part in any religious ceremony, or attend religious worship, if such instruction, ceremony or worship relates to a religion other than his own.

(2) In respect of any religious institution, there shall be no discrimination against any community in the granting of exemption or concession in relation to taxation.

(3) Subject to law,

(a) no religious community or denomination shall be prevented from providing religious instruction for pupils of that community or denomination in any educational institution maintained wholly by that community or denomination; and

(b) no citizen shall be denied admission to any educational institution receiving aid from public revenues on the ground only of ... religion, caste ...

[A technical exception for affirmative action follows.]

Article 26. Non-discrimination in respect of access to public places.

(1) In respect of access to places of public entertainment or resort, not intended for religious purposes only, there shall be no discrimination against any citizen on the ground only of ... religion, caste, ...

[A technical exception concerning women and children follows.]

Article 27. Safeguard against discrimination in services.

(1) No citizen otherwise qualified for appointment in the service of Pakistan shall be discriminated against in respect of any such appointment on the ground only of ... religion, caste, ...

[Technical exceptions for affirmative action follow.]

...

Article 31. Islamic way of life.

(1) Steps shall be taken to enable the Muslims of Pakistan, individually and collectively, to order their lives in accordance with the fundamental principles and basic concepts of Islam and to provide facilities whereby they may be enabled to understand the meaning of life according to the Holy Quran and Sunnah.

(2) The State shall endeavour, as respects the Muslims of Pakistan,---

(a) to make the teaching of the Holy Quran and Islamiat compulsory, to encourage and facilitate the learning of Arabic language and to secure correct and exact printing and publishing of the Holy Quran;

(b) to promote unity and the observance of the Islamic moral standards; and

(c) to secure the proper organisation of zakat ushr, auqaf and mosques.

Article 33. Parochial and other similar prejudices to be discouraged.

The State shall discourage ... sectarian [among others] ... prejudices among the citizens.

Article 37. Promotion of social justice and eradication of social evils.

The State shall---

...

(h) prevent the consumption of alcoholic liquor otherwise than for medicinal and, in the case of non-Muslims, religious purposes; and

...

Article 38. Promotion of social and economic well-being of the people.

The state shall---

(a) secure the well-being of the people, irrespective of ... caste, creed ..., by raising their standard of living ... [and procuring economic justice]

...

(d) provide [social services] irrespective of ... caste, creed ...

...

Article 40. Strengthening bonds with Muslim world and promoting international peace.

The State shall endeavour to preserve and strengthen fraternal relations among Muslim countries based on Islamic unity ...

Article 41. The President.

...

(2) A person shall not be qualified for election as President unless he is a Muslim ...

Article 51. National Assembly.

(1) There shall be three hundred and forty-two seats for members in the National Assembly, including seats reserved for ... non-Muslims.

...

(4) In addition to the number of seats referred to in clause (3) [allocated by province], there shall be, in the National Assembly, ten seats reserved for non-Muslims.

...

(6) For the purpose of election to the National Assembly,---

...

(c) the constituency for all seats reserved for non-Muslims shall be the whole country;

...

(e) members to the seats reserved for non-Muslims shall be elected in accordance with law through proportional representation system of political parties' lists of candidates on the basis of total number of general seats won by each political party in the National Assembly:

Provided that for the purpose of this paragraph the total number of general seats won by a political party shall include the independent returned candidate or candidates who may duly join such political party within three days of the publication in the official Gazette of the names of the returned candidates.

Article 59. The Senate.

(1) The Senate shall consist of one hundred and four members, of whom,---

...

(e) four technocrats including ulema shall be elected by the members of each Provincial Assembly; and

(f) four non-Muslims, one from each Province, shall be elected by the members of each Provincial Assembly:

Provided that paragraph (f) shall be effective from the next Senate election after the commencement of the Constitution (Eighteenth Amendment) Act, 2010.

...

Article 62. Qualifications for membership of Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament).

(1) A person shall not be qualified to be elected or chosen as a member of Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament) unless---

...

(b) ... (i) ... or a seat reserved for non-Muslims; ...

