Chad
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Features of Constitution1

Is there a constitution? Yes
Does the constitution provide for freedom of religion? Yes

Constitution2

Constitution Year 1996
Last Amended 2005
Source European Commission Election Observation Missions
Translation Unofficial translation by ARDA staff from French source
Current as of May 11, 2011

Constitution Excerpts (clauses that reference religion)2

Preamble

�Accordingly, we, the People of Chad:
Hereby affirm by this Constitution our will to live together with respect for ethnic, religious, regional and cultural diversity; to build a state governed by the rule of law and a united nation founded on public liberties and fundamental human rights, the dignity of the human person, political pluralism, and the African values of solidarity and brotherhood;
...Declare our total opposition to any regime whose policies would be based on Affirm our total opposition to any regime whose policies would be founded on arbitrariness, dictatorship, injustice, corruption, bribery, nepotism, tribalism, sectarianism and the seizure of power;


Article 1

The Republic of Chad is sovereign, independent, secular, social, and indivisible, and is founded on the principles of democracy, the rule of law and justice.
It affirms the separation of religion and state..


Article 5

All propaganda of an ethnic, tribalist, regionalist or religious character that tends to undermine national unity or the secularity of the state is prohibited.


Article 14

The state assures equality before the law to all without distinction of origin, race, sex, religion, political opinion, or social position.
It has the duty to ensure the elimination of all forms of discrimination against women and also to ensure the protection of their rights in all spheres of private and public life.


Article 27

The freedoms of opinion and of expression, communication, conscience, religion, the press, of association, assembly, movement, demonstration and procession are guaranteed to all.
These freedoms may be limited with respect to the rights of others and the imperative to safeguard public order and morality.
The law determines the conditions of their exercise.


Article 32

The state recognizes all citizens� right to work.
It guarantees fair compensation to each worker for his services or his productivity.
No one may be discriminated against in their occupation because of their origins, opinions, creed, sex or marital status.


Article 35

Every citizen has the right to education.
Public education is secular and free.
Private education is recognized and is exercised under the conditions defined by law.
Basic education is compulsory.


Article 54

No one may invoke their religious beliefs or their philosophical opinions in order to avoid an obligation required by the national interest.


Article 173

The High Court of Justice is competent to judge the President of the Republic and members of the government as well as their accomplices in cases of high treason.
Acts detrimental to the republican form of government, to the unity and the secularity of the state, and the sovereignty, independence and integrity of the national territory constitute crimes of high treason.
...


Article 223

No [constitutional] amendment procedure may be initiated or continued if it affects:
- territorial integrity, the independence or the unity of the nation;
- the republican form of government, the principle of separation of powers, and the secularity of the state;
- the freedoms and fundamental rights of citizens;
- political pluralism

Sources

1.  Data under the "Features of Constitution" heading are drawn from coding of the U.S. State Department's 2008 International Religious Freedom Reports conducted by researchers at the Association of Religion Data Archives. The article by Brian Grim and Roger Finke describes the coding of the International Religious Freedom reports. A dataset with these and the other international measures highlighted on the country pages can be downloaded from this website. Used with permission.

2.  The constitutional excerpts shown above are reproduced from the websites given in the "Source" field; the links to these websites were active as of May 2011. Where the constitutional text shown on these websites was provided in a language other than English, this text was translated to English by ARDA staff with assistance from web-based translation utilities such as Google Translate and Yahoo! Babel Fish. Constitutional text was converted to American English where applicable. Constitutional clauses were judged to contain religious content based largely on the standards used in the construction of the Religion and State Constitutions Dataset collected by Jonathan Fox. Emphases were added to the text by ARDA staff to highlight religious content in articles that also contain content that does not pertain to matters of religion. The data on this page were correct to the best of the knowledge of the ARDA as of the date listed in the "Current as of" field shown above. Please contact us at arda@pop.psu.edu if you are aware of any incorrect information provided on this page.