QuickStats
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Timeline
  • O'Hair, Madalyn Murray: Madalyn Murray O’Hair (1919-1995) was instrumental in banning Bible readings in public schools and founded one of the largest organizations of atheists in America.
  • Secular Movement: Gaining prominence in the mid-20th century, the modern secular movement pushed for a society without religion.
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Measurements
  • Atheists, View of: Does the respondent have a positive or negative view of atheists? This could include their willingness to allow atheists to participate in society (e.g., teach in school, be elected President, etc.) or more general questions about whether they have a favorable view of atheists.
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National Profiles
[Viewing Matches 1-266]  (of 266 total matches in National Profiles)
Citations
Citations are taken from the Sociology of Religion Searchable Bibliographic Database, created and updated by Anthony J. Blasi (Ph.D. in Sociology, University of Notre Dame; University of Texas at San Antonio). The ARDA is not responsible for content or typographical errors.
  • Atheists on the Santiago Way: Examining motivations to go on pilgrimage.
    Farias, Miguel, Thomas J. Coleman III, James E. Bartlett, Lluis Oviedo, Pedro Soares, Tiago Santos, and Maria del Carmen Bas (2019)
    Sociology of Religion 80:1: 28-44.

    Analyzes questionnaire data from Christian & atheist pilgrims on the Camino Santiago de Compostela. Motives of the 2 groups differ only on community (being with my community, doing something on behalf of another, helping sick people) & religious motives, which were both higher for the Christians.

    Associated Search Terms: Atheist; Pilgrimage
  • Unorganized atheism and the secular movement: Reddit as a site for studying "lived atheism."
    Lundmark, Evelina, and Stephen LeDrew (2019)
    Social Compass 66:1: 112-129.

    Discourse on an atheist online forum resembles those in formal atheist organizations.

    Associated Search Terms: Discourse; Internet; Atheist
  • Bringing up nones: Intergenerational influences and cohort trends.
    Bengtson, Vern L., R. David Hayward, Phil Zuckerman, and Merril Silverstein (2018)
    Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 57:2: 258-275.

    Analyzes 1970-2005 panel data from 3 generations in a California-based health plan. Socialization as humanists, atheists, & unintended socialization or religious rebels by religious parents explain part of the increase in religious "nones" between 1971 & 2005.

    Associated Search Terms: Family; Panel study; Socialization; Atheist, U.S.A.
  • Cross-national variation in the social origins and religious consequences of religious non-affiliation.
    Schwadel, Philip (2018)
    Social Science Research 70: 254-270.

    Associated Search Terms: Atheist
  • The inclusion of nonreligion in religion and human rights.
    Beaman, Lori G., Cory Steele, and Keelin Pringnitz (2018)
    Social Compass 65:1: 43-61.

    Explores tensions around the presence of "nones" in societies where there are displays of majoritarian religion.

    Associated Search Terms: Conflict; Minority; Atheist
  • Living without God in a religious country: Polish nonbelievers as a cultural minority.
    Tyrala, Radoslaw (2018)
    Social Compass 65:1: 131-144.

    Polish nonbelievers tend to be converts to nonbelief; they rarely encounter explicit prejudice but feel pressures to conform to some rituals.

    Associated Search Terms: Atheist, Poland; Minority; Poland
  • The rise of "no religion': Towards an explanation.
    Woodhead, Linda (2017)
    Sociology of Religion 78:3: 247-262.

    Descriptive data on atheists, mostly UK data. "No religion" has become the largest category in Great Britain.

    Associated Search Terms: Atheist, Great Britain
  • Christian fundamentalists or atheists: Who do progressive Christians like or hate more?
    Yancey, George (2017)
    Journal of Religion and Society 19 (online).

    Associated Search Terms: Prejudice, anti-fundamentalist; Prejudice, anti-atheist
  • Catholics and atheists: A cross-cultural qualitative analysis of religious identities among gay men.
    Izienicki, Hubert (2017)
    Sociology of Religion 78:3: 263-288.

    The monolithic Catholicism of Poland is hostile toward homosexual men & drives them into atheism or agnosticism. The pluralist situation of the USA allows them to retain their religious tradition.

    Associated Search Terms: Atheist, Poland; Catholic, Poland; United States, Illinois, Chicago; Poland, Warsaw; Catholic, U.S.A.; Homosexuality; Comparative; Pluralism
  • Looking beyond the church tax: Families and the disaffiliation of Austrian Roman Catholics.
    Berghammer, Caroline, Ulrike Zartler, and Desiree Krivanek (2017)
    Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 56:3:

    Uses mixed methods including 2008-12 panel data. The church tax was cited as responsible by disaffiliating believers, ideological reasons by agnostics & atheists. Family transitions were important for both groups.

    Associated Search Terms: Austria; Catholic, Austria; Disaffiliation; Family; Panel study; Atheist, Austria
  • New atheism, open-mindedness, and critical thinking.
    Cotter, Christopher R. (2017)
    In Christopher R. Cotter, Philip Andrew Quadrio, and Jonathan Tuckett (eds.) New Atheism: Critical Perspectives and Contemporary Debates. Dordrecht: Springer, pp. 33-50.

    Associated Search Terms: Atheist
  • Childhood, youth and non-religion: Towards a social research agenda.
    Hemming, Peter J. (2017)
    Social Compass 64:1: 113-129.

    Overview of literature and identification of research topics.

    Associated Search Terms: Children; Atheist
  • Prosocial skeptics: Skepticism and generalized trust.
    Loveland, Matthew, Alexander G. Capella, and India Maisonet (2017)
    Critical Research on Religion 5:3: 251-265.

    Associated Search Terms: Atheist; Trust
  • From existential to social understandings of risk: Examining gender differences in non-religion.
    Edgell, Penny, Jacqui Frost, and Evan Stewart (2017)
    Social Currents, published online January 10, Doi: 10.1177/2329496516686619.

    Associated Search Terms: Atheist; Gender; Risk preference
  • No one expects a transgender Jew: Religious sexual, and gendered intersections in the evaluation of religious and nonreligious others.
    Cragun, Ryan T., and J. Edward Sumerau (2017)
    Secularism and Nonreligion 6:1: 1-16.

    Associated Search Terms: Transgender; Atheist; Gender
  • Expanding on the experiences of transgender nonreligious people: An exploratory analysis.
    Mathers, Lain A.B. (2017)
    Secularism and Nonreligion 6:1-10.

    Associated Search Terms: Atheist; Gender; Transgender
  • Living well togeher in a (non)religious future: Contributions from the sociology of religion.
    Beaman, Lori G. (2017)
    Sociology of Religion 78:1: 9-32.

    Focuses on people who rescue endangered sea turtles.

    Associated Search Terms: Spirituality; Atheist; Environmentalism; Lived religion
  • Becoming a religious none: Irreligious socialization and disaffiliation.
    Thiessen, Joel, and Sarah Wilkins-LaFlamme (2017)
    Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 56:1: 64-82.

    Examines Alberta, Canada, & other survey data. Over time religious "nones" become increasingly so by childhood socialization rather than through disaffiliation.

    Associated Search Terms: Atheist, Canada; Canada, Alberta; Disaffiliation; Socialization
  • Christian identification and self-reported depression: Evidence from China.
    Hu, Anning, Xiaozhao Yousef Yang, and Weixiang Luo (2017)
    Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 56:4: 765-780.

    Christians report more depression than others in China.

    Associated Search Terms: Depression; Atheist, China; Buddhist, China; Christian, China; China
  • Religious ambivalence, liminality, and the increase of no religious preference in the United States, 2006-2014.
    Hout, Michael (2017)
    Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 56:1: 52-63.

    Based on General Social Survey (USA) panel data; focuses on respondents who report no religious identification in one survey but report having one in a subsequent one: "liminal status."

    Associated Search Terms: United States; Panel study; Atheist, U.S.A.; Identification
  • Religion, religiosity, and happiness.
    Sander, William (2017)
    Review of Religious Research 59:2: 251-262.

    Analyzes 1998-2012 General Social Survey (U.S.A.) data; compares happiness of religious tradition categories.

    Associated Search Terms: Happiness; Protestant, U.S.A.; Islam, U.S.A.; Catholic, U.S.A.; Buddhist, U.S.A.; Atheist, U.S.A.; Jewish, U.S.A.
  • Atheists and other cultural outsiders: Moral boundaries and the non-religious in the United States.
    Edgell, Penny, Douglas Hartmann, Evan Stewart, and Joseph Gerteis (2016)
    Annual Review of Sociology 38: 247-265.

    Associated Search Terms: Atheist, U.S.A.; Marginality
  • The Nonreligious. Understanding Secular People and Societies.
    Zuckerman, Phil, Luke W. Galen, and Frank L. Pasquale (2016)
    New York: Oxford University Press.

    Associated Search Terms: Atheist
  • Piccoli atei crescono. Davvero una generazione senza Dio?
    Garelli, Franco (2016)
    Bologna: Il Mulino.

    Associated Search Terms: Italy; Atheist, Italy; Belief
  • Young British religious "nones": Findings from the Youth on Religion study.
    Madge, Nicola, and Peter J. Hemming (2016)
    Journal of Youth Studies ?http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13676261.2016.1273518

    Associated Search Terms: Great Britain; Atheist, Great Britain
  • "No religion" in Britain: The rise of a new cultural majority.
    Woodhead, Linda (2016)
    Journal of the British Academy 4: 245-261.

    Associated Search Terms: Atheist, Great Britain; Great Britain
  • American Secularism. Cultural Contours of Nonreligious Belief Systems.
    Baker, Joseph O., and Buster G. Smith (2016)
    New York: New York University Press.

    Associated Search Terms: Atheist, U.S.A.; Secularism
  • "I think some people need religion": The social construction of nonreligious moral identities.
    Sumerau, J. Edward, and Ryan T. Cragun (2016)
    Sociology of Religion 77:4: 386-407.

    Based on 30 semi-structured interviews with self-identified non-religious Americans. Experiencing childhood religion as focused on obedience & conformity, noting religious people's prejudices about non-religious people, & interactions with religious people that led to seeking meaning elsewhere served as pathways to irreligion.

    Associated Search Terms: Socialization; Atheist, U.S.A.
  • Religion, secular humanism, and atheism: Multi-institutional politics and the USAFA cadets' freethinkers group.
    Konieczny, Mary Ellen, and Megan C. Rogers (2016)
    Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 55:4: 821-838.

    Examines the opportunity structure of the Cadet Freethinkers Group at the U.S. Air Force Academy.

    Associated Search Terms: Atheist, U.S.A.; Military
  • Secularization and the wider gap in values and personal religiosity between the religious and nonreligious.
    Wilkins-Laflamme, Sarah (2016)
    Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 55:4: 717-736.

    Analyzes 2008 International Social Survey Program data; in regions where the unaffiliated form a greater proportion of the population, differences in sexual attitudes & stances toward abortion & gender roles between the affiliated & unaffiliated are greater.

    Associated Search Terms: Abortion; Atheist; Gender role; Sexual attitudes
  • The social context of organized nonbelief: County-level predictors of nonbeliever organizations in the United States
    García, Alfredo, and Joseph Blankholm (2016)
    Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 55:1: 70-90.

    County-level data show the percentage of the populations that is Evangelical correlates positively with the existence & number of nonbeliever organizations.

    Associated Search Terms: Atheist, U.S.A.; Dialectic; Ecology; United States
  • Not a lonely crowd? Social connectedness, religious service attendance, and the spiritual but not religious.
    Hastings, Orestes P. (2016)
    Social Science Research 57: 63-79.

    Associated Search Terms: United States; Social support; Atheist, U.S.A.; Practice; Spirituality
  • The religion of the educated classes revisited: New religions, the nonreligious, and educational levels.
    Lewis, James R., Sean E. Currie, and Michael P. Oman-Reagan (2016)
    Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 55:1: 91-104.

    Uses data from censuses. Members of most, but not all, new religions have higher than national averages of bachelor's degrees.

    Associated Search Terms: Great Britain, Wales; Australia; New Zealand; New religions; Atheist; Canada; Great Britain, England; Education
  • Who are the "new atheists"?
    Cragun, Ryan T. (2015)
    In Lori G. Beaman and Steven Tomlins (eds.) Atheist Identities: Spaces and Social Contexts. New York: Springer, pp. 195-211.

