Questions/Variables on Surveys
  • V37 from International Social Survey Programme 2008: Religion III
    Q18c. Do you believe in: Hell?

    1) Yes, definitely
    2) Yes, probably
    3) No, probably not
    4) No, definitely not
    8) Can't choose
    9) No answer

  • Q23C from Baylor Religion Survey, Wave III (2010)
    In your opinion, does each of the following exist? Hell.

    1) Absolutely not
    2) Probably not
    3) Probably
    4) Absolutely

  • Q23C from Baylor Religion Survey, Wave IV (2014)
    In your opinion, does each of the following exist? Hell

    1) Absolutely not
    2) Probably not
    3) Probably
    4) Absolutely

  • HELL from Baylor Religion Survey, Wave II (2007)
    Q23c. In your opinion, does each of the following exist? Hell

    1) Absolutely not
    2) Probably not
    3) Probably
    4) Absolutely

  • HELL from Baylor Religion Survey, Wave II (2007) - Instructional Dataset
    Q23c. In your opinion, does each of the following exist? Hell

    1) Absolutely not
    2) Probably not
    3) Probably
    4) Absolutely

  • RA_12W1 from Portraits of American Life Study, Merged Dataset, 2006-2012
    [Wave 1] I believe there is a Hell where people experience pain as punishment for their sin.

    -7) Refused
    -4) Don't know
    1) Strongly agree
    2) Somewhat agree
    3) Neither agree nor disagree
    4) Somewhat disagree
    5) Strongly disagree

  • RA_12 from Portraits of American Life Study, Merged Dataset, 2006-2012
    [Wave 2] I believe there is a Hell where people experience pain as punishment for their sin

    1) Strongly agree
    2) Somewhat agree
    3) Neither agree nor disagree
    4) Somewhat disagree
    5) Strongly disagree

  • V149 from World Values Survey, 2010
    Do you believe in hell?

    -5) DE, SE: Inapplicable; RU: Inappropriate response; SG: Refused;
    -4) Not asked in survey
    -2) No answer
    -1) Don't know
    1) Yes
    2) No

  • ROT6_1_5 from Faith Matters Survey, 2006
    Question order: 6_1_05 (ROT6_1_05)

    1) Horoscopes
    4) Hell
    5) God

  • ROT6_1_3 from Faith Matters Survey, 2006
    Question order: 6_1_03 (ROT6_1_03)

    2) Life after death
    3) Heaven
    4) Hell

  • ROT6_1_4 from Faith Matters Survey, 2006
    Question order: 6_1_04 (ROT6_1_04)

    1) Horoscopes
    3) Heaven
    4) Hell
    5) God

  • BELHEL11 from Faith Matters Survey, 2011
    6-1d. We're going to ask you about various things that some people believe in and others don't. The next item is hell. Are you absolutely sure you believe in hell, somewhat sure, not quite sure, not at all sure, or are you sure you do not believe in hell? (BELHELL_11)

    0) Don't believe
    1) Not at all sure
    2) Not quite sure
    3) Somewhat sure
    4) Absolutely sure

  • BELHELL2 from Faith Matters Survey, 2006
    Belief in hell (if R does not believe in afterlife, = 0)

    0) Don't believe
    1) Not at all sure
    2) Not quite sure
    3) Somewhat sure
    4) Absolutely sure

  • RA_12 from Portraits of American Life Study, 1st Wave, 2006
    I believe there is a Hell where people experience pain as punishment for their sin.

    -7) Refused
    -4) Don't know
    1) Strongly agree
    2) Somewhat agree
    3) Neither agree nor disagree
    4) Somewhat disagree
    5) Strongly disagree

  • BELHELL from Faith Matters Survey, 2006
    6-1d. We're going to ask you about various things that some people believe in and others don't. Are you absolutely sure, somewhat sure, not quite sure, not at all sure, or are you sure you do not believe in Hell?

    0) Don't believe
    1) Not at all sure
    2) Not quite sure
    3) Somewhat sure
    4) Absolutely sure
    8) Don't know/No opinion
    9) No answer/Refused

  • BELHELL from Comparative Values Survey of Islamic Countries
    Do you believe in Hell?

    -4) Not asked
    -2) No answer
    -1) Don't know
    0) No
    1) Yes

  • HELL from General Social Survey 2008 Cross-Section and Panel Combined
    Do you believe in Hell?

    0) Inapplicable
    1) Yes, definitely
    2) Yes, probably
    3) No, probably not
    4) No definitely not
    8) Don't know
    9) No answer

  • RA_12 from Portraits of American Life Study, 2nd Wave, 2012
    [Wave 2] I believe there is a Hell where people experience pain as punishment for their sin

    1) Strongly agree
    2) Somewhat agree
    3) Neither agree nor disagree
    4) Somewhat disagree
    5) Strongly disagree

  • BELHELL from International Social Survey Program: Religion II, 1998
    THIS QUESTION NOT ASKED OF AUSTRALIAN RESPONDENTS. Do you believe in Hell?

    1) Yes, definitely
    2) Yes, probably
    3) No, probably not
    4) No, definitely not
    8) Can't choose
    9) No answer, refused

  • AUSHELL from International Social Survey Program: Religion II, 1998
    ASKED ONLY OF AUSTRALIANS. Do you believe in Hell?

    1) Yes, definitely
    2) Yes, probably
    3) Mixed, in between
    4) No, probably not
    5) No, definitely not
    8) Can't choose
    9) No answer, refused

  • HELL from Spirit and Power: A 10-Country Survey of Pentecostals
    Which, if any, of the following do you believe in? Do you believe in Hell?

    1) Yes
    2) No
    8) Don't know
    9) Refused

  • BLVHEL_1 from World Values Survey, Aggregate Data
    Percent that believe in: hell [WAVE 1; Which, if any, of the following do you believe in? Hell]

  • BLVHEL_2 from World Values Survey, Aggregate Data
    Percent that believe in: hell [WAVE 2; Which, if any, of the following do you believe in? E) Hell]

  • BLVHEL_3 from World Values Survey, Aggregate Data
    Percent that believe in: hell [WAVE 3; Which, if any, of the following do you believe in? Do you believe in hell?]

  • BLVHEL_4 from World Values Survey, Aggregate Data
    Percent that believe in: hell [WAVE 4; Which, if any, of the following do you believe in? Do you believe in hell?]

  • HELL from Spirit and Power: Survey of Pentecostals in Chile
    Which, if any, of the following do you believe in? Do you believe in Hell?

    1) Yes
    2) No
    8) Don't know
    9) Refused

  • HELL from Spirit and Power: Survey of Pentecostals in Brazil
    Which, if any, of the following do you believe in? Do you believe in Hell?

    1) Yes
    2) No
    8) Don't know
    9) Refused

  • Q26D from Baylor Religion Survey, Wave I (2005)
    Q26 In your opinion, does each of the following ... exist d. Hell

    1) Absolutely
    2) Probably
    3) Probably not
    4) Absolutely not

  • Q51B from Sub-Saharan Africa Religion Survey, 2010
    Q51B [WHICH, IF ANY, OF THE FOLLOWING DO YOU BELIEVE IN?] In Hell, where people who have led bad lives and die without being sorry are eternally punished?

    1) Yes
    2) No
    8) Don't know
    9) Refused

  • Q36 from U.S. Religious Landscape Survey - Continental Dataset
    Do you think there is a hell, where people who have led bad lives and die without being sorry are eternally punished?