...

...

(d) he is of good character and is not commonly known as one who violates Islamic Injunctions;

(e) he has adequate knowledge of Islamic teachings and practices obligatory duties prescribed by Islam as well as abstains from major sins;

(f) he is sagacious, righteous, non-profligate, honest and ameen, there being no declaration to the contrary by a court of law; and

...

(2) The disqualifications specified in paragraphs (d) and (e) shall not apply to a person who is a non-Muslim, but such a person shall have good moral reputation.

Article 91. The Cabinet.

...

(3) After the election of the Speaker and the Deputy Speaker, the National Assembly shall, to the exclusion of any other business, proceed to elect without debate one of its Muslim members to be the Prime Minister.

Article 106. Constitution of Provincial Assemblies.

(1) Each Provincial Assembly shall consist of general seats and seats reserved for ... non-Muslims as specified herein below: [here follows allocation of seats]

...

(3) For the purpose of election to a Provincial Assembly,---

...

(b) each Province shall be a single constituency for all seats reserved for ... non-Muslims allocated to the respective Provinces under clause (1);

(c) The members to fill seats reserved for ... non-Muslims allocated to a Province under clause (1) shall be elected in accordance with law through proportional representation system of political parties' lists of candidates on the basis of the total number of general seats secured by each political party in the Provincial Assembly:

Provided that for the purpose of this sub-clause, the total number of general seats won by a political party shall include the independent returned candidate or candidates who may duly join such political party within three days of the publication in the official Gazette of the names of the returned candidates.

Article 175. Establishment and jurisdiction of courts.

...

(3) The Judiciary shall be separated progressively from the Executive within fourteen years from the commencing day:

Provided that the provisions of this Article shall have no application to the trial of persons ... who claim, or are known, to belong to any terrorist group or organization using the name of religion or a sect.

Explanation:--- In this proviso, the expression "sect" means a sect of religion and does not include any religious ... party regulated under the Political Parties Order, 2002.

Article 175A. Appointment of Judges to ... the Federal Shariat Court.

(1) There shall be a Judicial Commission of Pakistan, hereinafter in this Article referred to as the Commission, for appointment of Judges of ... the Federal Shariat Court, as hereinafter provided.

[Clause 2 specifies the composition of the Commission for Supreme Court appointments]

...

(7) For appointment of Judges of the Federal Shariat Court, the Commission in clause (2) shall also include the Chief Justice of the Federal Shariat Court and the most senior Judge of that Court as its members:

Provided that for appointment of Chief Justice of Federal Shariat Court, the provisos, to clause (5) [on appointments to High Courts] shall, mutatis mutandis, apply.

(8) The Commission by majority of its total membership shall nominate to the Parliamentary Committee one person, for each vacancy of a Judge in ... the Federal Shariat Court ...

Article 203B. Definitions [concerning Federal Shariat Court]

In this Chapter, unless there is anything repugnant in the subject or context,---

...

(c) "law" includes any custom or usage having the force of law but does not include the Constitution, Muslim personal law, any law relating to the procedure of any court or tribunal or, until the expiration of ten years from the commencement of this Chapter, any fiscal law or any law relating to the levy and collection of taxes and fees or banking or insurance practice and procedure.

Article 203C. The Federal Shariat Court.

(1) There shall be constituted for the purposes of this Chapter a Court to be called the Federal Shariat Court.

(2) The Court shall consist of not more than eight Muslim Judges, including the Chief Justice, to be appointed by the President in accordance with Article 175A.

(3) The Chief Justice shall be a person who is, or has been, or is qualified to be, a Judge of the Supreme Court or who is or has been a permanent Judge of a High Court.

(3A) Of the Judges, not more than four shall be persons each one of whom is, or has been, or is qualified to be, a Judge of a High Court and not more than three shall be Ulema having at least fifteen years experience in Islamic law, research or instruction.

...

Article 203D. Powers, jurisdiction and functions of the [Federal Shariat] Court.

