ARDA Dictionary
  • Agnosticism:A philosophical position neither affirming nor denying belief in a deity. Agnostics believe the question of whether God exists must be left open and unanswered. The concept comes from David Hume (1711-1776), who questioned the idea of causality, and by extension the historical accuracy of biblical miracles. The term "agnostic" was coined by Thomas Huxley (1825-1895), and was used as a method more than a belief system, claiming that one should seek truth until a certain point where the evidence becomes scarce or non-existent (Reid et al. 1990: 31).
[Viewing Matches 1-1]  (of 1 total matches in the ARDA Dictionary)
Citations
Citations are taken from the Sociology of Religion Searchable Bibliographic Database, created and updated by Anthony J. Blasi (Ph.D. in Sociology, University of Notre Dame; University of Texas at San Antonio). The ARDA is not responsible for content or typographical errors.
  • Neither ideologues nor agnostics: Alternative voters' belief sysem in an age of partisan politics.
    Baldassarri, Delia, and Amir Goldberg (2014)
    American Journal of Sociology 120:1: 45-95.

    Associated Search Terms: United States; Politics, U.S.A.
  • Perceptions of Science and American Secularism.
    Baker, Joseph O. (2012)
    Sociological Perspectives 55:1: 167-188.

    Favorable view of science is more characteristic of secularists than religiously affiliated Americans.

    Associated Search Terms: Agnostic; United States; Science; Evolution; Creationism; Atheist, U.S.A.
  • Atheists and Agnostics Negotiate Religion and Family.
    Ecklund, Elaine Howard, and Kristen Schultz Lee (2011)
    Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 50:4: 728-743.

    Based on 2005-08 interviews with scientists who do not believe in a religion but join religions for the sake of their families & out of a desire for community. See erratum in Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 51:1 (2012): iv.

    Associated Search Terms: Family; Scientist; Atheist, U.S.A.; Agnostic
  • None Too Simple: Examining Issues of Religious Nonbelief and Nonbelonging in the United States.
    Baker, Joseph O., and Buster G. Smith (2009)
    Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 48:4: 719-733.

    Analyzes 2007 U.S.A. survey data; explores the stances of the true atheists, agnostics, & unchurched believers.

    Associated Search Terms: Unchurched religion; Atheist, U.S.A.; United States; Agnostic
  • Beyond Belief: Atheism, Agnosticism, and Theistic Certainty in the United States.
    Sherkat, Darren E. (2008)
    Sociological Spectrum 28:5: 438-459.

    Associated Search Terms: Belief; Agnostic; Atheist, U.S.A.
  • "'Ich würd' mir das offen lassen." Agnostische Spiritualität als Annäherung an die "große Transzendenz" eines Lebens nach dem Tode.
    Wohlrab-Sahr, Monika, Uta Karstein, and Christine Schaumburg (2005)
    Zeitschrift für Religionswissenschaft 13: 153-174.

    Associated Search Terms: Death; Agnostic
  • Religious Beliefs in Europe: Factors of Accelerated Decline.
    Dogan, Mattei (2003)
    Research in the Social Scientific Study of Religion 14: 161-188.

    Reviews of a number of surveys showing a decline in religious belief in Europe.

    Associated Search Terms: Belief; Agnostic; Europe; Generations; Disaffiliation
  • Religious Independents Within Western Industrialized Nations: a Socio-demographic Profile.
    Hayes, Bernadette C. (2000)
    Sociology of Religion 61:2: 191-207.

    Analyzes cross-cultural survey data from western industrial nations; religious independents are more likely to be non-believers. They tend to be young, single, educated, & especially male.

    Associated Search Terms: Independents; Atheist; Agnostic
  • Power and Knowledge: A Study in the Social Development of Early Christianity.
    Green, Henry A. (1991)
    Studies in Religion/Sciences religieuses 20:2: 217-231.

    Sees the 2nd century struggle between Catholic & Agnostic Christianity as between institutionalized power & those resisting institutionalization.

    Associated Search Terms: Early Christian; Gnostic; Institutionalization; Power; Sociology of knowledge
  • Varieties of Unbelief. Atheists and Agnostics in English Society, 1850-1960.
    Budd, Susan (1977)
    London: Heinemann.

    Historical & sociological study of the various anti-clerical movements, secular religions, & religions of science & ethics in Britain.

    Associated Search Terms: Historical; Great Britain; Atheist, Great Britain
[Viewing Matches 1-10] > [View Matches 1-12]  (of 12 total matches in Citations)
Questions/Variables on Surveys
  • DESCREL from Exploring Religious America, 2002
    Please indicate which of the following best describes your religion.