    Associated Search Terms: Demography; Atheist, U.S.A.
  • Freedom of and freedom from religion: Atheist involvement in legal cases.
    Beaman, Lori G. (2015)
    In Lori G. Beaman and Steven Tomlins (eds.) Atheist Identities: Spaces and Social Contexts. New York: Springer, pp. 39-52.

    Associated Search Terms: Atheist; Law
  • A common godlessness: A snapshot of a Canadian university atheist club, why its members joined, and what that community means to them.
    Tomlins, Steven (2015)
    In Lori G. Beaman and Steven Tomlins (eds.) Atheist Identities: Spaces and Social Contexts. New York: Springer, pp. 117-136.

    Associated Search Terms: Atheist, Canada; Students, undergraduate
  • From atheist to spiritual but not religious: A punctuated continuum of identities among the second generation of post-1970 immigrants in Canada.
    Beyer, Peter F. (2015)
    In Lori G. Beaman and Steven Tomlins (eds.) Atheist Identities: Spaces and Social Contexts. New York: Springer, pp. 137-151.

    Associated Search Terms: Generations; Canada; Identification; Spirituality; Atheist, Canada
  • Familial relationship outcomes of coming out as an atheist.
    Zimmerman, Kevin, Jesse Smith, Kevin Simonson, and Benjamin W. Myers (2015)
    Secularism and Nonreligion 4:1: 1-13.

    Associated Search Terms: Family; Atheist
  • Atheism versus humanism: Ideological tensions and identity dynamics.
    LeDrew, Stephen (2015)
    In Lori G. Beaman and Steven Tomlins (eds.) Atheist Identities: Spaces and Social Contexts. New York: Springer, pp. 53-68.

    Associated Search Terms: Atheist; Humanist
  • The church on the margins: The religious context of the new atheism.
    Stahl, William A. (2015)
    In Lori G. Beaman and Steven Tomlins (eds.) Atheist Identities: Spaces and Social Contexts. New York: Springer, pp. 19-37.

    Associated Search Terms: Canada; Atheist, Canada
  • Ambivalent atheist identities: Power and non-religious culture in contemporary Britain.
    Lee, Lois (2015)
    Social Analysis 59:2: 20-39.

    Associated Search Terms: Atheist, Great Britain; Participant observation
  • Nonreligious tolerance: American attitudes toward atheists, America's most unpopular religious group.
    Cox, Daniel, Robert P. Jones, and Juhem Navarro-Rivera (2015)
    In Paul A. Djupe (ed.) Religion and Political Tolerance in America. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, pp. 133-150.

    Associated Search Terms: Atheist, U.S.A.; Tolerance
  • The Regime of Religious Pluralism: Uncovering the Cultural Dimensions of American Religious Belonging.
    Nabors, Bradly (2015)
    Unpublished Ph.D dissertation, University of Southern California.

    Based on interviews with U.S. atheists & Muslims.

    Associated Search Terms: Atheist, U.S.A.; Individualism; Islam, U.S.A.; Pluralism; United States; Minority
  • Living non-religious identity in London.
    Mumford, Lorna (2015)
    In Lori G. Beaman and Steven Tomlins (eds.) Atheist Identities: Spaces and Social Contexts. New York: Springer, pp. 153-170.

    Associated Search Terms: Atheist, Great Britain; Great Britain, London
  • Secularist rituals in the US: Solidarity and legitimization.
    Cimino, Richard, and Christopher Smith (2015)
    In Lori G. Beaman and Steven Tomlins (eds.) Atheist Identities: Spaces and Social Contexts. New York: Springer, pp. 87-100.

    Associated Search Terms: Legitimation; Atheist, U.S.A.; Ritual; Solidarity
  • The new moral entrepreneurs: Atheist activism as scripted and performed political deviance.
    Fazzino, Lori L., Michael Ian Borer, and Mohammed Abdel Haq (2015)
    In M. Dellwing, J.A. Kotarba, an N.W. Pino (eds.) The Death and Resurrection of Deviance: Current Ideas and Research.

    Associated Search Terms: Deviance/social control; Politics; Moral entrepreneur; Atheist
  • Without God yet not without nuance: A qualitative study of atheism and non-religion among Scottish university students.
    Cotter, Christopher R. (2015)
    In Lori G. Beaman and Steven Tomlins (eds.) Atheist Identities: Spaces and Social Contexts. New York: Springer, pp. 171-193.

    Associated Search Terms: Atheist, Great Britain; Students, undergraduate; Great Britain, Scotland
  • The cultural, the nominal, and the secular: The social reality of religious identity among Sri Lankan Tamil youth in Canada.
    Amarasingam , Amarnath (2015)
    In Lori G. Beaman and Steven Tomlins (eds.) Atheist Identities: Spaces and Social Contexts. New York: Springer, pp. 69-85.

    Associated Search Terms: Canada; Youth; Tamil, Canada; Sri Linkan Canadians; Nominal religion; Cultural religion; Atheist, Canada
  • Atheism looking in: On the goals and strategies of organized nonbelief.
    Langston, Joseph A, Joseph H. Hammer, and Ryan T. Cragun (2015)
    Science, Religion, and Culture 2:3: 70-85.

    Associated Search Terms: Atheist
  • The Evolution of Atheism: The Politics of a Modern Movement.
    LeDrew, Stephen (2015)
    New York: Oxford University Press.

    Associated Search Terms: Atheist
  • Education, irreligion, and non-religion: Evidence from select anglophone census data.
    Lewis, James R. (2015)
    Journal of Contemporary Religion 30:2: 265-272.

    Associated Search Terms: Atheist; Education
  • Recognizing the Nonreligious: Reimagining the Secular.
    Lee, Lois (2015)
    Oxford: Oxford University Press.

    Associated Search Terms: Secular; Atheist
  • How unreligious are the religious "nones"? Religious dynamics of the unaffiliated in Canada.
    Wilkins-Laflamme, Sarah (2015)
    Canadian Journal of Sociology 40:4: 477-500.

    Associated Search Terms: Atheist, Canada; Canada
  • Losing our religion: How unaffiliated parents are raising their children.
    Manning, Christel J. (2015)
    New York: New York University Press.

    Associated Search Terms: Atheist; Socialization; Secularization; Family
  • "Not at all religious": Irreligiosity as deviance in a majority Muslim context.
    González, Alessandra L. (2015)
    Deviant Behavior 37:2: 184-195.

    Associated Search Terms: Atheist; Deviance/social control; Islam
  • Social affiliation from religious disaffiliation: Evidence of selective mixing among youth with no religious preference durign the transition to college.
    Sepulvado, Brandon, Michael Penta, David Hachen, and Omar Lizardo (2015)
    Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 54:4: 833-841.

    Analyzes cell phone connection data from a cohort of University of Notre Dame first year students. Finds religious non-affiliates & non-Catholic affiliates in their own networks.

    Associated Search Terms: Students, undergraduate; Network; Minority; Atheist; Homophily
  • Are all socialists anti-religious? Anti-religiosity and the socialist left in 21 Western Europea countries (1990-2008).
    Ribberink, Egbert, Peter Achterberg, and Dick Houtman (2015)
    Journal of Contemporary Religion 30:3: 435-452.

    Associated Search Terms: Socialism; Politics, Europe; Europe, western; Atheist, Europe
  • Intergenerational religious mobility in contemporary China.
    Hu, Anning, and Reid J. Leamaster (2015)
    Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 54:1: 79-99.

    Analyzes 2010 China General Social Survey data. Intergenerational religious mobility shows a growth of Islam, Christianity, & nones relative to traditional Chinese religions for father-child mobility, & advantage of nones for mother-child mobility.

    Associated Search Terms: Atheist, China; Christian, China; Conversion; Generations; Islam, China; China
  • Stigma management by Midwestern secularists.
    Garneau, Christopher (2015)
    In Paul A. Djupe (ed.) Religion and Political Tolerance in America. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, pp. 211-227.

    Associated Search Terms: Atheist, U.S.A.; Stigma; United States, Midwest
  • Non-affiliation, non-denominationalism, religious switching, and denominational switching: Longitudinal analysis of the effects on religiosity.
    Suh, Daniel, and Raymond Russell (2015)
    Review of Religious Research 57:1: 25-41.

    Analyzes 2006-2010 General Social Survey (U.S.A.) panel data. Conversion from one religion to another increases religiosity, from one Protestant denomination to another affects practice modestly but not belief. Non-affiliates become less religious. Protestants with no denomination resemble other Protestants.

    Associated Search Terms: Atheist, U.S.A.; Belief; Conversion; Denomination (organizational entity); Panel study; Practice
  • Gendering (non)religion: Politics, education, and gender gaps in secularity in the Untied States.
    Baker, Joseph O., and Andrew L. Whitehead (2015)
    Social Forces 94:4: 1623-1645.

    Associated Search Terms: Atheist, U.S.A.; Education; Gender; United States; Politics, U.S.A.
  • Atheist Awakening: Secular Activism & Community in America.
    Cimino, Richard, and Christopher Smith (2014)
    New York: Oxford University Press

    Based on participant observation in atheist meetings & events, on interviews, surveys, & content analyses of literature & websites. Awakened atheism & religious activism dialectically need each other.

    Associated Search Terms: Dialectic; Atheist, U.S.A.; Media; Content analysis; Minority; Participant observation; Ritual; Schism; Secular humanism; Social movement; Internet; Identity
  • Bounded by disbelief: How atheists in the United States differentiate themselves from religious believers.
    Guenther, Katja M. (2014)
    Journal of Contemporary Religion 29:1: 1-16.

    Associated Search Terms: Atheist, U.S.A.
  • Divided we stand: The politics of the atheist movement in the United States.
    Kettell, Steven (2014)
    Journal of Contemporary Religion 29:3: 377-394.

    Associated Search Terms: Atheist, U.S.A.; Politics, U.S.A.
  • Living the Secular Lif: New Answers to Old Questions.
    Zuckerman, Phil (2014)
    New York: Penguin.

    Associated Search Terms: Atheist
  • Secular or nonreligious? Investigating and interpreting generic "Not religious" categories and populations.
    Lee, Lois (2014)
    Religion 44: 466-482.

    Associated Search Terms: Atheist
  • Spiritualità senza Dio?
    Berzano, Luigi (2014)
    Oornto: Mimesis.

    Associated Search Terms: Atheist; Spirituality
  • Explaining why more Americans have no religious preference: Political backlash and generational succession, 1987-2012.
    Hout, Michael, and Claude S. Fischer (2014)
    Sociological Science 1: 423-447.

    Associated Search Terms: Politics, U.S.A.; Generations; Membership; Atheist, U.S.A.
  • Creating a godless community: The collective identity work of contemporary American atheists.
    Smith, Jesse M. (2013)
    Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 52:1: 80-99.

    Based on interviews & participant observation in 7 American atheist organizations.

    Associated Search Terms: Stigma; Participant observation; Identity; Discourse; Activism; Atheist, U.S.A.
  • There Is No God: Atheists in America.
    Williamson, David A., and George Yancey (2013)
    Lanham, Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield.

    Associated Search Terms: Atheist, U.S.A.
  • Why People Will Not Vote for Atheist Candidates.
    Djupe, Paul A., Brian R. Calfano, and Chelsea Back (2013)
    In Paul A. Djupe and Brian R. Calfano (eds.) God Talk: Experimenting with the Religious Causes of Public Opinion. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, pp. 74-92.

    Associated Search Terms: Politics; Atheist; Prejudice, religious
  • Discovering atheism: Heterogeneity in trajectories to atheist identity and activism.
    LeDrew, Stephen (2013)
    Sociology of Religion 74:4: 431-453.

    Based on 15 interviews with active atheists. Notes 5 identity trajectories. Comment by Jesse M. Smith, pp. 454-463. Reply by LeDrew, pp. 464-470.

    Associated Search Terms:
  • Measuring spiritual fitness: Atheist military personnel, veterans, and civilians.
    Hammer, Joseph H., Ryan T. Cragun, and Karen Hwang (2013)
    Military Psychology 25:5: 438-451.

    Associated Search Terms: Military; Atheist, U.S.A.
  • From the outside in: Crossing boundaries to build collective identity in the new atheist movement.
    Guenther, Katja M., Kerry Mulligan, and Cameron Papp. (2013)
    Social Problems 60:4: 457-475.

