QuickStats
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QuickLists
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Timeline
  • O'Hair, Madalyn Murray: Madalyn Murray O’Hair (1919-1995) was instrumental in banning Bible readings in public schools and founded one of the largest organizations of atheists in America.
  • Secular Movement: Gaining prominence in the mid-20th century, the modern secular movement pushed for a society without religion.
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Measurements
  • Atheists, View of: Does the respondent have a positive or negative view of atheists? This could include their willingness to allow atheists to participate in society (e.g., teach in school, be elected President, etc.) or more general questions about whether they have a favorable view of atheists.
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Citations
Citations are taken from the Sociology of Religion Searchable Bibliographic Database, created and updated by Anthony J. Blasi (Ph.D. in Sociology, University of Notre Dame; University of Texas at San Antonio). The ARDA is not responsible for content or typographical errors.
  • Childhood, youth and non-religion: Towards a social research agenda.
    Hemming, Peter J. (2017)
    Social Compass 64:1: 113-129.

    Overview of literature and identification of research topics.

    Associated Search Terms: Atheist; Children
  • Living well togeher in a (non)religious future: Contributions from the sociology of religion.
    Beaman, Lori G. (2017)
    Sociology of Religion 78:1: 9-32.

    Focuses on people who rescue endangered sea turtles.

    Associated Search Terms: Environmentalism; Lived religion; Spirituality; Atheist
  • Atheists and other cultural outsiders Moral boundaries and the non-religious in the Uited States.
    Edgell, Penny, Douglas Hartmann, Evan Stewart, and Joseph Gerteis (2016)
    Annual Review of Sociology 38: 247-265.

    Associated Search Terms: Atheist, U.S.A.; Marginality
  • The Nonreligious. Understanding Secular People and Societies.
    Zuckerman, Phil, Luke W. Galen, and Frank L. Pasquale (2016)
    New York: Oxford University Press.

    Associated Search Terms: Atheist
  • Piccoli atei crescono. Davvero una generazione senza Dio?
    Garelli, Franco (2016)
    Bologna: Il Mulino.

    Associated Search Terms: Italy; Atheist, Italy; Belief
  • Young British religious "nones": Findings from the Youth on Religion study.
    Madge, Nicola, and Peter J. Hemming (2016)
    Journal of Youth Studies ?http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13676261.2016.1273518

    Associated Search Terms: Atheist, Great Britain; Great Britain
  • American Secularism. Cultural Contours of Nonreligious Belief Systems.
    Baker, Joseph O., and Buster G. Smith (2016)
    New York: New York University Press.

    Associated Search Terms: Atheist, U.S.A.; Secularism
  • "I think some people need religion": The social construction of nonreligious moral identities.
    Sumerau, J. Edward, and Ryan T. Cragun (2016)
    Sociology of Religion 77:4: 386-407.

    Based on 30 semi-structured interviews with self-identified non-religious Americans. Experiencing childhood religion as focused on obedience & conformity, noting religious people's prejudices about non-religious people, & interactions with religious people that led to seeking meaning elsewhere served as pathways to irreligion.

    Associated Search Terms: Atheist, U.S.A.; Socialization
  • Religion, secular humanism, and atheism: Multi-institutional politics and the USAFA cadets' freethinkers group.
    Konieczny, Mary Ellen, and Megan C. Rogers (2016)
    Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 55:4: 821-838.

    Examines the opportunity structure of the Cadet Freethinkers Group at the U.S. Air Force Academy.

    Associated Search Terms: Atheist, U.S.A.; Military
  • Secularization and the wider gap in values and personal religiosity between the religious and nonreligious.
    Wilkins-Laflamme, Sarah (2016)
    Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 55:4: 717-736.

    Analyzes 2008 International Social Survey Program data; in regions where the unaffiliated form a greater proportion of the population, differences in sexual attitudes & stances toward abortion & gender roles between the affiliated & unaffiliated are greater.

    Associated Search Terms: Abortion; Atheist; Gender role; Sexual attitudes
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Data Archive
  • Google Ngrams Data, 1800-2000:
    Despite the importance of trend data for understanding key substantive and theoretical questions on American culture and religion, almost no such data exist. By searching the massive Google Books collection, however, the Google Ngram Viewer provides quantitative data on cultural and religious trends over time. The Ngram Viewer searches the entire collection of Google Books and reports on the number of times an Ngram is used annually in the books. Ngrams are most commonly words, but can be any given sequence of text. In an effort to democratize access to these trend data, the ARDA has created a dataset with more than 400 Ngram variables generated by the Ngram Viewer and more than 20 historical trend variables taken from the Historical Statistics of the United States and other sources. When available, we also included measures on education and clergy training.

    The Ngram variables included in this file were generated by using both specific terms and composite data, where scales are created out of similar words (e.g., Atheist scale = atheist + Atheist + atheism + Atheism). These Ngram data were drawn from Google's American English corpus, which contains more than 3 million books. The Ngram variables were calculated as rates and can be interpreted as how often "xyz" is used, as a proportion of the total words in Google’s American English Corpus. We would caution, however, that the Ngram data included in this file are based on very simple searches. The Ngram Viewer also allows users to customize measures by using a wildcard search, inflection search, case insensitive search, part-of-speech tags and ngram compositions. For many research projects, users will want to refine the searches to better provide the measure desired. See the Finke and McClure working paper for more details.
    Funded By: The John Templeton Foundation
    Collected: 2015, Uploaded 6/29/2015
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Questions/Variables on Surveys
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