    1) Yes
    2) No
    3) Other (Vol.)
    9) Don't know/Refused (Vol.)

  • QG6 from U.S. Religious Landscape Study, 2014
    Q.G6. Do you think there is a hell, where people who have led bad lives and die without being sorry are eternally punished?

    1) Yes
    2) No
    3) (VOL) Other
    9) (VOL) Don't know/Refused

  • BELHEL07 from Faith Matters Survey, 2007
    6-1d. We're going to ask you about various things that some people believe in and others don't. The next item is hell. (BELHELL_07)

    0) Don't believe
    1) Not at all sure
    2) Not quite sure
    3) Somewhat sure
    4) Absolutely sure

  • EXIST5 from Spiritual Life Study of Chinese Residents
    Here are some items that I will ask you about one by one. Do you think any of them actually exists? Do you think there is a hell/underworld?

    1) Yes, it exists
    2) No, it doesn't exist
    3) I have never heard of it
    8) Refuse to answer [do not read]
    9) Hard to say/don't know [do not read]

  • SOULGOES from Spiritual Life Study of Chinese Residents
    Where do you think the soul goes after death?

    1) The underworld
    2) Heaven or hell
    3) The soul will wander in the human world
    4) To meet Karl Marx
    5) Become spirits or buddha
    6) Reincarnation
    98) Refuse to answer [do not read]
    99) Hard to say/don't know

  • Q43B from World's Muslims Data Set, 2012
    ASK ITEMS A AND B IN ALL COUNTRIES EXCEPT AFGHANISTAN. Which, if any, of the following do you believe [In Afghanistan: which of the following do you believe in?]? (READ LIST) (INTERVIEWER INSTRUCTION: repeat question as necessary) in Hell, are people who have led [In Turkey: life of sin, In all other countries: bad lives] and die without being sorry are eternally punished?

    1) Yes
    2) No
    8) Don't know (DO NOT READ)
    9) Refused (DO NOT READ)

  • INFLHLL1 from Spiritual Life Study of Chinese Residents
    And if you say "yes" to [hell, the underworld], is your view influenced by any of the following people or sources? Please select three from the following list. First mention

    1) The elders in the family
    2) Spouse or boyfriend/girlfriend
    3) Other relatives
    4) Neighbors
    5) Co-workers
    6) Classmate at school
    7) Friends
    8) School education
    9) My own reading of books
    10) Reading of newspapers and magazines
    11) TV and films
    12) The Internet and email
    13) Religious places of worship, such as churches or temples
    98) Refuse to answer [do not read]
    99) Hard to say/don't know [do not read]

  • INFLHLL2 from Spiritual Life Study of Chinese Residents
    And if you say "yes" to [hell, the underworld], is your view influenced by any of the following people or sources? Please select three from the following list. Second mention

    1) The elders in the family
    2) Spouse or boyfriend/girlfriend
    3) Other relatives
    4) Neighbors
    5) Co-workers
    6) Classmate at school
    7) Friends
    8) School education
    9) My own reading of books
    10) Reading of newspapers and magazines
    11) TV and films
    12) The Internet and email
    13) Religious places of worship, such as churches or temples

  • INFLHLL3 from Spiritual Life Study of Chinese Residents
    And if you say "yes" to [hell, the underworld], is your view influenced by any of the following people or sources? Please select three from the following list. Third mention

    1) The elders in the family
    2) Spouse or boyfriend/girlfriend
    3) Other relatives
    4) Neighbors
    5) Co-workers
    6) Classmate at school
    7) Friends
    9) My own reading of books
    10) Reading of newspapers and magazines
    11) TV and films
    12) The Internet and email
    13) Religious places of worship, such as churches or temples

  • HELL from Youth, Emotional Energy, and Political Violence: The Cases of Egypt and Saudi Arabia Survey, 2005
    Do you believe in Hell?

    1) Yes
    2) No
    9) NA
    999) RA

  • HELL from Spirit and Power: Survey of Pentecostals in Chosen Regions of India
    Which, if any, of the following do you believe in? Do you believe in Hell?

    1) Yes
    2) No
    8) Don't know
    9) Refused

  • HELL from Spirit and Power: Survey of Pentecostals in the Philippines
    Which, if any, of the following do you believe in? Do you believe in Hell?

    1) Yes
    2) No
    8) Don't know
    9) Refused

  • HELL from Spirit and Power: Survey of Pentecostals in the United States
    Which, if any, of the following do you believe in? Do you believe in Hell?

    1) Yes
    2) No
    8) Don't know
    9) Refused

  • HELL from Spirit and Power: Survey of Pentecostals in South Africa
    Which, if any, of the following do you believe in? Do you believe in Hell?

    1) Yes
    2) No
    8) Don't know
    9) Refused

  • HELL from Spirit and Power: Survey of Pentecostals in South Korea
    Which, if any, of the following do you believe in? Do you believe in Hell?

    1) Yes
    2) No
    8) Don't know
    9) Refused

  • HELL from General Social Survey, 1991
    Do you believe in. . . Hell

    1) Yes, definitely
    2) Yes, probably
    3) No, probably not
    4) No, definitely not
    8) Can't choose
    9) No answer

  • Q36 from U.S. Religious Landscape Survey - Alaska and Hawaii Dataset
    Do you think there is a hell, where people who have led bad lives and die without being sorry are eternally punished?

    1) Yes
    2) No
    3) Other (Vol.)
    9) Don't know/Refused (Vol.)

  • LITHELL from Anabaptist Historical Data on Beliefs and Practices
    Believes in Hell as an actual destination for the soul

    1) Yes

  • HELL from Northern Ireland Life and Times Survey, 1998 - Religious Observance Module
    Do you believe in hell?

    1) Yes, definitely
    2) Yes, probably
    3) No, probably not
    4) No, definitely not
    8) Can't choose

  • HELL from General Social Survey, 1998
    Do you believe in... Hell

    1) Yes, definitely
    2) Yes, probably
    3) No probably not
    4) No definitely not
    8) Can't choose
    9) No answer

  • HEAVHELL from Taiwan Social Change Survey, 1994
    Do you believe in the following sayings? Heaven and hell certainly exist.

    1) Yes, very much
    2) Yes, somewhat
    3) No, not really
    4) No, not at all
    7) Don't know
    8) Don't understand
    9) Refuse

  • HELL from Brazil Religion Survey, 2007
    [WOULD YOU SAY THAT YOU TOTALLY BELIEVE, HAVE DOUBTS, OR DO NOT BELIEVE:] That after death, some people are sent to Hell?

    1) Totally believe
    2) Have doubts or do not believe
    99) Don't know

  • BLVHELL from Taiwan Social Change Survey, 2009
    Do you believe in: Hell (v32c)

    1) Yes, Definitely
    2) Yes, Probably
    3) No, Probably
    4) No, Definitely
    8) Can't Choose
    95) Don't understand
    97) Don't know
    98) Don't want to answer

  • HELL from Northern Ireland Life and Times Survey, 2008
    [DO YOU BELIEVE INů] Hell

    -1) Skip, no self completion
    1) Yes definitely
    2) Yes probably
    3) No probably not
    4) No definitely not
    8) Can't choose
    9) Not answered

  • RELATT2 from Taiwan Social Change Survey, 2004
    Do you believe in the following sayings? Heaven and hell certainly exist.