    Associated Search Terms: Boundary maintenance; Identity; Atheist
  • (Dis)believing and belonging. Investigating the narratives of young British atheists.
    Catto, Rebecca, and Janet Eccles (2013)
    Temenos 49;1: 37-63.

    Associated Search Terms: Great Britain; Atheist, Great Britain
  • Religious non-involvement among African Americans, Black Caribbeans and Non-hispanic Whites: Findings from the National Survey of American Life.
    Brown, R. Khari, Robert Joseph Taylor, and Linda M. Chatters (2013)
    Review of Religious Reseach 55:3:435-457.

    Reports 2001-03 survey data. African Americans & Black Caribbeans were both more religiously involved than non-Hispanic whites. Women, married persons, Southerners, & the highly educated were more involved in religion than others. The religiously uninvolved were not atheists.

    Associated Search Terms: United States, South; Women; Religiosity; Marriage; Education; Caribbean Americans; Atheist, U.S.A.; African Americans
  • Struktur und Identität des Nicht-Religiösen: Relationen und soziale Normirungen.
    Wohlrab-Sahr, Monika, and Tom Kaden (2013)
    Kölner Zeitschrift für Soziologie und Sozialpsychologie 65, 1 Suppl., 183-209.

    Associated Search Terms: Atheist
  • A world of atheism: Global demographies.
    Keysar, Ariela, and Juhem Navarro-Rivera (2013)
    In Stephen Bullivant and Michael Ruse (eds.) The Oxford Handbook of Atheism. Oxford: University Press, pp. 553-586.

    Associated Search Terms: Atheist; Demography
  • The politics of the new atheism.
    Schulzke, Marcus (2013)
    Politics and Religion 6:4: 778-799.

    Associated Search Terms: Politics; Atheist
  • The politics of new atheism.
    Kettell, Steven (2013)
    Secularism and Nonreligion 2:1: 61-72.

    Associated Search Terms: Atheist, U.S.A.; Atheist
  • The religious experiences of the non-religious in Taiwan.
    Kao, chen-yang (2013)
    In Yen-zen Tsai (ed.) Religious Experience in Contemporary Taiwan and China. Taipei: National Chengchi University Press, pp. 125-140.

    Associated Search Terms: Atheist, Taiwan; Experience; Taiwan
  • A Person-centered Examination of Adolescent Religiosity using Latent Class Analysis.
    Pearce, Lisa D., E. Michael Foster, and Jessica Halliday Hardie (2013)
    Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 52:1: 57-79.

    Latent class analysis of 2002-03 telephone interview data from a representative sample of U.S.A. teenagers. Finds 5 classes: abiders, adapters, assenters, avoiders, atheists.

    Associated Search Terms: Latent class analysis; Religiosity; Methods; Adolescents
  • Central and Eastern Europe.
    Borowik, Irena, Branko An?i?, and RadoslawTyra?a (2013)
    In Stephan Sebastian Bullivant (ed.) Oxford Handbook of Atheism. New York oxford University Press, pp. 622-637.

    Associated Search Terms: Atheist, Europe; Europe, central; Europe, eastern
  • Deprivatization of disbelief? Non-religiosity and anti-religiosity in 14 Western European countries.
    Ribberink, Egbert, Peter Achterberg, and Dick Houtman (2013)
    Politics and Religion 6: 101-120.

    Associated Search Terms: Prejudice, anti-religious; Europe, western; Atheist, Europe
  • The field of religions in Norwegian pluralist society.
    Reeh, Niels (2013)
    In Giuseppe Giordan and William H. Swatos, Jr. (eds.) Testing Pluralism. Globalizing Belief, Localizing Gods. Leiden: Brill, pp. 175-192.

    Conceptualize organized non-belief as meso-level counters to organized religion. The Norwegian state recognizes life stance organizations. Similarly religions establish their identities in counter-stances toward other religions.

    Associated Search Terms: Atheist, Norway; Spirituality; Pluralism; Norway; Levels of inclusiveness; Humanist, Norway
  • Unaffiliated Parents and the Religious Training of their Children.
    Manning, Christel J. (2013)
    Sociology of Religion 74:2: 149-175.

    Based on 2005-07 interviews with 48 religiously unaffiliated parents in selected U.S. cities.

    Associated Search Terms: Atheist, U.S.A.; Family; Socialization; Nonreligion; Grounded theory; Salience
  • Forms, frequency, and correlates of perceived anti-atheist discrimination.
    Hammer, Joseph H., Ryan T. Cragun, Jesse M. Smith, and Karen Hwang (2012)
    Secularism and Nonreligion 1: 43-58.

    Associated Search Terms: Discrimination; Atheist
  • Forms, frequency, and correlates of perceived anti-atheist discrimination.
    Hamer, Joseph H., Ryan T. Cragun, Karen Hwang, and Jesse Smith (2012)
    Secularism and Nonreligion 1: 43-67.

    Associated Search Terms: Atheist, U.S.A.; Discrimination
  • Religious nonaffiliation and schooling: The educational trajectories of three types of relgious "nones."
    Massengill, Rebekah Peeples, and Carol Ann MacGregor (2012)
    In Lisa A. Keister, John McCarthy, and Roger Finke (eds.) Religion, Work and Inequality. Bingley, UK: Emerald Group Publishing, pp. 183-203.

    Associated Search Terms: Atheist; Education
  • "They just don't stand for nothing": LGBT Christians' definition of non-religious others.
    Sumerau, J. Edward (2012)
    Secularism and Nonreligion 5:1: 1-12.

    Associated Search Terms: Atheist; Homosexuality
  • Atheism and secularity.
    Keysar, Ariela (2012)
    Journal of Contemporary Religion 27:1: 131-144.

    Associated Search Terms: Atheist; Secularism
  • Disenchanting India: Organized Rationalism and Criticism of Religion in India.
    Quack, Johannes (2012)
    New York: Oxford University Press.

    Associated Search Terms: India; Atheist, India
  • Atheisms unbound: The role of the new media in the formation of a secularist identity.
    Smith, Christopher, and Richard Cimino (2012)
    Secularism and Nonreligion 1:1: 17-31.

    Associated Search Terms: Media; Atheist; Internet
  • Atheisms unbound: The role of the new media in the formation of a secualrist identity.
    Smith, Christian, and Richard Cimino (2012)
    Secualrism and Nonreligion 1:1: 17-31.

    Associated Search Terms: Media; Atheist; Identity
  • New atheism as identity politics.
    Taira, Teemu (2012)
    In Mathew Guest and Elisabeth Arweck (eds.) Religion and Knowledge: Sociological Perspectives. Farnham, U.K.: Ashgate, pp. 31-43.

    Associated Search Terms: Atheist; Politics; Identity
  • Irreligious socialization? The adult religious preferences of individuals raised with no religion.
    Merino, Stephen M. (2012)
    Secularism and Nonreligion 1: 1-16.

    Associated Search Terms: Atheist; Socialization; Family
  • Three puzzles of non-religion in Britain.
    Voas, David, and Siobhan McAndrew (2012)
    Journal of Contemporary Religion 27:1: 29-48.

    Associated Search Terms: Great Britain; Atheist, Great Britain
  • Locating nonreligion, in mind, body and space: New research methods for a new field.
    Lee, Lois (2012)
    In Luigi Berzano and Ole Preben Riis (eds.) Annual Review of the Sociology of Religion 3. New Methods in the Sociology of Religion. Leiden Brill, pp. 135-157.

    Non religion is a broader term than atheism, going beyond the intellectual. It is narrower than secularism, which is a negative measure of religion taken as a positive. Describes strategies for gethering interview data on nonreligion; uses illustrative intervews from work in southeast England.

    Associated Search Terms: Secularism; Nonreligion; Methods; Great Britain, England; Atheist
  • Contrasting irreligious orientations: Atheism and secularity in the USA and Scandinavia.
    Zuckerman, Phil (2012)
    Approaching Religion 2:1: 8-20.

    Associated Search Terms: Secularism; Scandinavia; Atheist, U.S.A.
  • Perceptions of Science and American Secularism.
    Baker, Joseph O. (2012)
    Sociological Perspectives 55:1: 167-188.

    Favorable view of science is more characteristic of secularists than religiously affiliated Americans.

    Associated Search Terms: Evolution; Creationism; Atheist, U.S.A.; Agnostic; Science; United States
  • On the receiving end: Discrimination toward the non-religious in the United States.
    Cragun, Ryan T., Barry Kosmin, Ariella Keysar, Joseph H. Hammer, and Michael Nielsen (2012)
    Journal of Contemporary Religion 27:1: 105-127.

    Associated Search Terms: Discrimination; Prejudice, anti-religious; United States; Atheist, U.S.A.
  • Family Structure, Family Disruption, and Profiles of Adolescent Religiosity.
    Denton, Melinda Lundquist (2012)
    Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 51:1: 42-64.

    Analyzes 2003 & '08 National (U.S.A.) Study of Youth and Religion telephone survey data. Parental breakups are related to changes in adolescents' religious engagement, either increasing or decreasing it. Uses 5 levels of religious engagement: abiders, adapters, assenters, avoiders, atheists.

    Associated Search Terms: Divorce; Adolescents; Family
  • Religion in China. Survival and Revival under Communist Rule.
    Yang, Fenggang (2012)
    New York: Oxford University Press

    Brings together previously published essays by the author on religion in Communist China.

    Associated Search Terms: Atheist, China; Regulation; Persecution; Market model; Definition of religion; China; Oligopoly; Marxism
  • Retrospective accounts of religious disaffiliation in the United States: Stressors, skepticism, and political factors.
    Vargas, Nicholas (2012)
    Sociology of Religion 73:2: 200-223.

    Analyzes 2006 survey data from U.S. adults; religious skepticism, respondents' support for same-sex marriage & financial diffiuclties contribute to leaving religions while support for conservative Christian activism lessens leaving.

    Associated Search Terms: Disaffiliation; Politics, U.S.A.; United States; Marriage; Homosexuality; Atheist, U.S.A.; Activism; Economic
  • Views on human rights among Christians, Muslim and non-religious youth in Norway and Sweden.
    Botvar, Pal Ketil, and Anders Sjöborg (2012)
    Nordic Journal of Religion and Society 25:1: 67-81.

    Associated Search Terms: Islam, Norway; Atheist, Norway; Human rights; Youth; Sweden; Norway; Christian, Norway
  • Becoming an Atheist in America: Constructing Identity and Meaning from the Rejection of Theism.
    Smith, Jesse M. (2011)
    Sociology of Religion 72:2: 215-237.

    Based on group & individual interviews in a Rocky Mountain universiy town; develops a four stage model for the formation of atheist identities in a culturally theist context.

    Associated Search Terms: Identity; Atheist
  • Atheists and Agnostics Negotiate Religion and Family.
    Ecklund, Elaine Howard, and Kristen Schultz Lee (2011)
    Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 50:4: 728-743.

    Based on 2005-08 interviews with scientists who do not believe in a religion but join religions for the sake of their families & out of a desire for community. See erratum in Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 51:1 (2012): iv.

    Associated Search Terms: Scientist; Agnostic; Family; Atheist, U.S.A.
  • Protagoras's Assertion Revisited: American Atheism and its Accompanying Obscurities.
    Baggett, Jerome P. (2011)
    Implicit Religion 14:3: 257-294.

    Based on an analysis of American atheist literature and their accounts.

    Associated Search Terms: Atheist, U.S.A.
  • The new atheism and the formation of the imagined secularist community.
    Cimino, Richard, and Christopher Smith (2011)
    Journal of Media and Relgion 10:4: 24-38.

    Associated Search Terms: Media; Atheist; Internet
  • Faith No More: Why People Reject Religion.
    Zuckerman, Phil (2011)
    New York: Oxford University Press

    Based on interviews with formerly religious Americans.

    Associated Search Terms: Disaffiliation; Atheist, U.S.A.
  • Evangelical Journeys: Choice and Change in a Northern Irish Religious Subculture.
    Mitchell, Claire, and Gladys Ganiel (2011)
    Dublin: University College Dublin Press.

    Analysis of religious change throughout the lifecourse. Based on 95 interviews with current or former Northern Irish Evangelicals.

