National Profiles > Regions > Northern Europe > Finland
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  Preferred Religion (2015)1: Protestant

  Majority Religion (2015)2: Protestant (incl. Anglican, Pentecostal) (73.7%)

Religious Adherents, (2015)2

Finland Northern Europe World
Christian (all denominations combined) 76.2% 65.4% 29.9%
  • Protestant
  • 71.5% 23.2% 5.6%
  • Pentecostal
  • 2.1% 1.7% 2.8%
  • Orthodox
  • 1.1% 1.7% 3%
  • Catholic
  • 0.2% 12.4% 15%
  • Other and Unknown Christian
  • 1.3% 1.9% 2.3%
    Muslim (all denominations combined) 1% 4.1% 22.8%
  • Sunni Muslim
  • 0.6% 3.6% 19%
  • Shia Muslim
  • 0.1% 0.5% 3.4%
  • Other and Unknown Muslim
  • 0.3% < 0.1% 0.3%
    Buddhist (all denominations combined) 0.1% 0.4% 6.6%
    Other Religionist 0.2% 0.3% 0.2%
    Not Religious (incl. Atheist) 22.4% 25.8% 12%

    Religious Demography3

    The country has an area of 130,127 square miles and a population of 5.3 million. Approximately 83 percent of the population belongs to the Evangelical Lutheran Church (ELC) and 1 percent to the Orthodox Church. There are seven Roman Catholic congregations with an estimated 8,000 registered members, and two Jewish congregations with approximately 1,500 members.

    Pentecostal church communities registered as associations have an estimated 45,000 members. Only a fraction of Pentecostal churches are registered, however, and the actual number of Pentecostal worshippers is higher.

    There are approximately 30,000 Muslims, compared with 1,000 a dozen years ago. Their numbers continue to grow due to immigration and a high birthrate. Of these, approximately 20,000 are Sunni and 10,000 are Shiite. The largest group is Somali; there are also communities of North Africans, Bosnians, peninsula Arabs, Tartars, Turks, and Iraqis. There are four major Muslim organizations: the Muslim Community in Finland, the Tampere Muslim Community, Shi'a Muslims, and the Multicultural Dawa Center of Islam.

    Membership in other nonstate religious groups totals approximately 60,000. An estimated 10 percent of the population does not belong to any religious group.

    The rapid modernization of society has modified attitudes toward religion. Society has become more secular, political and social philosophy has diverged from religious philosophy, and religious belief has largely become a private matter. Research indicates, however, that most citizens still consider religion and spirituality very significant in their lives. Despite the small number of persons who attend church services regularly, citizens have a high regard for the church and its activities, consider their membership important, and still value church ceremonies. Most citizens are baptized and married in the church, confirmation classes are common, and most citizens choose religious burial services.

    In the past several decades, as many as 400,000 have left the ELC. Reports estimated that 40,000 left the ELC during the reporting period, approximately the same number as in the previous year. Separation from the Church has risen markedly since implementation of the Religious Freedom Act of 2003, which made separation much easier. The rate of separation is much higher among younger citizens; in October 2006 a "youth barometer" poll found that two-thirds of citizens ages 15 to 29 believed in God, but only 40 percent regarded themselves as religious.

    Catholics, Muslims, and Jews, as well as "nontraditional" religious groups, freely professed and propagated their beliefs. Such groups as Jehovah's Witnesses and the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (Mormons) have been active for decades.


    1.  The Religious Characteristics of States Dataset Project: Government Religious Preference (GRP) measures government-level favoritism toward, and disfavor against, 30 religious denominations. A series of ordered categorical variables index the state's institutional favoritism in 28 different ways. The variables are combined to form five composite indices for five broad components of state-religion: official status, religious education, financial support, regulatory burdens, and freedom of practice. The five components' composites in turn are further combined into a single composite score, the GRP score. The RCS Data Project would like to acknowledge, recognize, and express our deepest gratitude for the significant contributions of Todd M. Johnson the principal investigator of the World Christian Database and the co-principal investigator of the World Religion Database.

    2.  The Religious Characteristics of States Dataset Project: Demographics reports the estimates of religious demographics, both country by country and region by region. The RCS was created to fulfill the unmet need for a dataset on the religious dimensions of countries of the world, with the state-year as the unit of observation. It estimates populations and percentages of adherents of 100 religious denominations including second level subdivision within Christianity and Islam. The RCS Data Project would like to acknowledge, recognize, and express our deepest gratitude for the significant contributions of Todd M. Johnson the principal investigator of the World Christian Database and the co-principal investigator of the World Religion Database.

    3.  The U.S. State Department's International Religious Freedom Report is submitted to Congress annually by the Department of State in compliance with Section 102(b) of the International Religious Freedom Act (IRFA) of 1998. This report supplements the most recent Human Rights Reports by providing additional detailed information with respect to matters involving international religious freedom. It includes individual country chapters on the status of religious freedom worldwide. A dataset with these and the other international measures highlighted on the country pages can be downloaded from this website. These State Department reports are open source.

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