    1) Yes, very much
    2) Yes, somewhat
    3) No, not really
    4) No, not at all
    94) No comment
    95) Don't understand
    97) Don't know or forgot
    98) Refuse

  • BELHELL from Demographics in U.S. Congregations Survey, Parishioners
    In this final section, please indicate if you agree or disagree with the following statements by circling a number on the right hand side of the page. I believe in a literal hell, a place of eternal suffering

    1) Strongly agree
    2) Agree
    3) Neutral/unsure
    4) Disagree
    5) Strongly disagree

  • CHARORG3 from Taiwan Social Change Survey, 2004
    Do you agree with the following statements? Doing good will give you a ticket to heaven, but doing a lot of bad things will cause you to end up in hell.

    1) Yes, very much
    2) Yes, somewhat
    3) No, not really
    4) No, not at all
    94) No comment
    95) Don't understand
    97) Don't know or forgot
    98) Refuse

  • CHRHEAVN from Taiwan Social Change Survey, 2009
    To what extent do you agree with each of the following statements? Doing good will give you a ticket to heaven, but doing a lot of bad things will cause you to end up in hell. (v803)

    1) Yes, very much
    2) Yes, somewhat
    3) No, not really
    4) No, not at all
    94) Not sure
    97) Don't know
    98) Don't want to answer

  • BELHELL from Demographics in U.S. Congregations Survey, Pastors
    Now I would like to ask you some questions about your personal religious and moral views, which may or may not match the official position of your denomination. (Give Card D) Using the categories in card D, please tell me whether you would agree or disagree with the following statements. I believe in a literal hell, a place of eternal suffering

    1) Strongly agree
    2) Agree
    3) Neutral/unsure
    4) Disagree
    5) Strongly disagree

  • Q42D from Brazil Religion Survey, 2007
    WHAT ARE THE REASONS YOU ATTEND CHURCH OR RELIGIOUS SERVICES?

    1) Because I like to pray/prayer
    2) Because I feel good/happy/peace/strengthened
    3) To request a grace/by family/for job/health
    4) To listen/look for the word/preaching/sermon
    5) To zoom in/worship/serve God
    7) To thank a grace/by life/family/blessings
    10) By the need to seek/feel God's presence
    11) To learn about the religion/Jesus/God/Bible
    15) Because I like it/feel good inside church/congregation/gathering
    17) To attend ceremonies (wedding, christening, Mass, Seventh-day confirmation)
    18) To follow the tradition/to be involved/friends go
    21) By having the meeting of liturgy/attend religious groups/theater/singing/music
    24) To save the soul/spirit/not go to hell
    98) Other answers

  • Q42A from Brazil Religion Survey, 2007
    ASKED OF THOSE WHO USED TO ATTEND CHURCH OR RELIGIOUS SERICES: WHAT ARE THE REASONS YOU ATTEND CHURCH OR RELIGIOUS SERVICES?

    1) Because I like to pray/prayer
    2) Because I feel good/happy/peace/strengthened
    3) To request a grace/by family/for job/health
    4) To listen/look for the word/preaching/sermon
    5) To zoom in/worship/serve God
    7) To thank a grace/by life/family/blessings
    8) By faith/to have faith/believe in God
    10) By the need to seek/feel God's presence
    11) To learn about the religion/Jesus/God/Bible
    12) To attend Mass
    15) Because I like it/feel good inside church/congregation/gathering
    16) Apologizing for the sins/confession
    17) To attend ceremonies (wedding, christening, Mass, Seventh-day confirmation)
    18) To follow the tradition/to be involved/friends go
    19) To be patient/calm/not discouraged
    20) To take Communion/spiritual cleansing/purify the soul
    21) By having the meeting of liturgy/attend religious groups/theater/singing/music
    22) To accompany other people
    23) To feed/grow spiritually
    24) To save the soul/spirit/not go to hell
    25) For believing in religion
    27) Being a Christian's duty
    28) To see/meet friends from church
    29) Being Catholic
    30) To receive blessings
    31) To do charity
    32) Have attended church since childhood
    34) To commune
    35) To reflect/meditate
    98) Other answers
    99) Do not know

  • Q42B from Brazil Religion Survey, 2007
    WHAT ARE THE REASONS YOU ATTEND CHURCH OR RELIGIOUS SERVICES?

    1) Because I like to pray/prayer
    2) Because I feel good/happy/peace/strengthened
    3) To request a grace/by family/for job/health
    4) To listen/look for the word/preaching/sermon
    5) To zoom in/worship/serve God
    7) To thank a grace/by life/family/blessings
    8) By faith/to have faith/believe in God
    10) By the need to seek/feel God's presence
    11) To learn about the religion/Jesus/God/Bible
    12) To attend Mass
    15) Because I like it/feel good inside church/congregation/gathering
    16) Apologizing for the sins/confession
    17) To attend ceremonies (wedding, christening, Mass, Seventh-day confirmation)
    18) To follow the tradition/to be involved/friends go
    19) To be patient/calm/not discouraged
    20) To take Communion/spiritual cleansing/purify the soul
    21) By having the meeting of liturgy/attend religious groups/theater/singing/music
    22) To accompany other people
    23) To feed/grow spiritually
    24) To save the soul/spirit/not go to hell
    25) For believing in religion
    27) Being a Christian's duty
    28) To see/meet friends from church
    29) Being Catholic
    30) To receive blessings
    31) To do charity
    32) Have attended church since childhood
    34) To commune
    35) To reflect/meditate
    98) Other answers

  • Q42C from Brazil Religion Survey, 2007
    WHAT ARE THE REASONS YOU ATTEND CHURCH OR RELIGIOUS SERVICES?

    1) Because I like to pray/prayer
    2) Because I feel good/happy/peace/strengthened
    3) To request a grace/by family/for job/health
    4) To listen/look for the word/preaching/sermon
    5) To zoom in/worship/serve God
    7) To thank a grace/by life/family/blessings
    8) By faith/to have faith/believe in God
    10) By the need to seek/feel God's presence
    11) To learn about the religion/Jesus/God/Bible
    12) To attend Mass
    15) Because I like it/feel good inside church/congregation/gathering
    16) Apologizing for the sins/confession
    17) To attend ceremonies (wedding, christening, Mass, Seventh-day confirmation)
    18) To follow the tradition/to be involved/friends go
    19) To be patient/calm/not discouraged
    20) To take Communion/spiritual cleansing/purify the soul
    21) By having the meeting of liturgy/attend religious groups/theater/singing/music
    23) To feed/grow spiritually
    24) To save the soul/spirit/not go to hell
    25) For believing in religion
    27) Being a Christian's duty
    28) To see/meet friends from church
    29) Being Catholic
    30) To receive blessings
    31) To do charity
    32) Have attended church since childhood
    34) To commune
    35) To reflect/meditate
    98) Other answers

  • Q3OE_1 from Faith in Flux: Changes in Religious Affiliation in the U.S.
    ASK ALL QUALIFIED CONVERTS (CON11=1 AND Q2 NE 2): And just in your own words, what is the main reason that you are no longer (FRMREL)? IF FRMREL=UNAFFILIATED WITH ANY PARTICULAR RELGION, USE ALTERNATE WORDING: And just in your own words, what is the main reason that you started identifying with a religion? FIRST MENTION