    Associated Search Terms: Evangelical, Great Britain; Life course; Everyday life; Emerging church; Atheist, Great Britain; Great Britain, Northern Ireland; Life histories
  • A portrait of secular group affliates.
    Pasquale, Frank (2010)
    In Phil Zuckerman (ed.) Atheism and Secularity, vol. 1. Santa Barbara, California: Praeger, pp. 43-47.

    Associated Search Terms: Atheist
  • One-dimensional rage: The social epistemology of the new atheism and fundamentalism.
    Stahl, William A. (2010)
    In A. Amarasingam (ed.) Religion and the New Atheism: A Critical Appraisal. Leiden: Brill, pp. 97-108.

    Associated Search Terms: Atheist; Fundamentalism
  • The new atheism and the secularization thesis.
    Borer, Michael Ian (2010)
    In Amarnath Armarasingam (ed.) Religion and the New Athesm. Leiden: Brill, pp. 125-137.

    Associated Search Terms: Atheist; Secularization
  • Atheism and Secularity in Modern Japan.
    Roemer, Michael K. (2010)
    In Phil Zuckerman (ed.) Atheism and Secularity, vol. 2. Santa Barbara, California: Praeger, pp. 23-44.

    Associated Search Terms: Japan; Atheist, Japan
  • Atheism, secularity, family, and children.
    Manning, Christel J. (2010)
    In Phillip Zuckerman (ed.) Atheism and Secularity, Vol. I. New York: Praeger, pp. 19-41.

    Associated Search Terms: Socialization; Secular; Family; Atheist
  • Secular and Liminal: Discovering Heterogeneity Among Religious Nones.
    Lim, Chaeyoon, Carol Ann MacGregor, and Robert D. Putnam (2010)
    Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 49:4: 596-618.

    Uses several U.S.A. surveys; about 30% of "nones" in a panel later report a religion, with little change in religiosity.

    Associated Search Terms: Atheist, U.S.A.
  • Period and Cohort Effects on Religious Nonaffiliation and Religious Disaffiliation: A Research Note.
    Schwadel, Philip (2010)
    Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 49:2: 311-319.

    Analyzes 1973-2006 General Social Survey (U.S.A.) data; finds over time increased likelihood of having no religion but lesser likelihood of disaffiliation.

    Associated Search Terms: Disaffiliation; Estimator model; United States; Generations; Atheist, U.S.A.; Cross-classified, random effects model
  • None Too Simple: Examining Issues of Religious Nonbelief and Nonbelonging in the United States.
    Baker, Joseph O., and Buster G. Smith (2009)
    Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 48:4: 719-733.

    Analyzes 2007 U.S.A. survey data; explores the stances of the true atheists, agnostics, & unchurched believers.

    Associated Search Terms: United States; Unchurched religion; Atheist, U.S.A.; Agnostic
  • Atheism.
    Bainbridge, William Sims (2009)
    In Peter B. Clarke (ed.) The Oxford Handbook of the Sociology of Religion. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 319-335.

    Associated Search Terms: Atheist
  • Atheism.
    Bainbridge, William Sims (2009)
    Interdisciplinary Journal of Research on Religion 1: 1-26.

    Associated Search Terms: Atheist
  • Why are Danes and Swedes so irreligious?
    Zuckerman, Phil (2009)
    Nordic Journal of Religion and Society 22: 55-69.

    Associated Search Terms: Atheist, Sweden; Denmark; Sweden; Atheist, Denmark
  • The Stable Third: Non-religiosity in Germany.
    Wohlrab-Sahr, Monika (2009)
    In S. Bertelsmann (ed.) What the World Belives. Analysis and Commentary on the Religion Monitor 2008. Gütersloh: Verlag Bertelsmann Stiftung, pp. 149-166.

    Associated Search Terms: Germany; Atheist, Germany
  • The nones: Social characteristics of the religiously unaffiliated.
    Baker, Joseph O., and Buster G. Smith (2009)
    Social Forces 87:3: 1251-1264.

    Associated Search Terms: Atheist, U.S.A.
  • Beyond Belief: Atheism, Agnosticism, and Theistic Certainty in the United States.
    Sherkat, Darren E. (2008)
    Sociological Spectrum 28:5: 438-459.

    Associated Search Terms: Belief; Atheist, U.S.A.; Agnostic
  • American Nones: The Profile of the No Religion Population.
    Kosmin, Barry A., and Ariela Keysar, with Ryan T. Cragon and Jhem Navarro-Rivera. (2008)
    Hartford, Connecticut: Institute for the Study of Secularity in Society.

    Associated Search Terms: Nonreligion; United States; Atheist, U.S.A.
  • Society without God: What the Least Religious Nations can Tell Us About Contentment.
    Zuckerman, Phil (2008)
    New York: New York University Press.

    Based on interviews in Denmark & Sweden. The relative absence of religion & social problems or individual anxiety refutes macro & micro functionalist explanations of religion. Speaks of cultural religion--occasional observance without belief.

    Associated Search Terms: Meaning; Happiness; Cultural religion; Atheist, Denmark; Death; Sweden; Denmark; Secularism
  • And Who is Your Neighbor? Explaining Denominational Differences in Charitable Giving and Volunteering in the Netherlands.
    Bekkers, René, and Theo Schuyt (2008)
    Review of Religious Research 50:1: 74-96.

    Contributions to religion are based on involvement, to charities on values socialized in by churches. Dutch Catholics are less involved & thus contribute less than Protestants, both to religion & to secular charities.

    Associated Search Terms: Netherlands; Volunteering; Altruism; Contributions; Catholic, Netherlands; Protestant, Netherlands; Atheist, Netherlands
  • What Americans Really Believe.
    Stark, Rodney, et al. (2008)
    Waco, Texas: Baylor University Press.

    Based on the 2006 Baylor Survey on Religion.

    Associated Search Terms: Women; Experience; Atheist, U.S.A.; Strictness; Proselytizing; Pentecostal, U.S.A.; Megachurch; Contributions; Communality; Church of God in Christ, U.S.A.; Church of God (Cleveland, Tennessee); Catholic, U.S.A.; Assemblies of God, U.S.A.; Mormon, U.S.A.; Southern Baptist; United States; United Methodist, U.S.A.; United Church of Christ; Episcopal; State; Belief; Social capital; Seventh-day Adventist, U.S.A.; Presbyterian Church in the U.S.A.; Practice; Politics, U.S.A.; New age; Evangelical Lutheran Church in America; Membership; Media; Jehovah´s Witness, U.S.A.; Foursquare Gospel; Evangelical, U.S.A.; Unitarian Universalist; Denomination (organizational entity); Nazarene, U.S.A.; Disciples of Christ; Education
  • Secular Humanism and Atheism beyond Progressive Secularism.
    Cimino, Richard, and Christopher Smith (2007)
    Sociology of Religion 68:4: 407-424.

    Examines atheists' & humanists' adaptation to their minority status in the U.S.A., with a content analysis of Free Inquiry, 37 interviews, & participant observation.

    Associated Search Terms: Content analysis; Participant observation; Cognitive minority; Atheist, U.S.A.
  • Atheism: Contemporary numbers and patterns.
    Zuckerman, Phil (2007)
    In Michael Martin (ed.) The Cambridge Companion to Atheism. New York: Cambridge University Press, pp. 47-65.

    Associated Search Terms: Atheist
  • The Landscape of Interfaith Intolerance in Post-Atheist Russia.
    Karpov, Vyacheslav, and Elena Lisovskaya (2007)
    Nationalities Papers 35:5: 881-894.

    Associated Search Terms: Russia; Tolerance
  • "People were not made to be in God's image." A contemporary overview of secular Australians.
    Singleton, Andrew (2007)
    In Barry Kosmin and Ariela Keysar (eds.) Secularism and Secularity: Contemporary International Perspectives. Hartford, Connecticut: Institute for the Study of Secularism in Society and Culture, pp. 83-94.

    Associated Search Terms: Atheist, Australia; Australia
  • Población “sin religión.”
    Gutiérrez Zúñiga, Cristina (2007)
    In R. de la Torre and C. Gutierrez (eds.) Atlas de la diversidad religiosa en México. Mexico: CIESAS, pp. 124-136.

    Associated Search Terms: Atheist, Mexico; Mexico
  • Counting religious nones and other religious measurement issues: A comparison of the Baylor Religion Survey and General Social Survey.
    Smith, Tom W., and Seokho Kim (2007)
    GSS Methodological Report 110:1: 1-15.

    Associated Search Terms: Methods; Survey; Atheist
  • Atheists as "Other": Moral Boundaries and Cultural Membership in American Society.
    Edgell, Penny, Joseph Gerteis, and Douglas Hartmann (2006)
    American Sociological Reveiw 71:2: 211-234.

    National U.S.A. survey data show acceptance of atheists not following from acceptance of other religious groups.

    Associated Search Terms: Boundary maintenance; Atheist, U.S.A.; Tolerance; United States
  • Atheists: A Groundbreaking Study of America's Nonbelievers.
    Hunsberger, Bruce E., and Bob Altemeyer (2006)
    Amherst, New York: Prometheus.

    Associated Search Terms: Atheist, U.S.A.
  • Konfessionslose in Deutschland.
    Pittkowski, Wolfgang (2006)
    In W. Huber, J. Friedrich, and P. Steinacker (eds.) Kirche in der Vielfalt der Lebensbezüge. Die vierte EKD-Erhebung über Kirchenmitgliedschaft. Gütersloh: Gütersloher Verlag, pp. 89-110.

    Associated Search Terms: Germany; Atheist, Germany
  • La Laïcité Ecclésialisée. Le Cas de la Belgique.
    Javeau, Claude (2006)
    In Pauline Coté and T. Jeremy Gunn (eds.) La nouelle question religieuse. Régulation ou ingérence de l'État?/The New Religious Question: State Regulation or State Interference? Bern, Switzerland: P.I.E.-Peter Lang, pp. 187-193.

    Notes the organized nature of non-religion in Belgium.

    Associated Search Terms: State; Atheist; Belgium
  • Religion in a free market: Religious and non-religious Americans.
    Kosmin, Barry A., and Ariela Keysar (2006)
    Ithaca, New York: Paramount Market Publishing.

    Associated Search Terms: Market model; United States; Atheist, U.S.A.
  • The Case for Secular Assimilation? The Latino Experience in Richmond, Virginia.
    Cavalcanti, H.B., and Debra Schleef (2005)
    Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 44:4: 473-483.

    Analyzes interview data from Latino Americans in Richmond; those with no religion had the highest assimilation scores.

    Associated Search Terms: Atheist, U.S.A.; United States, Virginia, Richmond; Migrant; Assimilation; Latino Americans
  • Forced Secularization in Soviet Russia: Why an Atheist Monopoly Failed.
    Froese, Paul (2004)
    Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 43:1: 35-50.

    Associated Search Terms: Soviet Union; Atheist
  • The Quest for Spirituality among Secular Israelis.
    Ezrachi, Elan (2004)
    In Uzi Rebhun and Chaim Isaac Waxman (eds.) Jews in Israel: Contemporary Social and Cultural Patterns. Lebanon, New Hampshire: University Press of New England, pp. 315-328.

    Associated Search Terms: Israel; Atheist
  • Enforced Secularization--Spontaneous Revival? Religious Belief, Unbelief, Uncertainty and Indifference in East and West European Countries 1991-1998.
    Meulemann, Heiner (2004)
    European Sociological Review 20:1: 47-61.

    Associated Search Terms: Belief; Europe; Atheist; Secularization
  • Generations and Atheism: Patterns of Response to Communist Rule among Different Generations and Countries.
    Zrinš?ak, Siniša (2004)
    Social Compass 51:2: 221-234.

    Reviews trends in Croatia, Hungry, Poland, & Slovenia. Presents 1999 European Values Survey data from former Soviet bloc nations.

    Associated Search Terms: Europe; Membership; Practice; Slovenia; Poland; Hungary; Atheist; Croatia; Generations
  • Atheists in the United States: The Construction and Negotiation of a Nonnormative Identity.
    Fitzgerald, Bridget Ann (2003)
    Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, State University of new York at Albany.

    Associated Search Terms: Atheist, U.S.A.; Identity
  • Religiöse Indifferenz und die Entmythologisierung des Lebens. Eine Auseinandersetzung mit Ulrich Oevermanns 'Strukturmodell von Religiosität.'
    Wohlrab-Sahr, Monika (2003)
    In Christel Gärtner, Detlef Pollack, and Monika Wohlrab-Sahr (eds.) Atheismus und religiöse Indifferenz. Opladen: Leske + Budrich, pp. 389-399.