(1) The Court may, either of its own motion or on the petition of a citizen of Pakistan or the Federal Government or a Provincial Government, examine and decide the question whether or not any law or provision of law is repugnant to the Injunctions of Islam, as laid down in the Holy Quran and the Sunnah of the Holy Prophet, hereinafter referred to as the Injunctions of Islam.

(1A) Where the Court takes up the examination of any law or provision of law under clause (1) and such law or provision of law appears to it to be repugnant to the Injunctions of Islam, the Court shall cause to be given to the Federal Government in the case of a law with respect to a matter in the Federal Legislative List or to the Provincial Government in the case of a law with respect to a matter not enumerated in the Federal Legislative List, a notice specifying the particular provisions that appear to it to be so repugnant, and afford to such Government adequate opportunity to have its point of view placed before the Court.

(2) If the Court decides that any law or provision of law is repugnant to the Injunctions of Islam, it shall set out in its decision---

(a) the reasons for its holding that opinion; and

(b) the extent to which such law or provision is so repugnant; and specify the day on which the decision shall take effect:

Provided that no such decision shall be deemed to take effect before the expiration of the period within which an appeal therefrom may be preferred to the Supreme Court or, where an appeal has been so preferred, before the disposal of such appeal.

(3) If any law or provision of law is held by the Court to be repugnant to the Injunctions of Islam,---

(a) the President in the case of a law with respect to a matter in the Federal Legislative List or the Governor in the case of a law with respect to a matter not enumerated in said List shall take steps to amend the law so as to bring such law or provision into conformity with the Injunctions of Islam; and

(b) such law or provision shall, to the extent to which it is held to be so repugnant, cease to have effect on the day on which the decision of the Court takes effect.

Article 203DD. Revisional and other jurisdiction of the [Federal Shariat] Court.

(1) The Court may call for and examine the record of any case decided by any criminal court under any law relating to the enforcement of Hudood for the purpose of satisfying itself as to the correctness, legality or propriety of any finding, sentence or order recorded or passed by, and as to the regularity of any proceedings of, such court and may, when calling for such record, direct that the execution of any sentence be suspended and, if the accused is in confinement, that he be released on bail or on his own bond pending the examination of the record.

(2) In any case the record of which has been called for by the Court, the Court may pass such order as it may deem fit and may enhance the sentence:

Provided that nothing in this Article shall be deemed to authorise the Court to convert a finding of acquittal into one of conviction and no order under this Article shall be made to the prejudice of the accused unless he has had an opportunity of being heard in his own defence.

(3) The Court shall have such other jurisdiction as may be conferred on it by or under any law.

Article 203E. Powers and procedure of the [Federal Shariat] Court.

(1) For the purposes of the performance of its functions, the Court shall have the powers of a Civil Court trying a suit under the Code of Civil Procedure, 1908 (Act V of 1908), in respect of the following matters, namely: [here follow enumerated powers incident to appearance, discovery, etc.]

...

(4) A party to any proceedings before the Court under clause (1) of Article 203D may be represented by a legal practitioner who is a Muslim and has been enrolled as an advocate of a High Court for a period of not less than five years or as an advocate of the Supreme Court or by a jurisconsult selected by the party from out of a panel of jurisconsults maintained by the Court for the purpose.

(5) For being eligible to have his name borne on the panel of jurisconsults referred to in clause (4), a person shall be an aalim who, in the opinion of the Court, is well-versed in Shariat.

(6) A legal practitioner or jurisconsult representing a party before the Court shall not plead for the party but shall state, expound and interpret the Injunctions of Islam relevant to the proceedings so far as may be known to him and submit to the Court a written statement of his interpretation of such Injunctions of Islam.

(7) The Court may invite any person in Pakistan or abroad whom the Court considers to be well-versed in Islamic law to appear before it and render such assistance as may be required of him.

...

Article 203F. Appeal to Supreme Court.

(1) Any party to any proceedings before the [Federal Shariat] Court under Article 203D aggrieved by the final decision of the [Federal Shariat] Court in such proceedings may, within sixty days of such decision, prefer an appeal to the Supreme Court:

Provided that an appeal on behalf of the Federation or of a Province may be preferred within six months of such decision.