    10) Do not believe in former religion/share the beliefs of former religion/any religion
    13) Atheist/do not believe in God/do not believe in Jesus
    16) Agnostic/answers to religious question are unknowable
    19) Previous religion or religion in general not logical/not believable/not rational/not scientific/does not make sense
    22) Disagree with former religion on priestly celibacy (general)
    31) Disagree with papal infallibility/Pope in general
    34) Disagree with virgin Birth/praying to Mary
    37) Other disagreement with former religion's specific teachings beliefs/rituals/policies
    40) Did not understand former religion
    43) Other/generic stopped believing, lost faith, stopped being religious, began questioning, became skeptical
    50) Like current religion's beliefs about God/because of belief in God or Jesus or higher being/because of faith/found the truth/like teachings current religion/became closer to God/current religion/became closer to God/current religion made sense
    80) Biblical or scriptural reason (general)
    83) Biblical or scriptural reason (respondent does not believe Bible/former religion adheres too closely to Bible/current religion takes a more relaxed view)
    88) Biblical or scriptural reason (respondent believes in Bible/former religion did not adhere closely enough/current religion adheres more closely)
    110) Many religions or paths to God, no one religion is true, all religions have truth
    113) Do not believe idea that non-adherents of particular religion will be condemned
    119) Unable to reconcile religious beliefs with existence of evil in world
    122) Have own personal religion/spiritual but not religious/have faith but not affiliation/believe but don't go to church
    140) Disagree with former religion on abortion (general)
    146) Disagree with former religion on abortion (religion too conservative)
    149) Disagree with former religion on homosexuality (general)
    152) Disagree with former religion on homosexuality (religion too liberal/too open).
    158) Disagree with former religion's views of women (general)
    161) Disagree with former religion's views of women (treated poorly)
    167) Disagree with former religion on birth control (general)
    170) Disagree with former religion on birth control (religion should allow but didn't)
    176) Other political disagreement/objection to former religion
    210) Former religion too political
    213) Former religion too conservative/too traditional
    216) Former religion too liberal
    250) Dislike organized religion/Do not believe in organized religion
    253) Dislike way former religion is run/leadership/hierarchy/structure
    254) Religion causes problems/is bad/is evil/is not good
    255) Former religion too much about money, business, a scam
    256) Pedophilia scandal/molestation
    257) Former religion out of touch
    330) Former religion had too many rules/too rigid/too strict/too much guilt involved/too negative/critical
    331) Didn't like/agree with former religion's practices or rituals
    333) Former religion's ideals too hard to live up to
    342) Current religion had fewer rules, less rigid, more freedom
    345) Former religion and/or adherents hypocritical, judgmental, intolerant, narrow, exclusive
    361) Dislike style of former religion's worship services (general)
    364) Dislike style of former religion's worship services (too energetic)
    367) Dislike style of former religion's worship services (too boring, formal, stuffy)
    370) Like current religions worship services/practices/prayers/meditations, etc.
    371) Just don't like religion or former religion/disappointed with religion/do not trust religion/have conflict with religion/didn't like going to church/ disillusioned / disenchanted with religion or church/wasn't right for me
    373) Just liked current religion / just wanted to go to church/just wanted to join religion/just started going / liked a particular church
    376) Like leadership, structure of current religion
    379) Dislike of/dissatisfaction with particular congregation/parish/churches in an area
    382) Dislike of/negative experience with preacher/priest/nun or other religious leader
    385) People at a particular parish/congregation/church were mean, unkind, not generous, etc.
    393) Liked particular pastor/joined because of influence of particular pastor
    396) Liked people in religion/in a particular church/people in religion or church were nice or helpful
    401) Felt disconnected/uncomfortable/unwelcome
    404) Felt spiritually disconnected/uninspired/poor spiritual fit
    407) Felt connected, comfortable, welcome/good fit/felt right/liked atmosphere
    416) Liked Sunday school/other religious education program/youth groups/other programs offered at church/former religion didn't offer programs/dissatisfaction with programs offered
    422) Convenience/location/availability/local church/only church in town/no churches available of a particular denomination
    430) Invitation/influence/example/outreach of church member, friend, neighbor, or other person
    440) Negative childhood experience/shoved down throat as child / negative experience at religious school
    443) Positive childhood experience/experience at religious school
    450) Wanted social interaction/social reasons
    453) Went to revival
    473) Grew up/started thinking for oneself
    479) Became educated, studious, observant, curious and thus stopped believing/lost faith/changed faith
    482) Spiritual awakening/personal spiritual growth/self-realization/spiritual change
    488) Looking for something/looking for answers/wanted to learn about God or religion/looking for something bigger than oneself/became interested in God or religion/felt a need/missing something/on a quest/wanted more/looking for something deeper
    497) Do not get anything out of religion/have no need for it/got no answers/did not meet needs
    500) Not interested in religion/religion unimportant to respondent, irrelevant to respondent
    503) Tangible benefits of religion/good things happen to believers/found more joy, peace, happiness, fulfillment etc.
    508) Calling from God/led by prayer or revelation/gift of faith from God/spoke to my heart/miracle/spirit moved me
    509) Saved/accepted Jesus/born-again/grace/became convicted
    510) Need for Jesus/need to be saved/don't want to go to hell/want eternal life
    520) Marriage/because of spouse
    523) Because of a divorce
    526) Because of death of a loved one
    529) Issues with raising children/influence of children
    532) Parent's decision/influence of parents
    535) Other family reason/cultural reason/heritage
    536) Moved/relocated
    538) Went to college
    541) Joined military
    546) Other lifecycle reason/life event/tragedy/trauma/life changing experience/turning point/timing/ready for change
    548) Too busy/too lazy/didn't want to waste any more time
    551) Got tired of it
    555) Just drifted away, stopped going, got away from it, fell away, don't go to church
    569) Just changed mind/change of faith/just chose to change religions
    583) Just not religious
    696) Many reasons
    697) No reason
    698) Because I became
    699) Other reason
    999) Don't know/refused

  • Q16OE_1 from Faith in Flux: Changes in Religious Affiliation in the U.S.
    And just in your own words, what would you say is the main reason that you became (CURREL)? FIRST MENTION

