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  Opinion of atheists
  Opinion of non-religious people

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  Most Atheist Nations (2005)
  Atheists (2005)
  World Religions (2005)

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  Secular Movement: Gaining prominence in the mid-20th century, the modern secular movement pushed for a society without religion.

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  Atheists, View of: Does the respondent have a positive or negative view of atheists? This could include their willingness to allow atheists to participate in society (e.g., teach in school, be elected President, etc.) or more general questions about whether they have a favorable view of atheists.

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  Afghanistan: National Profile > Adherents
  Akrotiri: National Profile > Adherents
  Albania: National Profile > Adherents
  Algeria: National Profile > Adherents
  American Samoa: National Profile > Adherents
  Andorra: National Profile > Adherents
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  Antarctica: National Profile > Adherents
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Citations are taken from the Sociology of Religion Searchable Bibliographic Database, created and updated by Anthony J. Blasi (Ph.D. in Sociology, University of Notre Dame; University of Texas at San Antonio). The ARDA is not responsible for content or typographical errors.
 
The Nonreligious. Understanding Secular People and Societies.
Zuckerman, Phil, Luke W. Galen, and Frank L. Pasquale (2016)
New York: Oxford University Press.
Associated Search Terms: Atheist
 
American Secularism. Cultural Contours of Nonreligious Belief Systems.
Baker, Joseph O., and Buster G. Smith (2016)
New York: New York University Press.
Associated Search Terms: Atheist, U.S.A.; Secularism
 
The new moral entrepreneurs: Atheist activism as scripted and performed political deviance.
Fazzino, Lori L., Michael Ian Borer, and Mohammed Abdel Haq (2015)
In M. Dellwing, J.A. Kotarba, an N.W. Pino (eds.) The Death and Resurrection of Deviance: Current Ideas and Research.
Associated Search Terms: Politics; Atheist; Deviance/social control; Moral entrepreneur
 
Losing Our Religion: How Unaffiliated Parents Are Raising their Children.
Manning, Christel J. (2015)
New York: New York University Press.
Associated Search Terms: Socialization; Atheist; Family; Secularization
 
Social affiliation from religious disaffiliation: Evidence of selective mixing among youth with no religious preference durign the transition to college.
Sepulvado, Brandon, Michael Penta, David Hachen, and Omar Lizardo (2015)
Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 54:4: 833-841.
Analyzes cell phone connection data from a cohort of University of Notre Dame first year students. Finds religious non-affiliates & non-Catholic affiliates in their own networks.
Associated Search Terms: Atheist; Minority; Network; Students, undergraduate; Homophily
 
Intergenerational religious mobility in contemporary China.
Hu, Anning, and Reid J. Leamaster (2015)
Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 54:1: 79-99.
Analyzes 2010 China General Social Survey data. Intergenerational religious mobility shows a growth of Islam, Christianity, & nones relative to traditional Chinese religions for father-child mobility, & advantage of nones for mother-child mobility.
Associated Search Terms: Generations; Conversion; Christian, China; Atheist, China; China; Islam, China
 
Non-affiliation, non-denominationalism, religious switching, and denominational switching: Longitudinal analysis of the effects on religiosity.
Suh, Daniel, and Raymond Russell (2015)
Review of Religious Research 57:1: 25-41.
Analyzes 2006-2010 General Social Survey (U.S.A.) panel data. Conversion from one religion to another increases religiosity, from one Protestant denomination to another affects practice modestly but not belief. Non-affiliates become less religious. Protestants with no denomination resemble other Protestants.
Associated Search Terms: Conversion; Practice; Denomination (organizational entity); Belief; Atheist, U.S.A.; Panel study
 
Gendering (non)religion: Politics, education, and gender gaps in secularity in the Untied States.
Baker, Joseph O., and Adnrew L. Whitehead (2015)
Social Forces 94:4: 1623-1645.
Associated Search Terms: Atheist, U.S.A.; Politics, U.S.A.; United States; Education; Gender
 
Atheist Awakening: Secular Activism & Community in America.
Cimino, Richard, and Christopher Smith (2014)
New York: Oxford University Press
Based on participant observation in atheist meetings & events, on interviews, surveys, & content analyses of literature & websites. Awakened atheism & religious activism dialectically need each other.
Associated Search Terms: Minority; Social movement; Media; Dialectic; Atheist, U.S.A.; Schism; Participant observation; Ritual; Internet; Identity; Secular humanism; Content analysis
 
Explaining why more Americans have no religious preference: Political backlash and generatioal succession, 1987-2012.
Hout, Michael, and Claude S. Fischer (2014)
Sociological Science 1: 423-447.
Associated Search Terms: Membership; Atheist, U.S.A.; Politics, U.S.A.; Generations