(2) The provisions of clauses (2) and (3) of Article 203D and clauses (4) to (8) of Article 203E shall apply to and in relation to the Supreme Court as if reference in those provisions to [the Federal Shariat] Court were a reference to the Supreme Court.

(2A) An appeal shall lie to the Supreme Court from any judgment, final order or sentence of the Federal Shariat Court---

(a) if the Federal Shariat Court has on appeal reversed an order of acquittal of an accused person and sentenced him to death or imprisonment for life or imprisonment for a term exceeding fourteen years; or, on revision, has enhanced a sentence as aforesaid; or

(b) if the Federal Shariat Court has imposed any punishment on any person for contempt of the Court.

(2B) An appeal to the Supreme Court from a judgment, decision, order or sentence of the Federal Shariat Court in a case to which the preceding clauses do not apply shall lie only if the Supreme Court grants leave to appeal.

(3) For the purpose of the exercise of the jurisdiction conferred by this Article, there shall be constituted in the Supreme Court a Bench to be called the Shariat Appellate Bench and consisting of---

(a) three Muslim Judges of the Supreme Court; and

(b) not more than two Ulema to be appointed by the President to attend sittings of the Bench as ad hoc members thereof from amongst the Judges of the Federal Shariat Court or from out of a panel of Ulema to be drawn up by the President in consultation with the Chief Justice.

(4) A person appointed under paragraph (b) of clause (3) shall hold office for such period as the President may determine.

(5) Reference in clauses (1) and (2) to "Supreme Court" shall be construed as a reference to the Shariat Appellate Bench.

...

Article 203G. Bar of jurisdiction.

Save as provided in Article 203F, no court or tribunal, including the Supreme Court and a High Court, shall entertain any proceedings or exercise any power or jurisdiction in respect of any matter within the power or jurisdiction of the [Federal Shariat] Court.

Article 203GG. Decision of [Federal Shariat] Court binding on High Court and courts subordinate to it.

Subject to Articles 203D and 203F, any decision of the [Federal Shariat] Court in the exercise of its jurisdiction under this Chapter shall be binding on a High Court and on all courts subordinate to a High Court.

Article 203H. Pending proceedings [in Federal Shariat Court] to continue, etc.

(1) Subject to clause (2) nothing in this Chapter shall be deemed to require any proceedings pending in any court or tribunal immediately before the commencement of this Chapter or initiated after such commencement, to be adjourned or stayed by reason only of a petition having been made to the [Federal Shariat] Court for a decision as to whether or not a law or provision of law relevant to the decision of the point in issue in such proceedings is repugnant to the Injunctions of Islam; and all such proceedings shall continue, and the point in issue therein shall be decided, in accordance with the law for the time being in force.

(2) All proceedings under clause (1) of Article 203B of the Constitution that may be pending before any High Court immediately before the commencement of this Chapter shall stand transferred to the [Federal Shariat] Court and shall be dealt with by the [Federal Shariat] Court from the stage from which they are so transferred.

(3) Neither the [Federal Shariat] Court nor the Supreme Court shall in the exercise of its jurisdiction under this Chapter have power to grant an injunction or make any interim order in relation to any proceedings pending in any other court or tribunal.

Article 203J. Power to make rules.

[Pertaining to rules of the Federal Shariat Court]

...

(3) Until rules are made under clause (1), the Shariat Benches of Superior Courts Rules, 1979, shall, with the necessary modifications and so far as they are not inconsistent with the provisions of this Chapter, continue in force.

Article 207. Judge not to hold office of profit, etc.

...

(2) A person who has held office as a Judge of the Supreme Court or of a High Court shall not hold any office of profit in the service of Pakistan, not being ... member of the Council of Islamic Ideology, before the expiration of two years after he has ceased to hold that office.

...

Article 208. Officers and servants of Courts.

The ... Federal Shariat Court, with the approval of the President and a High Court, with the approval of the Governor concerned, may make rules providing for the appointment by the Court of officers and servants of the Court and for their terms and conditions of employment.