    Associated Search Terms: Atheist; Disenchantment
  • Still the Most Religious Part of the World: Developments in the Religious Field in Eastern Germany since 1990.
    Wohlrab-Sahr, Monika, and Thomas Schmidt (2003)
    Inernational Journal of Practical Theology 7:1: 86-100.

    Associated Search Terms: Germany, East; Atheist, Germany
  • Konfessionslosigkeit in Estland: die gegenwärtige Situation--Ein Kreuzungspunkt der Geschichte.
    Kilemit, Liina, and Urmas Nõmmik (2003)
    In Christel Gärtner, Detlef Pollack, and Monika Wohlrab-Sahr (eds.) Atheismus und religiöse Indifferenz. Opladen: Leske + Budrich, pp. 215-227.

    Historical background & report of membership data.

    Associated Search Terms: Atheist, Estonia; Estonia; Membership
  • No Religion: A Profile of America's Unaffiliated.
    Keysar, Ariela, Egon Mayer, and Barry A. Kosmin (2003)
    Hartford: Institute for the Study of Secularism in Society and Culure.

    Associated Search Terms: Atheist, U.S.A.
  • Areligiosität, Antireligiosität, Religiosität: Ostdeutschland als Sonderfall niedriger Religiosität in osteuropäischen Rahmen?
    Pickel, Gert (2003)
    In Christel Gärtner, etlef Pollack, and Monika Wohlrab-Sahr (eds.) Atheismus und religiöse Indifferenz. Opladen: Leske + Budrich, pp. 247-269.

    Uses 1990-2000 international survey data.

    Associated Search Terms: Germany, East; Germany; Atheist, Germany
  • Wie 'Gott' in den Niederlanden verblasst: Ein kultureller Trend in einem säkularen Staat.
    Vellenga, Sipco J. (2003)
    In Christel Gärtner, Detlef Pollack, and Monika Wohlrab-Sahr (eds.) Atheismus und religiöse Indifferenz. Opladen: Leseke + Budrich, pp. 197-214.

    Historical background & report of survey data.

    Associated Search Terms: Practice; Membership; Atheist, Netherlands; Netherlands
  • Konfessionslosigkeit in Ostdeutschland.
    Storch, Kersten (2003)
    In Christel Gärtner, Detlef Pollack, and Monika Wahlrab-Sahr (eds.) Atheismus und religiöser Indifferenz. Opladen: Leske + Budrich, pp. 231-245.

    Gathers previously publsihed data on church non-membership in East Germany & their correlations with values.

    Associated Search Terms: Germany; Atheist, Germany; Values; Germany, East
  • Glaube versus Atheismus? Individuelle religiöse Orientierungen in Mittel- und Osteuropa.
    Müller, Olaf (2003)
    In Christel Gärtner, Detlef Pollack, and Monika Wohlrab-Sahr (eds.) Atheismus und religiöse Indifferenz. Opladen: Leske + Budrich, pp. 171-196.

    Reports 1991-2000 poll data for the whole of Europe; results on the relationship between religion & intolerance of foreigners for 3 nations.

    Associated Search Terms: Europe; Intrinsic/extrinsic; Belief; Prejudice, anti-immigrant; Atheist
  • Dimensions of Social Stratification and Anomie as Factors of Religious Affiliation in El Salvador.
    Soltero, José, and Romeo Saravia (2003)
    Sociology of Religion 64:1: 1-19.

    Analyzes 1995 interview data. Limited access to medical care & younger age predict Protestant affiliation; unemployment predicts non-affiliation, & return migration from the U.S. predicts joining Protestant or non-Christian churches.

    Associated Search Terms: Medical; Protestant, El Salvador; Anomie; Stratification; Unemployment; El Salvador; Atheist; Migration
  • Religious Affiliation, Marital Processes and Women's Educational Attainment in a Devloping Society.
    Takyi, Baffour K., and Isaac Addai (2002)
    Sociology of Religion 63:2: 177-193.

    Being Christian (Protestant, Catholic, other) is associated with women in Ghana having some education.

    Associated Search Terms: Christian, Ghana; Atheist, Ghana; Education; Women; Ghana; Islam, Ghana
  • God is nothing but talk: Modernity, language, and prayer in a Papua New Guinea society.
    Robbins, Joel (2001)
    American Anthropologist 103: 901-912.

    Associated Search Terms: Papua-New Guinea; Atheist, Papua-New Guinea; Modernity
  • Religious Seeking among Affiliates and Non-affiliates: Do Mental and Physical Health Problems Spur Religious Coping?
    Ferraro, Kenneth F., and Jessica A. Kelley-Moore (2001)
    Review of Religious Research 42:3: 229-251.

    Serious medical problems do not necessarily increase religious activity.

    Associated Search Terms: Atheist; Medical; Coping; United States; Practice; Mental health
  • Religion and Partisanship in Canada.
    Guth, James L., and Cleveland R. Fraser (2001)
    Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 40:1: 51-64.

    Canadian Evangelicals trend to the new Reform Party, mainline Protestants to the Progressive Conservatives, Catholics to the Liberals, inactive Francophone Catholics to the Bloc Quebecois, & secularists to the New Democratic Party.

    Associated Search Terms: Protestant, Canada; Canada; Politics, Canada; Denomination (organizational entity); Atheist, Canada; Evangelical, Canada; Catholic, Canada
  • Konfessionslose in Ost- und Westdeutschland--ähnlich oder anders?
    Pickel, Gert (2000)
    In Detlef Pollack (ed.) Religiöser und kirchlicher Wandel in Ostdeutschland 1989-1999. Opladen: Leske + Budrich, pp. 206-235.

    Associated Search Terms: Germany; Atheist, Germany
  • Religious Independents Within Western Industrialized Nations: a Socio-demographic Profile.
    Hayes, Bernadette C. (2000)
    Sociology of Religion 61:2: 191-207.

    Analyzes cross-cultural survey data from western industrial nations; religious independents are more likely to be non-believers. They tend to be young, single, educated, & especially male.

    Associated Search Terms: Atheist; Independents; Agnostic
  • Atheism, Faith, and the Social Scientific Study of Religion.
    Stark, Rodney (1999)
    Journal of Contemporary Religion 14:1: 41-62.

    Truly scientific studies of religion were introduced by believers, not by the atheist founders of the social sciences.

    Associated Search Terms: Sociology of religion
  • Religious Minorities and Support for Immigrant Rights in the United States, France, and Germany.
    Fetzer, Joel S. (1998)
    Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 37:1: 41-49.

    Associated Search Terms: Minority; Germany; France; United States; Protestant, France; Atheist, France; Migration; Jewish, U.S.A.; Catholic, U.S.A.
  • Sociologie de la séclarisation. Etre sans-religion en France à la fin du XXè siècle.
    Denèfle, Sylvette (1997)
    Paris: L'Harmattan.

    Associated Search Terms: Secularization; Atheist; France
  • Beyond Unbelief. Religious Uncertainty and Religious Indifference in Countries with Self-induced and Enforced Secularization.
    Meulemann, Heiner (1996)
    European Societies 2: 167-194.

    Associated Search Terms: Secularization; Atheist; Belief
  • Religionsverlust bei der Jugend in Ungarn--Langzeitwirkungen des Kommunismus.
    Tomka, Miklós (1996)
    In Ulrich Nembach (ed.) Jugend--2000 Jahre nach Jesus. Jugend und Religion in Europa II: Bericht vom 2. internationalen Gottinger religionssoziologischen Symposium. Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang, pp. 261-274.

    Associated Search Terms: Disaffiliation; Youth; Hungary; Atheist
  • Les Valeurs Politiques en Europe: Effet du Contexte National et des Attitudes Religieuses.
    Bréchon, Pierre (1996)
    Archives de sciences sociales des religions 41/93: 99-128.

    Analyzes 1990 European Values Study data; religiosity & irreligion rather than denomination has Europe-wide political significance.

    Associated Search Terms: Europe; Politics, Europe; Atheist; Religiosity; Denomination (organizational entity)
  • Konfession, Religion und soziale Netzwerke. Zur Bedeutung christlicher Religiosität in personalen Beziehungen.
    Kecskes, Robert, and Christof Wolf (1996)
    Opladen: Leske + Budrich.

    Analyzes 1992 interview data from a Cologne sector.

    Associated Search Terms: Atheist, Germany; Communality; Mobility (geographical); Education; Age; Lutheran, Germany; Germany, Cologne; Catholic, Germany; Network; Dimensions of religiosity
  • The Teaching of Nonmarital Sexual Abstinance and Members' Sexual Attitudes and Behaviors: The Case of Latter-Day Saints.
    Holman, Thomas B., and John R. Harding (1996)
    Review of Religious Research 38:1: 51-60.

    1988 U.S. interview data show Mormons' sexual attitudes & premarital sexual activity rates differ from others'.

    Associated Search Terms: Atheist, U.S.A.; Mormon, U.S.A.; Catholic, U.S.A.; Sexual attitudes; Sexual activity; Jewish, U.S.A.
  • In Search of Denominational Subcultures: Religious Affiliation and 'Pro-Family' Issues Revisited.
    Gay, David A., Christopher G. Ellison, and Daniel A. Powers (1996)
    Review of Religious Research 38;1: 3-17.

    Analyzes 1982-91 General Social Survey (U.S.A..) data; finds distinctive denominational subcultures.

    Associated Search Terms: Abortion; Episcopal; Subculture; United States; Sexuality; Atheist; Jewish, U.S.A.; Gender role; Southern Baptist; Conservative, U.S.A.; Baptist, U.S.A.; Lutheran, U.S.A.; Denomination (organizational entity); Methodist, U.S.A.
  • The Impact of Religious Identification on Political Attitudes: An International Comparison.
    Hayes, Bernadette C. (1995)
    Sociology of Religion 56:2: 177-194.

    Analyzes 1991 survey data from 8 nations; assesses effects of non-affiliation on attitudes toward abortion, working women, capital punishment, & religion in politics.

    Associated Search Terms: Atheist; Italy; United States; Great Britain; Norway; Netherlands; Germany, West; Great Britain, Northern Ireland; Abortion; Women; Capital punishment; Comparative; Disaffiliation; Politics; Germany, East
  • Jugend und Religion in Ostdeutschland.
    Grabner, Wolf-Jürgen, and Detlef Pollack (1994)
    In Karl Gabriel and Hans Hobelsberger (eds.), Jugend Religion und Modernisierung. Kirchliche Jugendarbeit als Suchbewegung. Opladen: Leske + Budrich.

    Associated Search Terms: Atheist, Germany; Germany; Age; Evangelische Kirche in Deutschland
  • Effects of Religious Individualism on Values of Life and Death in Scandinavia.
    Straarup, Jørgen (1994)
    In Thorleif Pettersson and Ole Riis (eds.) Scandinavian Values. Religion and Morality in the Nordic Countries. Uppsala, Sweden: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis. Psychologia et Sociologia Religionum 10, pp. 167-178.

    Analyzes 1981 & '90 European Values Survey data.

    Associated Search Terms: Belief; Orthodoxy (doctrinal); Norway; Denmark; Abortion; Moral; Euthanasia; Suicide; Scandinavia; Sweden; Atheist
  • The Effect of Religion on Self-interest Morality.
    Voert, Marijke ter, Albert Felling, and Jan Peters (1994)
    Review of Religious Research 35:4: 302-323.

    Analyzes 1990 interview data from Dutch adults; finds belief, religious participation, & denomination affect honesty in such matters as taxes & benefits claims.

    Associated Search Terms: Belief; Netherlands; Dutch Reformed, Netherlands; Orthodox Calvinist, Netherlands; Atheist, Netherlands; Denomination (organizational entity); Catholic, Netherlands; Moral; Neo-Calvinist, Netherlands
  • Patterns of Secularization in Scandinavia.
    Riis, Ole (1994)
    In Thorleif Pettersson and Ole Riis (eds.) Scandinavian Values. Religion and Morality in the Nordic Countries. Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis. Psychologia et Sociologia Religionum 10, pp. 99-128.

    Analyzes 1990 European Values Survey data.