    10) Do not believe in former religion/share the beliefs of former religion/any religion
    13) Atheist/do not believe in God/do not believe in Jesus
    16) Agnostic/Answers to religious questions are unknowable
    19) Previous religion or religion in general not logical/not believable/not rational/not scientific/does not make sense
    34) Disagree with virgin Birth/praying to Mary
    37) Other disagreement with former religion's specific teachings/beliefs/rituals/policies
    40) Did not understand former religion
    43) Other/generic stopped believing, lost faith, stopped being religious, began questioning, became skeptical
    50) Liked current religion's beliefs about God/because of belief in God or Jesus or higher being/because of faith/found the truth/like teachings of current religion/became closer to God/current religion made sense
    80) Biblical or scriptural reason (general
    83) Biblical or scriptural reason (respondent does not believe Bible/former religion adheres to closely to Bible/current religion takes a more relaxed view)
    88) Biblical or scriptural reason (respondent believes in Bible/former religion did not adhere closely enough/current religion adheres more closely)
    110) Many religions or paths to God, no one religion is true, all religions have truth
    113) Do not believe idea that non-adherents of particular religion will be condemned
    119) Unable to reconcile religious beliefs with existence of evil in world
    122) Have own personal religion/spiritual but not religious/have faith but not affiliation/believe but don't go to church
    152) Disagree with former religion on homosexuality (religion too liberal/too open)
    158) Disagree with former religion's views of women (general)
    161) Disagree with former religion's views of women (treated poorly)
    167) Disagree with former religion on birth control (general)
    176) Other political disagreement/objection to former religion
    190) Like current religion's view on homosexuality
    202) Liked something else about current religion's approach to social or political matters
    210) Former religion too political
    213) Former religion too conservative/too traditional
    220) Current religion is liberal
    223) Current religion is traditional/conservative
    226) Current religion is moderate, middle-of-the-road
    250) Dislike organized religion/Do not believe in organized religion
    253) Dislike way former religion is run/leadership/hierarchy/structure
    254) Religion causes problems/is bad/is evil/is not good
    255) Former religion too much about money, business, a scam
    256) Pedophilia scandal/molestation
    257) Former religion out of touch
    330) Former religion had too many rules/too rigid/too strict/too much guilt involved/too negative/critical
    333) Former religion's ideals too hard to live up to
    342) Current religion had fewer rules, less rigid, more freedom
    345) Former religion and/or adherents hypocritical, judgmental, intolerant, narrow, exclusive
    348) Current religion open, loving, not judgmental, inclusive
    361) Dislike style of former religion's worship services (general)
    367) Dislike style of former religion's worship services (too boring, formal, stuffy)
    370) Liked current religions worship services/practices/prayers/meditations, etc.
    371) Just don't like religion or former religion/disappointed with religion/do not trust religion/have conflict religion/didn't like going to church/disillusioned/disenchanted with religion or church/wasn't right for me
    373) Just liked current religion/just wanted to go to church/just wanted to join religion/just started going/liked a particular church
    376) Like leadership, structure of current religion
    382) Dislike of/negative experience with preacher/priest/nun or other religious leader
    385) People at a particular parish/congregation/church were mean, unkind, not generous, etc.
    393) Liked particular pastor/joined because of influence of particular pastor
    396) Liked people in religion/in a particular church/people in religion or church were nice or helpful
    401) Felt disconnected/uncomfortable/unwelcome
    404) Felt spiritually disconnected/uninspired/poor spiritual fit
    407) Felt connected, comfortable, welcome/good fit/felt right/liked atmosphere
    410) Felt spiritually connected, spiritually at-home, god spiritual fit, etc.
    416) Liked Sunday school/other religious education program/youth groups/other programs offered at church/former religion didn't offer programs/dissatisfaction with programs offered
    422) Convenience/location/availability/local church/only church in town/no churches available of a particular denomination
    430) Invitation/influence/example/outreach of church member, friend, neighbor, or other person
    440) Negative childhood experience/shoved down throat as child/negative experience at religious school
    443) Positive childhood experience/experience at religious school
    450) Wanted social interaction/social reasons
    453) Went to revivial
    473) Grew up/started thinking for oneself
    479) Became educated, studious observant, curious and thus stopped believing/lost faith/changed faith
    482) Spiritual awakening/personal spiritual growth/self-realization/spiritual change
    485) Wanted to be a better person, mother, father, spouse, etc.
    488) Looking for something/looking for answers/wanted to learn about God or religion/looking for something bigger than oneself/became interested in God or religion/felt a need/missing something/on a quest/wanted more/looking for something deeper
    497) Do not get anything out of religion/have no need for it/got no answers/did not meet needs
    500) Not interested in religion/religion unimportant to respondent, irrelevant to respondent
    503) Tangible benefits of religion/good things happen to believers/found more joy peace
    506) Found current religion to be relevant, important, interesting, etc.
    508) Calling from God/led by prayer or revelation/gift of faith from God/spoke to my heart/miracle/spirit moved me
    509) Saved/accepted Jesus/born-again/grace/became convicted
    510) Need for Jesus/need to be saved/don't want to go to hell/want eternal life
    511) Current religion in touch with god/the Lord/Jesus/the Holy Spirit/provided closer relationship with God
    520) Marriage/because of spouse
    523) Because of a divorce
    526) Because of death of a loved one
    529) Issues with raising children/influence of children
    532) Parents' decision/influence of parents
    535) Other family reason/cultural reason/heritage
    536) Moved/relocated
    538) Went to college
    541) Joined military
    546) Other lifecycle reason/life event/tragedy/trauma/life changing experience/turning point/timing/ready for change
    548) Too busy/too lazy/didn't want to waste any more time
    551) Got tired of it
    555) Just drifted away, stopped going, got away from it, fell away, don't go to church
    569) Just changed mind/change of faith/just chose to change religions
    583) Just not religious
    696) Many reasons
    699) Other reason
    999) Don't know/refused

  • OSAMPNSH from PRRI/RNS Religion News Survey, May 2011
    I personally believe Osama Bin Laden will be eternally punished for his sins in hell.

    1) Completely agree
    2) Mostly agree
    3) Mostly disagree
    4) Completely disagree
    98) Do not believe in hell (Vol.)
    99) Don't know/Refused (Vol.)

  • SCALE49 from Google Ngrams Data, 1800-2000
    Hell scale (hell + Hell)

  • OPNHELL from Religion in Italy
    What is your opinion about Hell?

    1) It is a place of damnation for the wicked ones, who are punished in eternal flames.
    2) It is an eternal exclusion from relationship with God.
    3) Hell doesn't exist, because God can't condemn any man to eternal damnation.
    4) I do not believe in Hell.
    5) I don't care. I have never asked myself this question.

  • NGRAM142 from Google Ngrams Data, 1800-2000
    How often 'Hell' is used, as a proportion of the total words in Google's American English Corpus (Ngrams are case-sensitive)

  • NGRAM143 from Google Ngrams Data, 1800-2000
    How often 'hell' is used, as a proportion of the total words in Google's American English Corpus (Ngrams are case-sensitive)

  • HELL from Spirit and Power: Survey of Pentecostals in Guatemala
    Which, if any, of the following do you believe in? Do you believe in Hell?

    1) Yes
    2) No
    8) Don't know
    9) Refused

  • Q60F from Religion in Latin America, 2014
    [ASK ALL] Q60f. Do you believe in hell or not?

    1) Yes
    2) No
    98) Don't know
    99) Refused

  • HELL from Spirit and Power: Survey of Pentecostals in Kenya
    Which, if any, of the following do you believe in? Do you believe in Hell?

    1) Yes
    2) No
    8) Don't know
    9) Refused

  • HELL from Spirit and Power: Survey of Pentecostals in Nigeria
    Which, if any, of the following do you believe in? Do you believe in Hell?

    1) Yes
    2) No
    8) Don't know
    9) Refused

  • HELL from Presbyterian Panel Survey, Fall 2003 - Reparations, Members and Elders
    Please indicate the extent to which you agree or disagree with each of the following statements: There is a hell.

    1) Strongly agree
    2) Agree
    3) Not sure
    4) Disagree
    5) Strongly disagree

  • HELL from Presbyterian Panel Survey, August 2005 - Hymnals, Members
    There is a hell

    1) Strongly agree
    2) Agree
    3) Not sure
    4) Disagree
    5) Strongly disagree

  • EXIST10 from Survey of Attenders: Texas Bigfoot Research Conservancy Annual Meeting, 2009
    In your opinion, does each of the following exist: Hell?

    1) Absolutely
    2) Probably
    3) Probably not
    4) Absolutely not
    5) I don't know

  • HELL from Survey of Attenders: International UFO Congress Convention and Film Festival, 2010
    [IN YOUR OPINION, DOES EACH OF THE FOLLOWING EXIST?] Hell

    1) Absolutely
    2) Probably
    3) Probably not
    4) Absolutely not
    5) I don't know

  • RQ9EF24 from Survey of Aging and Longevity, 2013
    FORMS 2 & 4: Which, if any, of the following do you believe in? Do you believe [INSERT ITEM; RANDOMIZE], or not? In hell

    1) Yes, believe in
    2) No, don't believe
    9) Don't know/Refused (VOL.)