Article 224. Time of Election and bye-election.

...

(6) When a seat reserved for ... non-Muslims in the National Assembly or a Provincial Assembly falls vacant, on account of death, resignation or disqualification of a member, it shall be filled by the next person in order of precedence from the party list of the candidates to be submitted to the Election Commission by the political party whose member has vacated such seat.

Provided that if at any time the party list is exhausted, the concerned political party may submit a name for any vacancy which may occur thereafter.

Article 227. Provisions relating to the Holy Quran and Sunnah.

(1) All existing laws shall be brought in conformity with the Injunctions of Islam as laid down in the Holy Quran and Sunnah, in this part referred to as the Injunctions of Islam, and no law shall be enacted which is repugnant to such Injunctions.

Explanation.--- In the application of this clause to the personal law of any Muslim sect, the expression "Quran and Sunnah" shall mean the Quran and Sunnah as interpreted by the sect.

(2) Effect shall be given to the provisions of clause (1) only in the manner provided in this Part.

(3) Nothing in this Part shall affect the personal laws of non-Muslim citizens or their status as citizens.

Article 228. Composition, etc., of Islamic Council.

(1) There shall be, constituted within a period of ninety days from the commencing day a Council of Islamic Ideology, in this part referred to as the Islamic Council.

(2) The Islamic Council shall consist of such members, being not less than eight and not more than twenty as the President may appoint from amongst persons having knowledge of the principles and philosophy of Islam as enunciated in the Holy Quran and Sunnah, or understanding of the economic, political, legal or administrative problems of Pakistan.

(3) While appointing members of the Islamic Council, the President shall ensure that---

(a) so far as practicable various schools of thought are represented in the Council;

(b) not less than two of the members are persons each of whom is, or has been a Judge of the Supreme Court or of a High Court;

(c) not less than one third of the members are persons each of whom has been engaged, for a period of not less than fifteen years, in Islamic research or instruction; and

(d) at least one member is a woman.

(4) The President shall appoint one of the members of the Islamic Council to be the Chairman thereof.

(5) Subject to clause (6), a member of the Islamic Council shall hold office for a period of three years.

(6) A member may, by writing under his hand addressed to the President, resign his office or may be removed by the President upon the passing of a resolution for his removal by a majority of the total membership of the Islamic Council.

Article 229. Reference by Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament), etc., to Islamic Council.

The President or the Governor of a Province may, or if two-fifths of its total membership so requires, a House or a Provincial Assembly shall, refer to the Islamic Council for advice on any question as to whether a proposed law is or is not repugnant to the Injunctions of Islam.

Article 230. Functions of the Islamic Council.

(1) The functions of the Islamic Council shall be---

(a) to make recommendations to Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament) and the Provincial Assemblies as to the ways and means of enabling and encouraging the Muslims of Pakistan to order their lives individually and collectively in all respects in accordance with the principles and concepts of Islam as enunciated in the Holy Quran and Sunnah;

(b) to advise a House, a Provincial Assembly, the President or a Governor on any question referred to the Council as to whether [sic] proposed law is or is not repugnant to the Injunctions of Islam;

(c) to make recommendations as to the measures for bringing existing laws into conformity with the Injunctions of Islam and the stages by which such measures should be brought into effect; and

(d) to compile in a suitable form, for the guidance of Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament) and the Provincial Assemblies, such Injunctions of Islam as can be given legislative effect.

(2) When, under Article 299, a question is referred by a House, a Provincial Assembly, the President or a Governor to the Islamic Council, the Council shall, within fifteen days thereof, inform the House, the Assembly, the President or the Governor, as the case may be, of the period within which the Council expects to be able to furnish that advice.

(3) Where a House, a Provincial Assembly, the President or the Governor, as the case may be, considers that, in the public interest, the making of the proposed law in relation to which the question arose should not be postponed until the advice of the Islamic Council is furnished, the law may be made before the advice is furnished:

Provided that, where a law is referred for advice to the Islamic Council and the Council advises that the law is repugnant to the Injunctions of Islam, the House or, as the case may be, the Provincial Assembly, the President or the Governor shall reconsider the law so made.