    1) Catholic
    2) Protestant
    3) Christian other than Catholic or Protestant
    4) Jewish
    5) Mormon
    6) Muslim
    7) Hindu
    8) Buddhist
    9) Atheist
    10) Agnostic
    11) Or are you of another religion? (Specify)
    12) No preference (volunteered)
    13) Don't know/Not applicable/Refused

  • ATHEIST from National Study of Youth and Religion, Wave 3 (2007-2008)
    (atheist_w3)

    1) Atheist
    2) Agnostic
    3) Not religious
    4) Something else
    777) Don't know
    888) Refused
    999) Legitimate skip

  • CI_1_2 from Portraits of American Life Study, Merged Dataset, 2006-2012
    [Wave 2] Respondent's religion

    1) Christian
    2) Muslim
    3) Jewish
    4) Roman Catholic
    5) Mormon
    6) Buddhist
    7) Hindu
    8) Agnostic
    9) Atheist
    10) Spiritual
    11) Don't think about religion
    12) Other

  • CIP_1_2 from Portraits of American Life Study, Merged Dataset, 2006-2012
    [Wave 2] Respondent's religion as adult before 2006

    1) Christian
    2) Muslim
    3) Jewish
    4) Roman Catholic
    5) Mormon
    6) Buddhist
    7) Hindu
    8) Agnostic
    9) Atheist
    10) Spiritual
    11) Don't think about religion
    12) Other

  • CIF_31_2 from Portraits of American Life Study, Merged Dataset, 2006-2012
    [Wave 2] Spouse/partners religion

    1) Christian
    2) Muslim
    3) Jewish
    4) Roman Catholic
    5) Mormon
    6) Buddhist
    7) Hindu
    8) Agnostic
    9) Atheist
    10) Spiritual
    11) Don't think about religion
    12) Other

  • CIF_1_2 from Portraits of American Life Study, Merged Dataset, 2006-2012
    [Wave 2] Respondent's religion in which raised

    1) Christian
    2) Muslim
    3) Jewish
    4) Roman Catholic
    5) Mormon
    6) Buddhist
    7) Hindu
    8) Agnostic
    9) Atheist
    10) Spiritual
    11) Don't think about religion
    12) Other

  • P_H1W1 from Portraits of American Life Study, Merged Dataset, 2006-2012
    [Wave 1] Which of the following do you consider yourself?

    1) Roman Catholic
    2) Protestant
    4) Jewish
    6) Buddhist
    7) Hindu
    8) Agnostic
    9) Atheist
    10) Don't think about religion
    11) Spiritual
    12) Other

  • ATHEIST1 from National Study of Youth and Religion, Wave 3 (2007-2008)
    (atheist1_w3) [IF DOES NOT CONSIDER SELF ANY RELIGION, DK OR REF OR IF REPORTS BEING "NOT RELIGIOUS," DK OR REF] F:11. Do you consider yourself to be an atheist, agnostic, just not religious, or something else? [MAKE SURE NOT PROTESTANT, CATHOLIC, JEWISH, OR MUSLIM; IF SO, GO BACK TO F:9 OR F:10.]

    1) Atheist
    2) Agnostic
    3) Not religious
    4) Something else
    777) Don't know
    888) Refused
    999) Legitimate skip

  • PATHEIST from National Study of Youth and Religion, Wave 1 (2003)
    P82. [If parent respondent does not identify with a religious tradition/denomination/church or answered "don't know" or "refused"][IF P81 <> 1] Do you consider yourself to be an atheist, an agnostic, just not religious, or something else? [IV INSTRUCTION: MAKE SURE RESPONSE IS NOT PROTESTANT, CATHOLIC, JEWISH, OR MUSLIM; IF SO, SNAP BACK TO P81]

    1) Atheist
    2) Agnostic
    3) Not religious
    4) Something else
    777) Don't know
    888) Refused
    999) Not asked

  • ATHEIST1 from National Study of Youth and Religion, Wave 1 (2003)
    Y63. [If teen does not identify with a religion][IF Y61=0,2,3 OR Y62> 7] Do you consider yourself to be an atheist, agnostic, just not religious, or something else? (MAKE SURE NOT PROTESTANT, CATHOLIC, JEWISH, OR MUSLIM; IF SO, SKIP, BACK TO APPROPRIATE CATEGORY.)

    1) Atheist
    2) Agnostic
    3) Not religious
    4) Something else
    777) Don't know
    888) Refused
    999) Not asked

[Viewing Matches 1-10] > [View Matches 1-150]  (of 472 total matches in Data Archive Questions/Variables)
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