  • HELL from Presbyterian Panel Survey, May 2005 - Funding Christ's Mission Through the PC(USA), Elders
    Please indicate the extent to which you agree or disagree with each of the following statements: There is a hell

    1) Strongly agree
    2) Agree
    3) Not sure
    4) Disagree
    5) Strongly disagree

  • HEAVHELL from Taiwan Social Change Survey, 1999
    Do you believe in the following sayings? Heaven and hell certainly exist.

    0) Missing
    1) Yes, very much
    2) Yes, somewhat
    3) No, not really
    4) No, not at all
    7) Don't know or forgot
    8) Don't understand
    9) Refuse

  • RQ9DF13 from Survey of Aging and Longevity, 2013
    FORMS 1 & 3: Which, if any, of the following do you believe in? Do you believe [INSERT ITEM; RANDOMIZE], or not? In hell, where people who have led bad lives and die without being sorry are eternally punished?

    1) Yes, believe in
    2) No, don't believe
    9) Don't know/Refused (VOL.)

  • Q433OE_2 from Pew 2011 National Survey of Mormons
    And just in your own words, what would you say is the main reason that you became Mormon? (SECOND MENTION)

    50) Found the truth/like teachings of current religion/current religion made sense
    60) Beliefs of eternal family
    88) Respondent believes in Bible/Book of Mormon/former religion did not adhere closely enough
    200) Emphasis on family values
    371) Just don't like religion or former religion/wasn't right for me
    385) People at a particular parish/congregation/church were mean, unkind, not generous, etc.
    393) Like particular pastor/joined because of influence of particular pastor
    396) Liked people in religion/in a particular church/people in religion or church were nice or helpful
    430) Invitation/influence/example/outreach of church member, friend, neighbor, or other person
    431) Missionaries
    450) Wanted social interaction/social reasons
    503) Tangible benefits of religion/good things happen to believers/found more joy, fulfillment etc./gives guidance
    508) Calling from God/ led by prayer or revelation/spoke to my heart/miracle/ spirit moved me
    510) Need for Jesus/need to be saved/don't want to go to hell/want eternal life
    520) Marriage/because of spouse
    699) Other reason

  • Q433OE_1 from Pew 2011 National Survey of Mormons
    And just in your own words, what would you say is the main reason that you became Mormon? (FIRST MENTION)

    37) Disagreement with former religion's specific teachings/beliefs/rituals/policies
    40) Did not understand former religion
    43) Generic stopped believing, lost faith, stopped being religious, began questioning, became skeptical
    50) Found the truth / like teachings of current religion/current religion made sense
    60) Beliefs of eternal family
    88) Respondent believes in Bible/Book of Mormon/former religion did not adhere closely enough
    200) Emphasis on family values
    370) Liked current religious worship services/practices/prayers/meditations, etc.
    371) Just don't like religion or former religion/wasn't right for me
    373) Just liked current religion
    376) Like leadership, structure of current religion
    396) Liked people in religion/in a particular church/people in religion or church were nice or helpful
    407) Felt connected, comfortable, welcome/good fit/felt right/liked atmosphere
    430) Invitation/influence/example/outreach of church member, friend, neighbor, or other person
    431) Missionaries
    443) Positive childhood experience/experience at religious school
    450) Wanted social interaction/social reasons
    482) Spiritual awakening
    485) Wanted to be a better person, mother, father, spouse, etc.
    488) Looking for something/looking for answers/missing something/ looking for something deeper
    503) Tangible benefits of religion/good things happen to believers/found more joy, fulfillment etc. / gives guidance
    508) Calling from God/ led by prayer or revelation/spoke to my heart/miracle/spirit moved me
    509) Saved/accepted Jesus/born-again/grace/became convicted
    510) Need for Jesus/need to be saved/don't want to go to hell/want eternal life
    520) Marriage/because of spouse
    532) Parents' decision/influence of parents
    535) Other family reason/cultural reason/ heritage
    541) Joined military
    546) Other lifecycle reason/life event
    699) Other reason
    999) Don't know/Refused

  • HELL from Presbyterian Panel Survey, February 2005 - Pastoral Leadership, Personal Outreach, and the Directory for Worship, Members and Elders
    Please indicate the extent to which you agree or disagree with each of the following statements: There is a hell.

    1) Strongly agree
    2) Agree
    3) Not sure
    4) Disagree
    5) Strongly disagree

  • HELL from Presbyterian Panel Survey, May 2005 - Funding Christ's Mission Through the PC(USA), Members
    Please indicate the extent to which you agree or disagree with each of the following statements: There is a hell.

    1) Strongly agree
    2) Agree
    3) Not sure
    4) Disagree
    5) Strongly disagree

  • HELL from Presbyterian Panel Survey, November 2005 - The Social Creed, Members
    Please indicate the extent to which you agree or disagree with each of the following statements: There is a hell.

    1) Strongly agree
    2) Agree
    3) Not sure
    4) Disagree
    5) Strongly disagree

  • HELL from Presbyterian Panel Survey, August 2005 - Hymnals, Elders
    There is a hell

    1) Strongly agree
    2) Agree
    3) Not sure
    4) Disagree
    5) Strongly disagree

  • BLFHELL from Southern Focus Poll, South Survey, Spring 1998
    Do you believe that after people die, some souls go to Heaven and others go to Hell?

    1) BELIEVE
    2) DON'T BELIEVE

  • G010 from Survey of Texas Adults, 2004
    There is a hell. Do you strongly agree, agree, disagree, or strongly disagree?

    -8) R-Refused
    -7) D-Don't know
    1) Strongly agree
    2) Agree
    3) Neutral
    4) Disagree
    5) Strongly disagree

  • HELL from Presbyterian Panel Survey, November 2005 - The Social Creed, Elders
    Please indicate the extent to which you agree or disagree with each of the following statements: There is a hell

    1) Strongly agree
    2) Agree
    3) Not sure
    4) Disagree
    5) Strongly disagree

  • SOUL3 from Religion and Politics Survey, 1996
    ASKED ONLY OF THOSE RESPONDENTS WHO THINK THEIR SOUL WILL LIVE ON AFTER DEATH: Do you think there is a hell, to which people who have led bad lives and die without being sorry are eternally damned?

    1) Yes (Believe in hell)
    2) No (Don't believe in hell)
    3) Don't know/Refused (Don't know if believe in hell)

  • BLFHELL from Southern Focus Poll, Non-South Survey, Spring 1998
    Do you believe that after people die, some souls go to Heaven and others go to Hell?

    1) BELIEVE
    2) DON'T BELIEVE

  • HELL5 from Project Canada 1995
    Do you believe in the following? - Hell

    1) Yes, definitely
    2) Yes, I think so.
    3) No, I don't think so.
    4) No, definitely not
    8) Undecided

  • HELL from Presbyterian Panel Survey, August 2003 - Presbyterians Today, Elders
    Please indicate the extent to which you agree or disagree with each of the following statements: There is a hell.

    1) Strongly agree
    2) Agree
    3) Not sure
    4) Disagree
    5) Strongly disagree

  • HELL from Presbyterian Panel Survey, August 2003 - Presbyterians Today, Members
    Please indicate the extent to which you agree or disagree with each of the following statements: There is a hell.

