Togo
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Features of Constitution1

Is there a constitution? Yes
Does the constitution provide for freedom of religion? Yes

Constitution2

Constitution Year 1992
Last Amended As of 5/11/2011, last amendment was in 2005
Source UNHCR Refworld
Translation Unofficial translation by ARDA staff from French source
Current as of 2004 (later amendment not included)

Constitution Excerpts (clauses that reference religion)2

Preamble

We, the Togolese people, placed under the protection of God,�


Article 1

The Togolese Republic is a state based on the rule of law, and is secular, democratic and social. It is one and indivisible.


Article 2

The Togolese Republic guarantees equality before the law for all citizens regardless of origin, race, sex, social status or religion. It respects all political and philosophical opinions as well as all religious beliefs.


Article 7

Political parties and groups of political parties must respect the Constitution.
They cannot identify with a region, ethnic group or religion.


Article 11

All human beings are equal in their dignity and rights.
Men and women are equal before the law.
No person shall be favored or disadvantaged because of his family background, ethnic or regional origin, economic or social situation, or his political, religious, philosophical or other beliefs.


Article 25

Everyone has the right to freedom of thought, conscience, religion, worship, opinion and expression. The exercise of these rights and freedoms complies with the freedoms of others, public order and standards established by the law and regulations.
The organization and practice of religious beliefs takes place in compliance with the law. The same is true for philosophical orders.
Worship and the expression of beliefs is in compliance with the secularity of the state.
Religious confessions have the right to organize and practice freely in accordance with the law.


Article 30

The state recognizes and guarantees the conditions fixed by law, the exercise of the freedoms of association, assembly, and peaceful, unarmed demonstration.
The state recognizes religious and secular private schools.


Article 64

Before taking office, the President of the Republic takes an oath before the Constitutional Court, meeting in solemn audience, in these terms:
"Before God and the Togolese people, the sole holder of popular sovereignty,
We ......., elected as President of the Republic in accordance with the laws of the Republic, do solemnly swear:
- to respect and defend the Constitution that the People of Togo have given freely;
- to loyally fulfill the high office that the nation has entrusted to us;
- to let ourselves be guided by the general interest and the respect for human rights, to devote all our energies to the promotion of development, the common good, peace and national unity;
- to preserve the integrity of the national territory;
- to lead us in all, as a faithful and loyal servant of the people."


Article 144

Initiative to revise the Constitution belongs concurrently to the President of the Republic and at least one-fifth of the members of the National Assembly.
The draft or proposed revision is considered as adopted if approve by a majority of four-fifths of the members of the National Assembly.
Failing such a majority, the draft or proposed revision adopted by a majority of two-thirds of the members of the National Assembly shall be submitted to a referendum.
The President of the Republic may submit any constitutional bill to a referendum.
No procedure for review may begin or be continued during an interim period, a vacancy, or when the integrity of the territory has been violated.
The republican form and secularity of the state cannot be subject to revision.

Sources

1.  Data under the "Features of Constitution" heading are drawn from coding of the U.S. State Department's 2008 International Religious Freedom Reports conducted by researchers at the Association of Religion Data Archives. The article by Brian Grim and Roger Finke describes the coding of the International Religious Freedom reports. A dataset with these and the other international measures highlighted on the country pages can be downloaded from this website. Used with permission.

2.  The constitutional excerpts shown above are reproduced from the websites given in the "Source" field; the links to these websites were active as of May 2011. Where the constitutional text shown on these websites was provided in a language other than English, this text was translated to English by ARDA staff with assistance from web-based translation utilities such as Google Translate and Yahoo! Babel Fish. Constitutional text was converted to American English where applicable. Constitutional clauses were judged to contain religious content based largely on the standards used in the construction of the Religion and State Constitutions Dataset collected by Jonathan Fox. Emphases were added to the text by ARDA staff to highlight religious content in articles that also contain content that does not pertain to matters of religion. The data on this page were correct to the best of the knowledge of the ARDA as of the date listed in the "Current as of" field shown above. Please contact us at arda@pop.psu.edu if you are aware of any incorrect information provided on this page.