    Associated Search Terms: Science; Age; Orthodoxy (doctrinal); Sex; Atheist; Stratification; Sweden; Norway; Denmark; Membership; Politics, Sweden; Politics, Norway; Politics, Denmark; Politics, Scandinavia; Scandinavia; Secularization; Reincarnation
  • Religious Voting Blocs in the 1992 Election: The Year of the Evangelical?
    Kellstedt, Lyman A., John C. Green, James L. Guth, and Corwin E. Smidt (1994)
    Sociology of Religion 55:3: 307-326. [Also in Steve Bruce, Peter Kivisto, and William H. Swatos, Jr. (eds.) The Rapture of Politics. The Christian Right as the United States Approaches the Year 2000 (New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction, 1995), pp. 85-104]

    Analyzes 1960-92 American presidential election databases; shows party & voting trends of Evangelicals, mainline Protestants, Catholics, & seculars.

    Associated Search Terms: Evangelical, U.S.A.; Atheist, U.S.A.; Protestant (mainline), U.S.A..; Catholic, U.S.A.; Politics, U.S.A.; United States; Protestant, U.S.A.
  • Nonbelief in Canada: Characteristics and Origins of Religious Nones.
    Brinkerhoff, Merlin B., and Marlene M. MacKie (1993)
    In Warren Edward Hewitt (ed.), The Sociology of Religion: A Canadian Focus. Toronto: Butterworths, pp. 109-132.

    Associated Search Terms: Atheist; Canada
  • Atheisme, socialisme, sociologie.
    Goriely, Georges (1993)
    Revue de l'Institut de Sociologie 1-4: 49-58.

    Associated Search Terms: Atheist; Socialism
  • Southern Intolerance: A Fundamentalist Effect?
    Ellison, Christopher G., and Marc A. Musick (1993)
    Social Forces 72:2: 379-398.

    Analyzes 1988 General Social Survey (U.S.A.) data; shows the lower tolerance of leftists, atheists, & homosexuals by Southerners is only partly explained by conservative theology.

    Associated Search Terms: Tolerance; Prejudice, anti-homosexual; Fundamentalist, U.S.A.; United States, South
  • Gentrification as Secularization: The Status of Religious Belief in the Post-industrial City.
    Ley, David, and R. Bruce Martin (1993)
    Social Compass 40:2: 217-232.

    Reports 1981 data showing upwardly mobile sections of 6 major Canadian cities having higher rates of non-belief.

    Associated Search Terms: Canada; Urban; Atheist, Canada; Secularization
  • De la Religion Diffuse à la Religion des Valeurs.
    Cipriani, Roberto (1993)
    Social Compass 40:1: 91-100.

    Analyzes 1989-90 interviews from the Catholic dicoese of Caltanisetta to examine diffued religion; shows 6 types: acritical church, critical church, critical divergent, diffused religion, critical distance from church, no religion.

    Associated Search Terms: Diffused religion; Atheist; Italy, Sicily, Caltanisetta
  • Evangelicals in the New Class: Class Versus Subcultural Predictors of Ideology.
    Schmalzbauer, John A. (1993)
    Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 32:4: 330-342.

    Analyzes 1972-89 General Social Survey (U.S.A.) data, white Evangelical subsample; shows both new class & Evangelical subculture predicting attitudes on sexual mores, abortion, sex roles, & civil liberties.

    Associated Search Terms: United States; Civil liberties; Abortion; Sexual attitudes; Catholic, U.S.A.; Jewish, U.S.A.; Atheist, U.S.A.; Education; Stratification; Evangelical, U.S.A.; New class; Sex role
  • Croyance et valeurs d'étudiants se déclarant sans religions.
    Denéfle, Sylvette (1992)
    In Yves Lambert and Guy Michelat (eds.) Crépuscules des religions chez les jeunes? Paris: l'Harmattan.

    Associated Search Terms: Belief; Atheist; Students; Values
  • Americans Who Give up Religion.
    Feigelman, William, Bernard S. Gorman, and Joseph A. Varacalli (1992)
    Sociology and Social Research 76:3: 138-144.

    Analyzes 1972-90 General Social Survey (U.S.A.) data; notes correlates of apostasy. Observes disaffiliation does not contribute to happiness.

    Associated Search Terms: Well-being; United States; Atheist, U.S.A.; Disaffiliation
  • Evangelical heathens: The deviant status of freethinkers in southland.
    Heiner, Robert (1992)
    Deviant Behavior: An Interdisciplinary Journal 13: 1-20.

    Associated Search Terms: Atheist, U.S.A.; Deviance/social control; Evangelical, U.S.A.; United States, South
  • La Déconfessionnalisation de l'Identité Religieuse.
    Campiche, Roland J. (1991)
    Schweizerische Zeitschrift für Soziologie/Revue suisse de sociologie 17:3: 507-528.

    Reviews the history of Swiss identity & religious identity in Switzerland; analyzes 1988-89 survey data. Finds parallel processes of identity continuation at work among Protestants & Catholics.

    Associated Search Terms: Practice; Age; Atheist, Switzerland; Catholic, Switzerland; Protestant, Switzerland; Switzerland; Ecumenism; Membership; Socialization; Identity
  • Canadian regional differences in religious unaffiliation: The Catholic-Protestant factor.
    Veevers Jean E. (1990)
    Canadian Journal of Sociology 15:1: 77-83.

    Associated Search Terms: Atheist, Canada; Canada, regions
  • Evangelicals and Political Tolerance.
    Wilcox, Clyde, and Ted G. Jelen (1990)
    American Politics Quarterly 18: 25-46.

    Analyzes 1973 U.S. data & '72-88 General Social Survey (U.S.A.) data; shows religiosity independently accounts for Evangelicals' low levels of tolerance of atheists, communists, racists, & militarists.

    Associated Search Terms: United States; Evangelical, U.S.A.; Tolerance
  • Religiously Unaffiliated Canadians: Sex, Age, and Regional Variations.
    Gee, Ellen M., and Jean E. Veevers (1989)
    Social Indicators Research 21:6: 611-628.

    Associated Search Terms: Atheist, Canada; Canada
  • The status of unbelievers as a group in Polish society.
    Mucha, Janusz L. (1989)
    Journal of the Anthropological Society of Oxford 20(3): 209–218.

    Associated Search Terms: Atheist, Poland; Poland
  • Konfession und politische Orientierung: Das Beispiel der Konfessionslosen.
    Pittkowski, Wolfgang, and Rainer Volz (1989)
    Karl-Fritz Daiber (ed) Religion und Konfession: Studien zu politischen, ethischen und religiösen Einstellungen von Katholiken, Protestanten und Konfessionslosen.... Hanover: Lutherisches Verlagshaus, 93-112.

    Associated Search Terms: Politics, Germany; Atheist, Netherlands; Atheist, Germany; Politics, Netherlands
  • Innovation Theory and Religious Nones.
    Tamney, Joseph B., Shawn Powell, and Stephen D. Johnson (1989)
    Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 28:2: 216-229.

    Analyzes 1973-85 National Opinion Research center (U.S.A.) data.

    Associated Search Terms: Change; United States; Atheist, U.S.A.
  • Konfession und Ethik am Beispiel der Eistellung zum Schwangerschaftsabbruch.
    Eichelberger, Hans-Werner (1989)
    In Karl-Fritz Daiber (ed.), Religion und Konfession. Hanover: Lutehrisches Verlagshaus, pp. 72-92.

    Analyzes 1982 West German survey data (ALLBUS 1982); compares Protestant, Catholic, & unchurched people's attitudes toward abortion.

    Associated Search Terms: Protestant, Germany; Catholic, Germany; Atheist, Germany; Germany, West; Abortion
  • Konfession und politische Orientierung: Das Beispiel der Konfessionslosen.
    Pttkowski, Wolfgang, and Rainer Volz (1989)
    In Karl-Britz Daiber (ed.) Religion und Konfession. Hanover: Lutherisches Verlagshaus.

    Analyzes 1982 West German survey data (ALLBUS 1982); compares Protestant, Catholic, & unchurched people's political attitudes.

    Associated Search Terms: Protestant, Germany; Catholic, Germany; Atheist, Germany; Germany, West; Politics, Germany
  • Religion und Konfession: Studien zur politischen, ethischen und religiösen Einstellungen von Katholischen, Protestanten und Konfessionslosen ind er Bundesrepublic Deutschland und in den Niederlanden.
    Daiber, Karl Fritz (ed.) (1989)
    Hanover: Lutherisches Verlaghaus.

    Analyzes 1982 West German survey data, & separate Dutch data.

    Associated Search Terms: Protestant, Netherlands; Atheist, Germany; Catholic, Germany; Catholic, Netherlands; Germany, West; Netherlands; Politics, Germany; Atheist, Netherlands; Politics, Netherlands; Moral; Protestant, Germany
  • Protestanten, Katholiken und Nicht-Kirchenmitglieden. Ein Vergleich ihren Wert- und Orientierungsmuster.
    Lukatis, Ingrid, and Wolfgang Lukatis (1989)
    In Karl-Fritz Daiber (ed.) Religion und Konfession. Hanover: Lutherisches Verlagshaus, pp. 17-71.

    Analyzes 1982 West German survey data (ALLBUS 1982); compares values of Protestants, Catholics, & non-churched: women's role, family, work, etc.

    Associated Search Terms: Germany, West; Protestant, Germany; Values; Women; Atheist, Germany; Familism; Catholic, Germany; Economic
  • From heathen to atheist on Kairiru Island.
    Smith, Michael French (1988)
    In George R. Saunders (ed.) Culture and Christianity: The Dialectics of Transformation. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood, pp. 33-46.

    Associated Search Terms: Atheist, Papua-New Guinea; Papua-New Guinea, Kairiru Island
  • Another Look at Conversion and Defection in Conservative Churches.
    Nelson, Lynn D., and David G. Bromley (1988)
    In David G. Bromley (ed.) Falling from the Faith. Causes and Consequences of Religious Apostasy. Newbury Park, California: Sage, pp. 47-61.

    Analyzes 1973-85 General Social Survey (U.S.A.) data; compares membership distributions of childhood & adult religions. Shows growth of conservative Christians & "nones."

    Associated Search Terms: Atheist; Conversion; Membership; United States
  • Towards a Sociology of Marxist Atheism/Pour une Sociologie de l'Athéisme Marxiste.
    Houtart, François (1988)
    Social Compass 35:2/3: 161-173.

    Marx rejected radical atheism as inadequate, but Marxists see religious social protest as illusory or inadequate. Contemporary situations, especially in Latin America, show religion helping raise consciousness.

    Associated Search Terms: Marxism; Latin America; Marx, Karl; Marxian; Atheist
  • The Marital Integration of Religious Independents: A Reevaluation of its Significance.
    Bock, E. Wilbur, and Michael L. Radelet (1988)
    Review of Religious Research 29:3: 228-241.

    Religious "nones" in merged file (1973-84) General Social Survey (U.S.A.) data are less likely than others to be married. Marriage is a correlate, for them, of other types of integration.

    Associated Search Terms: United States; Marriage; Atheist, U.S.A.; Integration (social)
  • Correlates of Religious non-Involvement among Black Americans.
    Taylor, Robert Joseph (1988)
    Review of Religious Research 30:2: 126-139.

    Analyzes 1979-80 National Survey of Black Americans data.

    Associated Search Terms: African Americans; United States; Atheist, U.S.A.
  • The Trend in 'No Religion' Respondents to U.S. National Surveys, Late 1950s to Early 1980s.
    Glenn, Norval D. (1987)
    Public Opinion Quarterly 51:3: 293-314.

    Associated Search Terms: Atheist, U.S.A.; United States
  • Secularisation in Australia between 1966 and 1985; A Research Note.
    McCallum, John (1987)
    Australian and New Zealand Journal of Scoiology 23:3: 407-422.

    Overview of census data & surveys; shows a decline in religion & attributes the decline to changes in childhood socialization &, for women, competing adult socialization.

    Associated Search Terms: Secularization; Socialization; Islam, Australia; Atheist, Australia; Australia; Jehovah´s Witness, Australia; Anglican, Australia; Orthodox, eastern, Australia; Catholic, Australia
  • Une Esquisse Sociologique de la Laïcité en Belgique Francophone.
    Javeau, Claude (1985)
    Recherches sociologiques 16:3: 67-77.