    1) Strongly agree
    2) Agree
    3) Not sure
    4) Disagree
    5) Strongly disagree

  • A33_7 from The Comparative Study of Religious Experience in Taiwan
    33. Some have had dreams they feel to be real and extraordinary. Have you had this kind of dream? (7) Mystical or extraordinary sites like Paradise, hell, fairyland, temples, churches, cemeteries, etc.

    1) Frequently
    2) Sometimes
    3) Once or twice
    4) Never
    9996) Unable to determine
    9999) Missing or invalid answer

  • A34 from The Comparative Study of Religious Experience in Taiwan
    34. Of the above listed dreams, which one have you felt most deeply? (single choice)

    1) Divine spirits (for example, God/Jesus/angels/the Buddha/Bodhisattvas/Guanyin/Arhats/deities/neighborhood gods/Zushi Ye, etc.)
    2) Ghosts, evil spirits, demons, goblins, Satan
    3) Ancestors or dead friends and relatives
    4) Religious figures (for example, a guru, a living Buddha, master teachers, the Exalted One, Dian Chuan Shi, pastors, saints)
    5) Mystical or extraordinary animals
    6) Mystical or extraordinary plants
    7) Mystical or extraordinary sites like Paradise, hell, fairyland, temples, churches, cemeteries, etc.
    8) Mystical or extraordinary images or symbols (for example, the Christian cross, the Swastika [ARDA Note: as a Buddhist religious symbol], the dharma wheel, magical incantations, precious swords, light, coffins)
    9) Encountering in real life what you saw in a dream
    10) Other (please specify)
    9996) Unable to determine (skip to 47)
    9997) Decline to answer (skip to 47)
    9998) Irrelevant
    9999) Missing or invalid answer

  • HELL from Endtime Family (Children of God), 1997
    Do you believe in Hell?

    1) Yes, definitely
    2) Yes, probably
    3) No, probably not
    5) Can't choose

  • HELL from Catholics in Indiana: A Social and Religious Profile, 1994
    Please tell us how much you agree or disagree with each of the following statements. -- There is a hell.

    1) Strongly agree
    2) Agree somewhat
    3) Uncertain
    4) Disagree somewhat
    5) Strongly disagree

  • HELL from Presbyterian Panel Survey, 2003-2005 - Background Survey, Members and Elders
    Please indicate the extent to which you agree or disagree with each of the following statements: There is a hell.

    1) Strongly agree
    2) Agree
    3) Not sure
    4) Disagree
    5) Strongly disagree

  • HELL4 from Project Canada 1990
    Do you believe - In hell?

    1) Yes, I definitely do.
    2) Yes, I think so.
    3) No, I don't think so.
    4) No, I definitely do not.
    8) Unsure

  • MSTSAVED from Catholics in Indiana: A Social and Religious Profile, 1994
    Please tell us how much you agree or disagree with each of the following statements. -- Most everyone will be saved; very few people will go to hell.

    1) Strongly agree
    2) Agree somewhat
    3) Uncertain
    4) Disagree somewhat
    5) Strongly disagree

  • HELL from Presbyterian Panel Survey, February 2004 - Presbyterian Colleges and Universities, Members
    There is a hell.

    1) Strongly agree
    2) Agree
    3) Not sure
    4) Disagree
    5) Strongly disagree

  • HELL from Presbyterian Panel Survey, February 2004 - Presbyterian Colleges and Universities, Elders
    There is a hell.

    1) Strongly agree
    2) Agree
    3) Not sure
    4) Disagree
    5) Strongly disagree

  • HELL4 from Project Canada 1985-90 Panel Study
    Do you believe - In hell?

    1) Yes, I definitely do.
    2) Yes, I think so.
    3) No, I don't think so.
    4) No, I definitely do not.

  • HELL from Presbyterian Panel Survey, May 1998 - Communications Across the Church, Clergy
    Do you think there is a hell, to which people who have led bad lives and die without being sorry are eternally damned?

    1) No
    2) Yes
    3) Not sure
    4) Other

  • HELL from Presbyterian Panel Survey, November 2004 - Current Issues in Church and Society, Members
    Please indicate the extent to which you agree or disagree with each of the following statements: There is a hell.

    1) Strongly agree
    2) Agree
    3) Not sure
    4) Disagree
    5) Strongly disagree

  • HELL from Presbyterian Panel Survey, May 2004 - Disabilities Issues, Members
    Please indicate the extent to which you agree or disagree with each of the following statements: There is a hell.

    1) Strongly agree
    2) Agree
    3) Not sure
    4) Disagree
    5) Strongly disagree

  • HELL from Presbyterian Panel Survey, May 2004 - Disabilities Issues, Elders
    Please indicate the extent to which you agree or disagree with each of the following statements: There is a hell.

    1) Strongly agree
    2) Agree
    3) Not sure
    4) Disagree
    5) Strongly disagree

  • HELL from Presbyterian Panel Survey, November 2004 - Current Issues in Church and Society, Elders
    Please indicate the extent to which you agree or disagree with each of the following statements: There is a hell.

    1) Strongly agree
    2) Agree
    3) Not sure
    4) Disagree
    5) Strongly disagree

  • HELL from Presbyterian Panel Survey, August 2004 - Energy Issues, Members and Elders
    Please indicate the extent to which you agree or disagree with each of the following statements: There is a hell.

    1) Strongly agree
    2) Agree
    3) Not sure
    4) Disagree
    5) Strongly disagree

  • BLFHELL from Southern Focus Poll, Combined Sample, Spring 1998
    Do you believe that after people die, some souls go to Heaven and others go to Hell?

    1) Believe
    2) Don't Believe

  • AFTRDETH from Survey of Northern California Church Bodies, 1963
    What do you feel will probably happen to you after death? -- (I feel that I will do one of the following):

    1) Go to purgatory
    2) Go to hell
    3) Simply stop existing
    4) Go to heaven
    5) Don't know
    6) Reincarnation
    7) Other

  • UDEATH from Project Canada 1975-80 Panel Study
    What do you think will happen to you after death?

    1) I will go to heaven.
    2) I will go to purgatory.
    3) I will go to hell.
    4) I will be reincarnated.
    5) I will simply stop existing.
    6) I really don't know.

  • UDEATH from Project Canada 1975-85 Panel Study
    What do you think will happen to you after death?

    1) I will go to heaven.
    2) I will go to purgatory.
    3) I will go to hell.
    4) I will be reincarnated.
    5) I will simply stop existing.
    6) I really don't know.

  • UDEATH from Project Canada 1975
    What do you think will happen to you after death?

    1) I will go to heaven.
    2) I will go to purgatory.
    3) I will go to hell.
    4) I will be reincarnated.
    5) I will simply stop existing.
    6) I really don't know.

  • BELIEVE5 from Presbyterian Panel Survey, November 2002 - End-of-Life Issues, Clergy
    Do you believe in the existence of hell?

    1) Yes
    2) No
    3) Not sure

  • HELL from Presbyterian Panel Survey, August 1999 - Public Role of Presbyterians, Members
    Do you think there is a hell, to which people who have led bad lives and die without being sorry are eternally damned?

    1) No
    2) Yes
    3) Not sure

  • HELL from Presbyterian Panel Survey, November 2003 - Churchwide Special Offerings, Members/Elders
    Please indicate the extent to which you agree or disagree with each of the following statements: There is a hell

    1) Strongly agree
    2) Agree
    3) Not sure
    4) Disagree
    5) Strongly disagree

  • HELL from Presbyterian Panel Survey, May 2003 - Stewardship, Finances, and Allocation of Resources, Elders
    There is a hell.