(4) The Islamic Council shall submit its final report within seven years of its appointment, and shall submit an annual interim report. The report, whether interim or final, shall be laid for discussion before both Houses and each Provincial Assembly within six months of its receipt, and Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament) and the Assembly, after considering the report, shall enact laws in respect thereof within a period of two years of the final report.

Article 231. Rules of procedure [of the Islamic Council].

The proceedings of the Islamic Council shall be regulated by rules of procedure to be made by the Council with approval of the President.

Article 260. Definitions.

...

(3) In the Constitution and all enactments and other legal instruments, unless there is anything repugnant in the subject or context,---

(a) "Muslim" means a person who believes in the unity and oneness of Almighty Allah, in the absolute and unqualified finality of the Prophethood of Muhammad (peace be upon him), the last of the prophets, and does not believe in, or recognize as a prophet or religious reformer, any person who claimed or claims to be a prophet, in any sense of the word or of any description whatsoever, after Muhammad (peace be upon him); and

(b) "non-Muslim" means a person who is not a Muslim and includes a person belonging to the Christian, Hindu, Sikh, Budhist or Parsi community, a person of the Quadiani group or the Lahori group (who call themselves ‘Ahmadis’ or by any other name), or a Bahai, and a person belonging to any of the scheduled castes.

Article 270AA. Declaration and continuance of laws etc.

...

(3) Notwithstanding anything contained in the Constitution or clause (1), or judgement of any court including the Supreme Court or High Court,---

(a) Judges of the ... Federal Shariat Court who were holding the office of a Judge or were appointed as such, and had taken oath under the Oath of Office (Judges) Order, 2000 (1 of 2000), shall be deemed to have continued to hold the office as a Judge or to have been appointed as such, as the case may be, under the Constitution, and such continuance or appointment, shall have effect accordingly.

(b) Judges of the ... Federal Shariat Court who not having been given or taken oath under the Oath of Office of (Judges) Order, 2000 (1 of 2000), and ceased to hold the office of a Judge shall, for the purposes of pensionary benefits only, be deemed to have continued to hold office under the Constitution till their date of superannuation.

ANNEX: The Objectives Resolution (Article 2A)

In the name of Allah, the most beneficent, the most merciful.

[The rest of the religious clauses in the Preamble are reproduced verbatim in this Annex.]


Sources

1.  The Religious Characteristics of States Dataset Project: Government Religious Preference (GRP) measures government-level favoritism toward, and disfavor against, 30 religious denominations. A series of ordered categorical variables index the state's institutional favoritism in 28 different ways. The variables are combined to form five composite indices for five broad components of state-religion: official status, religious education, financial support, regulatory burdens, and freedom of practice. The five components' composites in turn are further combined into a single composite score, the GRP score. The RCS Data Project would like to acknowledge, recognize, and express our deepest gratitude for the significant contributions of Todd M. Johnson, the principal investigator of the World Christian Database, the co-principal investigator of the World Religion Database, and co-author of the World Christian Encyclopedia series.

2.  The Religious Characteristics of States Dataset Project: Demographics reports annual estimates of religious demographics, both country by country and region by region. It estimates populations and percentages of adherents of 100 religious denominations including second level subdivisions within Christianity and Islam. The RCS Data Project would like to acknowledge, recognize, and express our deepest gratitude for the significant contributions of Todd M. Johnson, the principal investigator of the World Christian Database, the co-principal investigator of the World Religion Database, and co-author of the World Christian Encyclopedia series.

3.  Text from country constitutions was copied from primary documents obtained online using a variety of sources, including the Constitute Project, World Constitutions Illustrated, and government sources. When the text was in a language other than English, it was translated to English by ARDA staff or with web-based translation utilities such as Google Translate. Emphases were added to the text by ARDA staff to differentiate religious content from non-religious content. Text is current to the date listed in the "Current as of" field shown above. Please contact us at support@thearda.com if you are aware of any incorrect information provided on this page.

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