Panama
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  Preferred Religion (2015)1: Catholic

  Majority Religion (2015)2: Catholic (59.4%)

Features Of Constitution

Is there a constitution?3 yes
Does the constitution state an official religion?3 recognition only [Article 35]
Does the constitution provide for freedom of religion?3 yes [Article 35]
Does the constitution protect religious equality/non-discrimination?3 yes [Article 19]

Constitution

Constitution Year3 1972
Last Amended3 2004
Source3 Constitute Project;
Translation3 Source is an English translation.
Current as of3 July 17, 2018

Constitution Excerpts (clauses that reference religion)3

Preamble

... invoking the protection of God, ...

Article 19.

There shall be no public or private privileges, or discrimination, by reason of ... religion ...

Article 35.

All religions may be professed and all forms of worship practiced freely, without any other limitation than respect for Christian morality and public order. It is recognized that the Catholic religion is practiced by the majority of Panamanians.

Article 36.

Religious organizations have juridical capacity and manage and administer their property within the limits prescribed by law, the same as other juridical persons.

Article 45.

Ministers of religious faiths and members of religious orders, aside from the performance of duties inherent to their missions, may hold public posts only when such are positions related to social welfare, public education, or scientific research.

Article 67.

A like wage or salary shall always be paid for like work under identical conditions, irrespective of the person who performs it, without taking into account ... religious ideologies.

Article 90.

The State recognizes and respects the ethnic identity of national indigenous communities, and shall establish programs to develop the ... spiritual values of each of their cultures.

Article 94.

...

Educational institutions, whether public or private, are open to all students without distinction of ... religion ...

...

Article 107.

The Catholic religion shall be taught in public schools, but, upon the requests of parents or guardians, certain students shall not be obliged to attend religion classes, nor to participate in religious services.

Article 139.

It is unlawful to form political parties based on ... religion ...

Article 181.

...

A citizen who professes no religious belief may dispense with the invocation to God in the oath.

Article 300.

Public Employees shall be of Panamanian nationality, without discrimination for reasons of ... religion ...


Sources

1.  The Religious Characteristics of States Dataset Project: Government Religious Preference (GRP) measures government-level favoritism toward, and disfavor against, 30 religious denominations. A series of ordered categorical variables index the state's institutional favoritism in 28 different ways. The variables are combined to form five composite indices for five broad components of state-religion: official status, religious education, financial support, regulatory burdens, and freedom of practice. The five components' composites in turn are further combined into a single composite score, the GRP score. The RCS Data Project would like to acknowledge, recognize, and express our deepest gratitude for the significant contributions of Todd M. Johnson, the principal investigator of the World Christian Database, the co-principal investigator of the World Religion Database, and co-author of the World Christian Encyclopedia series.

2.  The Religious Characteristics of States Dataset Project: Demographics reports annual estimates of religious demographics, both country by country and region by region. It estimates populations and percentages of adherents of 100 religious denominations including second level subdivisions within Christianity and Islam. The RCS Data Project would like to acknowledge, recognize, and express our deepest gratitude for the significant contributions of Todd M. Johnson, the principal investigator of the World Christian Database, the co-principal investigator of the World Religion Database, and co-author of the World Christian Encyclopedia series.

3.  Text from country constitutions was copied from primary documents obtained online using a variety of sources, including the Constitute Project, World Constitutions Illustrated, and government sources. When the text was in a language other than English, it was translated to English by ARDA staff or with web-based translation utilities such as Google Translate. Emphases were added to the text by ARDA staff to differentiate religious content from non-religious content. Text is current to the date listed in the "Current as of" field shown above. Please contact us at support@thearda.com if you are aware of any incorrect information provided on this page.

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