    1) Strongly agree
    2) Agree
    3) Not sure
    4) Disagree
    5) Strongly disagree

  • HELL from Presbyterian Panel Survey, May 2003 - Stewardship, Finances, and Allocation of Resources, Members
    There is a hell.

    1) Strongly agree
    2) Agree
    3) Not sure
    4) Disagree
    5) Strongly disagree

  • HELL from Presbyterian Panel Survey, February 2003 - Hunger Issues, Members and Elders
    Please indicate the extent to which you agree or disagree with each of the following statements: There is a hell

    1) Strongly agree
    2) Agree
    3) Not sure
    4) Disagree
    5) Strongly disagree

  • HELL4 from Project Canada 1990-95 Panel Study
    Do you believe - In hell?

    1) Yes, I definitely do.
    2) Yes, I think so.
    3) No, I don't think so.
    4) No, I definitely do not.

  • HELL from Middletown Area Study, 1998
    ASKED ONLY OF THOSE RESPONDENTS WHO NEVER ATTEND CHURCH: Do you believe in hell?

    1) Yes
    2) No
    3) Are you not sure

  • HELL4 from Project Canada 1975-90 Panel Study
    Do you believe - In hell?

    1) Yes, I definitely do.
    2) Yes, I think so.
    3) No, I don't think so.
    4) No, I definitely do not.

  • HELL5 from Project Canada 1975-95 Panel Study
    Do you believe in the following? - Hell

    1) Yes, definitely
    2) Yes, I think so.
    3) No, I don't think so.
    4) No, definitely not

  • HELL5 from Project Canada 1980-95 Panel Study
    Do you believe in the following? - Hell

    1) Yes, definitely
    2) Yes, I think so.
    3) No, I don't think so.
    4) No, definitely not

  • HELL5 from Project Canada 1985-95 Panel Study
    Do you believe in the following? - Hell

    1) Yes, definitely
    2) Yes, I think so.
    3) No, I don't think so.
    4) No, definitely not

  • HELL5 from Project Canada 1990-95 Panel Study
    Do you believe in the following? - Hell

    1) Yes, definitely
    2) Yes, I think so.
    3) No, I don't think so.
    4) No, definitely not
    8) Undecided

  • UDEATH from Project Canada 1975-90 Panel Study
    What do you think will happen to you after death?

    1) I will go to heaven.
    2) I will go to purgatory.
    3) I will go to hell.
    4) I will be reincarnated.
    5) I will simply stop existing.
    6) I really don't know.

  • UDEATH from Project Canada 1975-95 Panel Study
    What do you think will happen to you after death?

    1) I will go to heaven.
    2) I will go to purgatory.
    3) I will go to hell.
    4) I will be reincarnated.
    5) I will simply stop existing.
    6) I really don't know.

  • BELIEVE5 from Presbyterian Panel Survey, November 2002 - End-of-Life Issues, Members
    Do you believe in the existence of hell?

    1) Yes
    2) No
    3) Not sure

  • BELIEVE5 from Presbyterian Panel Survey, November 2002 - End-of-Life Issues, Elders
    Do you believe in the existence of hell?

    1) Yes
    2) No
    3) Not sure

  • HELL4 from Project Canada 1980-90 Panel Study
    Do you believe - In hell?

    1) Yes, I definitely do.
    2) Yes, I think so.
    3) No, I don't think so.
    4) No, I definitely do not.

  • HELL from Presbyterian Panel Survey, November 1999 - Interpersonal Violence, Clergy
    Do you think there is a hell, to which people who have led bad lives and die without being sorry are eternally damned?

    1) No
    2) Yes
    3) Not sure
    4) Other

  • HELL from Presbyterian Panel Survey, November 1999 - Interpersonal Violence, Elders
    Do you think there is a hell, to which people who have led bad lives and die without being sorry are eternally damned?

    1) No
    2) Yes
    3) Not sure

  • HELL from Presbyterian Panel Survey, 1997-1999 - Demographic Information, Clergy
    Do you think there is a hell, to which people who have led bad lives and die without being sorry are eternally damned?

    1) No
    2) Yes
    3) Not sure
    4) Other

  • HELL from Presbyterian Panel Survey, May 1997 - Nature and the Environment, Elders
    Do you think there is a hell, to which people who have led bad lives and die without being sorry are eternally damned?

    1) No
    2) Yes
    3) Not sure

  • HELL from Presbyterian Panel Survey, May 1997 - Nature and the Environment, Clergy
    Do you think there is a hell, to which people who have led bad lives and die without being sorry are eternally damned?

    1) No
    2) Yes
    3) Not sure
    4) Other

  • HELL from Presbyterian Panel Survey, 1997-1999 - Demographic Information, Members and Elders
    Do you think there is a hell, to which people who have led bad lives and die without being sorry are eternally damned?

    1) No
    2) Yes
    3) Not sure
    4) More than one

  • HELL from Presbyterian Panel Survey, November 1998 - Science, Technology, and Faith, Members
    Do you think there is a hell, to which people who have led bad lives and die without being sorry are eternally damned?

    1) No
    2) Yes
    3) Not sure

  • HELL from Presbyterian Panel Survey, November 1997 - Older Adult Ministries, Elders
    Do you think there is a hell, to which people who have led bad lives and die without being sorry are eternally damned?

    1) No
    2) Yes
    3) Not sure

  • HELL from Presbyterian Panel Survey, November 1997 - Older Adult Ministries, Members
    Do you think there is a hell, to which people who have led bad lives and die without being sorry are eternally damned?

    1) No
    2) Yes
    3) Not sure

  • HELL from Presbyterian Panel Survey, August 1997 - Social Justice and Welfare, Clergy
    Do you think there is a hell, to which people who have led bad lives and die without being sorry are eternally damned?

    1) No
    2) Yes
    3) Not sure
    4) Other

  • HELL from Presbyterian Panel Survey, August 1997 - Social Justice and Welfare, Members
    Do you think there is a hell, to which people who have led bad lives and die without being sorry are eternally damned?

    1) No
    2) Yes
    3) Not sure

  • HELL from Presbyterian Panel Survey, August 1998 - World Mission, Elders
    Do you think there is a hell, to which people who have led bad lives and die without being sorry are eternally damned?

    1) No
    2) Yes
    3) Not sure

  • HELL from Presbyterian Panel Survey, August 1998 - World Mission, Members
    Do you think there is a hell, to which people who have led bad lives and die without being sorry are eternally damned?

    1) No
    2) Yes
    3) Not sure

  • HELL from Presbyterian Panel Survey, August 1998 - World Mission, Clergy
    Do you think there is a hell, to which people who have led bad lives and die without being sorry are eternally damned?

    1) No
    2) Yes
    3) Not sure
    4) Other

  • HELL from Presbyterian Panel Survey, February 1999 - Language and God, Clergy
    Do you think there is a hell, to which people who have led bad lives and die without being sorry are eternally damned?

    1) No
    2) Yes
    3) Not sure
    4) Other

  • HELL from Presbyterian Panel Survey, February 1999 - Language and God, Elders
    Do you think there is a hell, to which people who have led bad lives and die without being sorry are eternally damned?

    1) No
    2) Yes
    3) Not sure

[Viewing Matches 1-150] > [View Matches 151-173]  (of 173 total matches in Data Archive Questions/Variables)
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