    Suggests non-confessional & atheist institutions may represent an incipient pillarization of Belgian society.

    Associated Search Terms: Belgium; Secularization; Atheist, Belgium; Pillarization
  • Ecumenism, Soviet-dissident Style.
    Kowalewski, David, and Arthur L. Greil (1985)
    Sociological Analysis 46:3: 275-286.

    Examines the impact of an atheist state on ecumenical ventures.

    Associated Search Terms: Ecumenism; Soviet Union
  • Cult Consumption in Canada: A Further Critique of Stark and Bainbridge.
    Bibby, Reginald W., and Harold R. Weaver (1985)
    Sociological Analysis 46:4: 445-460.

    Critique of the Stark/Bainbridge meaning-quest market model; analyzes Canadian data, showing conversions of "nones" to conventional religions, not to cults.

    Associated Search Terms: Canada; Atheist, Canada; Conversion; Cult
  • Religious "Nones": 1957-1982.
    Condran, John G., and Joseph B. Tamney (1985)
    Sociological Analysis 46:4: 415-423.

    Examines U.S. data; distinguishes structural from cultural non-religion.

    Associated Search Terms: Atheist, U.S.A.; United States
  • Organized Irreligion: The New South Wales Humanist Society.
    Black, Alan W. (1983)
    In Alan W. Black and Peter Glasner (eds.), Practice and Belief. Studies in the Sociology of Australian Religion. Sydney: Allen & Unwin, pp. 154-166.

    Reviews the activities of the organization from its inception in 1960; reports some 1970 descriptive statistics.

    Associated Search Terms: Humanist, Australia; Australia, New South Wales; Atheist, Australia
  • Atheism in a Religious Society: The Culture of Unbelief in an Israeli Kibbutz.
    Bowes, Alison M. (1982)
    In J. Davis (ed.), Religious Organization and Religious Experience. London: Academic Press, pp. 33-49.

    Reports field data from some time before 1977.

    Associated Search Terms: Atheist, Israel; Israel; Kibbutz
  • Les rites de passage dans les pays socialistes de l'Europe de l'Est.
    Tomka, Miklós (1982)
    Social Compass 29:2/3: 135-152.

    Socialist family ceremonies are intended as substitutes for religious rites.

    Associated Search Terms: Surrogate for religion; Family; Europe, eastern; Ritual; Atheist, Europe
  • Ateismo e Cultura Popolare.
    Cipriani, Roberto (1981)
    Sociologia. Revista di scienze sociale 15:1: 29-47.

    Overview of the literature on atheism.

    Associated Search Terms: Atheist
  • Civil Religion and other Religious Identities.
    Wimberley, Ronald C., and James A. Christenson (1981)
    Sociological Analysis 42:2: 91-100.

    Analyzes 1975 questionnaire data from a North Carolina sample; civil religion attitude scores vary by denomination.

    Associated Search Terms: Atheist, U.S.A.; Unitarian, U.S.A.; Churches of Christ; Methodist, U.S.A.; Catholic, U.S.A.; Presbyterian, U.S.A.; Jewish, U.S.A.; Moravian, U.S.A.; Episcopal
  • Religion and Atheism in the USSR.
    Pankhurst, Jerry G. (1980)
    In Jerry G. Pankhurst and Michael P. Sacks (eds.) Contemporary Soviet Society: Sociological Perspectives. New York: Praeger, pp. 182-207.

    General overview & review of the literature.

    Associated Search Terms: Atheist; State; Soviet Union
  • The heathen Canadians: Demographic correlates of non-belief.
    Veevers, Jean E., and Douglas F. Cousineau (1980)
    Pacific Sociological Review 23:2: 199-216.

    1971 Canadian census data show the "no religion" category negatively correlated with age, more male than female, more urban than rural, & over-represented in British Columbia.

    Associated Search Terms: Urban/rural; Atheist, Canada; Age; Canada; Sex
  • The Decline of Religious Homogeneity: The Indonesian Situation.
    Tamney, Joseph B., and John G. condran (1980)
    Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 19:3: 267-280.

    Analyzes 1975 interview data from residents of Java, aged 16-40; factors related to changing religion in the West do not correlate with such change on Java.

    Associated Search Terms: Indonesia, Java; Conversion; Islam, Indonesia; Christian, Indonesia; Atheist, Indonesia.
  • Australian Secularity: The Disavowal of Denominational Allegiance.
    Hogan, Michael (1979)
    Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 18:4: 390-404.

    Provides a social & demographic profile of Australian secularists.

    Associated Search Terms: Australia; Atheist, Australia
  • Those Who Stay Religious 'Nones' and Those Who Don't: A Research Note.
    Hadaway, Christopher Kirk, and Wade Clark Roof (1979)
    Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 18:2: 194-200.

    Analyzes 1973-77 National Opinion Research Center (U.S.A..) data; those raised as & remaining "nones" were more politically & morally liberal than those who acquired religions; the latter were more satisfied with where they lived & their friends.

    Associated Search Terms: Conservative/liberal; Atheist, U.S.A.; United States; Mobility (geographical)
  • Religious non-Affiliates and Worldly Success.
    Welch, Michael R. (1978)
    Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 17:1: 59-61.

    Reports 1971-72 American Gallup poll data.

    Associated Search Terms: Atheist, U.S.A.; Stratification; United States
  • Reiew of the Polls. The Unchurched: Black Religious non-Affiliates.
    Welch, Michael R. (1978)
    Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 17:3: 289-293.

    Analyzes 1971-72 American Gallup poll data.

    Associated Search Terms: United States; Atheist, U.S.A.; African Americans
  • Varieties of Unbelief. Atheists and Agnostics in English Society, 1850-1960.
    Budd, Susan (1977)
    London: Heinemann.

    Historical & sociological study of the various anti-clerical movements, secular religions, & religions of science & ethics in Britain.

    Associated Search Terms: Historical; Great Britain; Atheist, Great Britain
  • Analyzing the Rejection of Religion.
    Campbell, Colin B. (1977)
    Social Compass 24:4: 339-346.

    Irreligion may either react against a total culture or develop out of a religious belief system.

    Associated Search Terms: Atheist
  • Atheism as Religious Crisis Phenomenon. A Reflexion on the Nature of the Problem.
    Steeman, Theodore M. (1977)
    Social Compass 24:4: 311-321.

    Considers theism as a religious crisis rather than an irreligious stance.

    Associated Search Terms: Atheist
  • Who Are the Unchurched?
    Hale, J. Russell (1977)
    Washington, D.C.: Glenmary Research Center.

    Associated Search Terms: Atheist, U.S.A.
  • L'Athéisme à Vatican II. De la Condamnation du Communisme à la Négociation avec l'Humaine Athée.
    Ladrière, Paul (1977)
    Social Comass 24:4: 347-391.

    Studies the drafting of the Vatican II statement on atheism.

    Associated Search Terms: Vatican II; Atheist
  • A Comparative Study of the Substructures of Religion.
    Yinger, J. Milton (1977)
    Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 16:1: 67-86.

    Analyzes 1971-72 questionnaire data from undergraduate students in 11 nations.

    Associated Search Terms: Atheist; Japan; Australia; Thailand; Korea; Definition of religion; Comparative; Buddhist; Catholic; Students, undergraduate; New Zealand; Protestant
  • Residence, Moral Traditionalism, and Tolerance of Atheists.
    Whitt, Hugh P., and Hart M. Nelsen (1975)
    Social Forces 54:2: 328-340.

    Analyzes 1958 interview data from native-born white Protestants in the Detroit area & from a general household survey in Southern Appalachia. Tolerating atheists varied with environmental factors.

    Associated Search Terms: Ecology; Tolerance; Urban/rural; United States, Appalachia; United States, Michigan, Detroit
  • Antireligious Propaganda in the Soviet Union: A Study of Mass Persuasion.
    Powell, David E. (1975)
    Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press.

    Associated Search Terms: Media; Atheist, Soviet Union; Soviet Union
  • Political Radicalism and Religion: Competitors for Commitment.
    Cheal, David J. (1975)
    Social Compass 22:3: 245-260.

    Analyzes data from Birmingham, England.

    Associated Search Terms: Commitment; Great Britain, Birmingham; Atheist, Great Britain; Politics, Great Britain; Surrogate for religion
  • The Methodology of Collection and Processing of Primary Sociological Information in Study of Problems of Religion and Atheism.
    Pivovarov, V.G. (1974)
    Social Compass 21:2: 191-206.

    A rapid tour of the horizon of Soviet studies of religion & atheism, with respect to methodology.

    Associated Search Terms: Soviet Union; Methodology; Atheist, Soviet Union
  • Une Enquête Préparatoire au Sujet de la Religiosité des Populations d'Ukraine.
    Eryshev, A.A. (1974)
    Social Compass 21:2: 127-132.

    Analyzes 1963-65 interview data from western Ukraine; focuses on conversions to Christian sects.

    Associated Search Terms: Conversion; Atheist, Ukraine; Ukrainian Orthodox, Ukraine; Sect; Ukraine
  • Les superstitions, mystification des relations quotidiennes.
    Tazhurizina, Z.A. (1974)
    Social Compass 21:2: 153-169.

    Based on field work in the Soviet Union; notes Orthodoxy, Baptism, & official atheism all oppose superstition even while present among church members & government officials.

    Associated Search Terms: Atheist, Soviet Union; Baptist, Soviet Union; Russian Orthodox, Soviet Union; Everyday life; Magic; Soviet Union
  • Open-mindedness and Indiscriminate Antireligious Orientation.
    Thompson, Andrew D. (1974)
    Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 13:4: 471-477.

    Introduces a type: indiscriminate antireligious orientation. Tests it with data from Catholic adolescents & their parents.

    Associated Search Terms: Atheist, U.S.A.; Catholic, U.S.A.; Adolescents; United States
  • Per una tipologie dell'ateismo.
    Grumelli, Antonio, and G. Bolino (1972)
    Studi sociali 10:1: 162-168.

    Associated Search Terms: Atheist
  • Religion and Irreligion in a Socialist Society: Dilemmas of the Sociological Approach.
    Vrcan, Srdjan (1972)
    Social Compass 19:2: 245-261.

    Observes that neither Marxian nor non-Marxian theories can explain the coexistence of religion & irreligion as mass phenomena in a society; essays an approach toward formulating an explanation.

    Associated Search Terms: Marxian; Atheist
  • Les dieux rêvés, théisme et athéisme en utopie.
    Desroche, Henri (1972)
    Paris: Desclée.

    Associated Search Terms: Atheist; Utopian
  • Toward a Sociology of Irreligion.
    Campbell, Colin B. (1972)
    London: Macmillan; New York: Herder & Herder.

    Attempts to formulate a general sociology of irreligion; ch. 3 focuses on irreligious movements in U.K. & the U.S. during the 19th & 20th centuries.

    Associated Search Terms: Great Britain; Atheist, U.S.A.; United States; Atheist, Great Britain
  • The Culture of Unbelief. Studies and Proceedings from the First International Symposium on Belief Held at Rome, March 22-27, 1969.
    Caporale, Rocco, and Antonio Grumelli (eds.) (1971)
    Berkeley: University of California Press.

    Associated Search Terms: Atheist
  • Christianism... The Protestant Ethic among Unbelievers.
    Ray, John J. (1970)
    Journal of Christian Education 13:3: 169-176.

    Analyzes questionnaire data from Anglican Church of Australia servicemen; achievement orientation correlated with both Christian orientation & non-belief.

    Associated Search Terms: Atheist, Australia; Protestant Ethic; Achievement; Anglican, Australia; Australia; Soldiers
  • Beyond Belief. Essays on Religion in a Post-Traditional World.
    Bellah, Robert N. (1970)
    New York: Harper & Row.

    Associated Search Terms: Atheist; Islam; Symbolic realism; Civil religion; Modernization; Transcendence
  • Religious Affiliation and Use of Drugs among Adolescent Students.
    Whitehead, Paul C. (1970)
    Journal for the scientific Study of Religion 9:2: 152-154. [Also in Stewart Crysdale and Les Wheatcroft (eds.) Religion in Canadian Society. Toronto: Macmillan of Canada, 1976, pp. 479-484]

    Analyzes questionnaire data from 7th grade-high school students in Halifax; reports % Protestants, Catholics, Jews, & nones using selected drugs.

    Associated Search Terms: Drug; Students, primary; Students, secondary; Tobacco; Jewish, Canada; Alcohol; Canada, Nova Scotia, Halifax; Atheist; Protestant, Canada; Catholic, Canada
  • Alienation, Alienation, Atheism and the Religious Crisis.
    O'Dea, Thomas F. (1969)
    New York: Sheed & Ward.

    Associated Search Terms: Alienation; Atheist
  • L'athéisme du jeune Marx. Ses origines hégéliennes.
    Cottier, Georges M.-M. (1969)
    Paris: Vrin.

    Associated Search Terms: Marx, Karl; Atheist
  • Paganization and Dechristianization, or the Crisis in Institutional Symbols. A Problem in Sociological Interpretation.
    Watzke, James N. (1969)
    Social Compass 16:1: 91-99.

    Distinguishes decline in religiosity & in formal religious practices; analyzes 1967 survey data from the working class in Santiago, Chile.

    Associated Search Terms: Chile, Santiago; Atheist, Chile; Secularization; Catholic, Chile
  • Irreligion, A-Religion, and the Rise of the Religionless Church: Two Case Studies in Organizational Convergence.
    Demerath, Nicholas J., III (1969)
    Sociological Analysis 30:4: 191-203.

    Decline of organized irreligion as well as of organized religion in the U.S.A.

    Associated Search Terms: Secularization; Atheist, U.S.A.; United States
  • The Origins and Correlates of Religious Adherence and Apostasy among Mental Health Professionals.
    Spray, S. Lee, and John H. Marx (1969)
    Sociological Analysis 30:3: 132-150.

    Analyzes questionnaire data from professional therapeutic personnel working in the Chicago, Los Angeles, & New York areas; focuses on religious biographies.

    Associated Search Terms: Mental health; Psychologists; Atheist, U.S.A.; Disaffiliation
  • Humanism in Britain: The Formation of a Secular Value-Oriented Movement.
    Campbell, Colin B. (1969)
    In David Martin (ed.), A Sociological Yearbook of Religion in Britain 2. London: SCM, pp. 157-172.

    Assessment of the British Humanist Movement in light of Smelser's general theory of collective behavior.

    Associated Search Terms: Atheist, Great Britain; Collective behavior; Great Britain; Humanist, Great Britain; Smelser, Neil J.
  • Religious Affiliation, Church Attendance, Religious Education and Student Attitudes toward Race.
    Burnham, Kenneth E., John F. Connors, III, and Richard C. Leonard (1969)
    Sociological Analysis 30:4: 235-244.

    Studies students in 4 colleges in Philadelphia: Catholics were least tolerance, the non-religious most, followed by Jews & Protestants.

    Associated Search Terms: Catholic, U.S.A.; Prejudice, racial; Quaker, U.S.A.; Jewish, U.S.A.; Atheist, U.S.A.; United States, Pennsylvania, Philadelphia; Students, undergraduate; Protestant, U.S.A.; Education; Civil rights movement; Sex
  • Marital Characteristics of Religious Independents.
    Vernon, Glenn M. (1968)
    Review of Religious Research 9:3: 162-170.

    Reviews previous reports about marriage beliefs of people having no religious preference.

    Associated Search Terms: Atheist; Marriage
  • Atheisme et sécularisation: La dimension sociologique.
    Grumelli, Antonio (1968)
    Bolletino d'informazione. Secretariatus pro non Credentibus 3:4: 11-13.

    Associated Search Terms: Atheist; Secularization
  • The Battle Against Religion in the U.S.S.R.
    Hulicka, Karel (1968)
    Sociologia religiosa 17/18: 75-90.

    Associated Search Terms: Soviet Union; Atheist, Soviet Union; Persecution
  • The Religious Nones: A Neglected Category.
    Vernon, Glenn M. (1968)
    Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 7: 219-229.

    Explores conceptual issues & examines U.S. poll evidence.

    Associated Search Terms: Atheist, U.S.A.; United States
  • Le Sécularisation de la Jeunesse Hongroise.
    Varga, Ivan (1967)
    Archives de sociologie des religions 12/23: 45-63.

    Describes 3 1963-64 questionnaire studies in Hungary; types adolescents as traditionally religious, non-traditionally religious, indifferent, non-believing, & Marxist atheist.

    Associated Search Terms: Adolescents; Atheist, Hungary; Tradition; Hungary; Secularization
  • Pyschological and Sociologcial Aspects of Modern Atheism.
    Steeman, Theodore M. (1967)
    In Karl Rahner (ed.) The Pastor Approach to Atheism. Concilium 23. New York: Paulist, pp. 46-59.

    A conceptual discussion.

    Associated Search Terms: Atheist
  • A propos d'une étude. Entre athée et croyant--une typologie.
    Santy, Herman (1967)
    Social Compass 14:2: 133-136.

    Argues against forcing respondents into simple believer/non-believer categories.

    Associated Search Terms: Belief; Atheist; Methodology
  • Humanism and the Culture of the Professions: A Study of the Rise of the British Humanist Movement, 1954-63.
    Campbell, Colin B. (1967)
    Unpublished Ph.D.. thesis, University of London.

    Associated Search Terms: Humanist, Great Britain; Atheist, Great Britain; Atheist; Great Britain; Professions
  • The Loss of Faith: Reasons for Unbelief among Members of the Secular Movement in England, 1850-1950.
    Budd, Susan (1967)
    Past and Present 36: 106-125.

    Reviews 150 detailed & 200 less detailed biographical accounts; emotional & moral responses explain more cases of loss of faith than does intellectual conviction.

    Associated Search Terms: Atheist, Great Britain; Great Britain; Belief
  • The Study of Atheism. A Sociological Approach./Studio sull'ateismo. Indagine sociologica.
    Steeman, Theodore M. (1966)
    Louvain: FERES. [Also IDOC dossier 20-22]/In Dio è morto. Milano: Mondadori, 1967.

    Associated Search Terms: Atheist
  • Religion und Atheism Heute. Ergebnisse und Aufgeben marxistischer Religionssoziologie.
    Klohr, Olaf (ed.) (1966)
    Berlin: VEB Deutsche Verlag der Wissenschaft.

    Associated Search Terms: Marxism; Atheist
  • A Social-psychological Study of Religious Non-believers. A Critique and a Replication.
    Swanborn, P.G., and Jan Weima (1966)
    Social Compass 13:2: 158-164.

    Uses the Twenty Statements Test on students in The Netherlands, in response to a study by Tamney, Hopkins, & Jacovini (1965).

    Associated Search Terms: Students, undergraduate; Netherlands; Twenty Statements Test; Atheist, Netherlands
  • On Spitting Against the Wind: Organizational Precariousness and American Irreligion.
    Demerath, Nicholas J., III, and Victor Thiessen (1966)
    American Journal of Sociology 71:6: 674-687.

    Analyzes a free thought movement of immigrant Germans in Sauk City, Wisconsin, & its decline after 1852; it joined the Unitarian Universalists in 1955.

    Associated Search Terms: United States, Wisconsin, Sauk City; Freie Gemeinde; Atheist, U.S.A.; Merger; Unitarian, U.S.A.; Unitarian Universalist; German Americans; Migrant
  • A Social-psychological Study of Religious non-Believers.
    Tamney, Joseph B., Kenneth Hopkins, and Joseph Jacovini (1965)
    Social Compass 12:3: 177-186.

    Uses the Twenty Statements Test.

    Associated Search Terms: Atheist; Twenty Statements Test
  • Research Note: Membership Composition of the British Humanist Association.
    Campbell, Colin B. (1965)
    Sociological Rview 13:3: 327-337.

    Presents 1964 survey data from the U.K. of the newly formed British Humanist Association.

    Associated Search Terms: Humanist, Great Britain; Great Britain; Atheist; Atheist, Great Britain
  • Aspectos Religiosos de la Sociedad Uruguaya.
    Centro de Estudios Cristianos (1965)
    Montevideo: Centro de Estudios Cristianos.

    Ranks Uruguayan Jews, Protestants & Catholics by education. Class & belief correlate inversely. Upper classes attend least but pray privately more & have more religious vocations. Non-believers value property, progress, & the status quo most, not liberty.

    Associated Search Terms: Stratification; Catholic, Uruguay; Protestant, Uruguay; Jewish, Uruguay; Uruguay; Atheist, Uruguay; Prayer; Vocation
  • Croyances religieuses et changements techologiques en Yougoslavie.
    Fiamengo, Ante (1963)
    Archives de sociologie des religions 8/15: 101-111.

    Studies Yugoslavian students, teachers, & workers; reports percentages of atheists in various settings.

    Associated Search Terms: Atheist, Yugoslavia; Yugoslavia
  • The Non-religion of the Future: A Sociologicial Study.
    Guyua, M. (1962)
    New York: Schocken.

    Associated Search Terms: Atheist
  • Religion, Normative Standards, and Behavior.
    Middleton, Russell, and Snell Putney (1962)
    Sociometry 25: 141-152.

    Analyzes questionnaire data from students at a California & a Florida university; shows religious adherents observed ascetic standards as well as common moral ones; a-religious observe the latter as well as adherents do.

    Associated Search Terms: Moral; Deviance/social control; Students, undergraduate; Atheist
  • Religion et opinions chez les étudiants de l'Université de Sarajevo.
    Fisera, Joseph (1961)
    Archives de sociologie des religions 6/12: 145-155.

    Analyzes 1957 questionnaire data from students at the University of Sarajevo; asks whether religious agreement is important in marriage. Gives secondary data on % atheist in the Yugoslav republics.

    Associated Search Terms: Students, undergraduate; Atheist, Yugoslavia; Marriage; Yugoslavia
  • Un Sondage Polonais sur les Attitudes Religieuses de la Jeunesse.
    Maître, Jacques (1961)
    Archives de sociologie des religions 12: 133-143.

    Analyzes 1959 interview data from Poles aged 15-24 years; cross tabulates religious identity with political preferences, moral stands, & motives why one would choose a profession.

    Associated Search Terms: Youth; Politics, Poland; Poland; Atheist, Poland; Catholic, Poland; Occupation
  • The Disbelief Gradient and Frame of Reference.
    Davis, J.H. (1958)
    Unpublished M.A. thesis, Michigan State University.

    Associated Search Terms: Atheist; Belief
  • Early English Positivists and the Religion of Humanity.
    Bryson, Gladys (1936)
    American Sociological Review 1:3: 343-362.

    Positivism as a church could not survive in England because it was too much like a religion to be accepted by atheists & agnostics, but too atheist to be accepted by religious people.

    Associated Search Terms: Humanist, Great Britain; Great Britain
[Viewing Matches 1-270]  (of 270 total matches in Citations)
Data Archive
  • Google Ngrams Data, 1800-2000:
    Despite the importance of trend data for understanding key substantive and theoretical questions on American culture and religion, almost no such data exist. By searching the massive Google Books collection, however, the Google Ngram Viewer provides quantitative data on cultural and religious trends over time. The Ngram Viewer searches the entire collection of Google Books and reports on the number of times an Ngram is used annually in the books. Ngrams are most commonly words, but can be any given sequence of text. In an effort to democratize access to these trend data, the ARDA has created a dataset with more than 400 Ngram variables generated by the Ngram Viewer and more than 20 historical trend variables taken from the Historical Statistics of the United States and other sources. When available, we also included measures on education and clergy training.

    The Ngram variables included in this file were generated by using both specific terms and composite data, where scales are created out of similar words (e.g., Atheist scale = atheist + Atheist + atheism + Atheism). These Ngram data were drawn from Google's American English corpus, which contains more than 3 million books. The Ngram variables were calculated as rates and can be interpreted as how often "xyz" is used, as a proportion of the total words in Google's American English Corpus. We would caution, however, that the Ngram data included in this file are based on very simple searches. The Ngram Viewer also allows users to customize measures by using a wildcard search, inflection search, case insensitive search, part-of-speech tags and ngram compositions. For many research projects, users will want to refine the searches to better provide the measure desired. See the Finke and McClure working paper for more details.
    Funded By: The John Templeton Foundation
    Collected: 2015, Uploaded 6/29/2015
[Viewing Matches 1-1]  (of 1 total matches in the Data Archive Files)
Questions/Variables on Surveys
[Viewing Matches 1-10] > [View Matches 1-150]  (of 735 total matches in Data Archive Questions/Variables)
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