                       [Viewing Matches 1-10] > [View Matches 1-150]  (of 189 total matches in Citations)


 
Google Ngrams Data, 1800-2000:
Despite the importance of trend data for understanding key substantive and theoretical questions on American culture and religion, almost no such data exist. By searching the massive Google Books collection, however, the Google Ngram Viewer provides quantitative data on cultural and religious trends over time. The Ngram Viewer searches the entire collection of Google Books and reports on the number of times an Ngram is used annually in the books. Ngrams are most commonly words, but can be any given sequence of text. In an effort to democratize access to these trend data, the ARDA has created a dataset with more than 400 Ngram variables generated by the Ngram Viewer and more than 20 historical trend variables taken from the Historical Statistics of the United States and other sources. When available, we also included measures on education and clergy training.

The Ngram variables included in this file were generated by using both specific terms and composite data, where scales are created out of similar words (e.g., Atheist scale = atheist + Atheist + atheism + Atheism). These Ngram data were drawn from Google's American English corpus, which contains more than 3 million books. The Ngram variables were calculated as rates and can be interpreted as how often "xyz" is used, as a proportion of the total words in Google’s American English Corpus. We would caution, however, that the Ngram data included in this file are based on very simple searches. The Ngram Viewer also allows users to customize measures by using a wildcard search, inflection search, case insensitive search, part-of-speech tags and ngram compositions. For many research projects, users will want to refine the searches to better provide the measure desired. See the Finke and McClure working paper for more details.
Funded By: The John Templeton Foundation
Collected: 2015, Uploaded 6/29/2015

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V88 from International Social Survey Programme 2008: Religion III
Optional_Q8f. What is your personal attitude towards members of the following religious groups? Atheists or non-believers

0) Not available
1) Very positive
2) Somewhat positive
3) Neither positive nor negative
4) Somewhat negative
5) Very negative
8) Can't choose
9) No answer

 
WCDSTRL from Data from the ARDA National Profiles, 2005 Update: Religion Indexes, Adherents and Other Data
Re-coding of World Christian Database State Religion variable (Grim and Finke, 2006)

0) Atheist
1) Secular
2) Religious
3) Specific religion

 
DESCREL from Exploring Religious America, 2002
Please indicate which of the following best describes your religion.

1) Catholic
2) Protestant
3) Christian other than Catholic or Protestant
4) Jewish
5) Mormon
6) Muslim
7) Hindu
8) Buddhist
9) Atheist
10) Agnostic
11) Or are you of another religion? (Specify)
12) No preference (volunteered)
13) Don't know/Not applicable/Refused

 
ATHEIST from National Study of Youth and Religion, Wave 3 (2007-2008)
(atheist_w3)

1) Atheist
2) Agnostic
3) Not religious
4) Something else
777) Don't know
888) Refused
999) Legitimate skip

 
ATHEIST1 from National Study of Youth and Religion, Wave 3 (2007-2008)
(atheist1_w3) [IF DOES NOT CONSIDER SELF ANY RELIGION, DK OR REF OR IF REPORTS BEING "NOT RELIGIOUS," DK OR REF] F:11. Do you consider yourself to be an atheist, agnostic, just not religious, or something else? [MAKE SURE NOT PROTESTANT, CATHOLIC, JEWISH, OR MUSLIM; IF SO, GO BACK TO F:9 OR F:10.]

1) Atheist
2) Agnostic
3) Not religious
4) Something else
777) Don't know
888) Refused
999) Legitimate skip

 
CI_1_2 from Portraits of American Life Study, Merged Dataset, 2006-2012
[Wave 2] Respondent's religion

1) Christian
2) Muslim
3) Jewish
4) Roman Catholic
5) Mormon
6) Buddhist
7) Hindu
8) Agnostic
9) Atheist
10) Spiritual
11) Don't think about religion
12) Other

 
CIP_1_2 from Portraits of American Life Study, Merged Dataset, 2006-2012
[Wave 2] Respondent's religion as adult before 2006

1) Christian
2) Muslim
3) Jewish
4) Roman Catholic
5) Mormon
6) Buddhist
7) Hindu
8) Agnostic
9) Atheist
10) Spiritual
11) Don't think about religion
12) Other

 
CIF_31_2 from Portraits of American Life Study, Merged Dataset, 2006-2012
[Wave 2] Spouse/partners religion

1) Christian
2) Muslim
3) Jewish
4) Roman Catholic
5) Mormon
6) Buddhist
7) Hindu
8) Agnostic
9) Atheist
10) Spiritual
11) Don't think about religion
12) Other

 
CIF_1_2 from Portraits of American Life Study, Merged Dataset, 2006-2012
[Wave 2] Respondent's religion in which raised

1) Christian
2) Muslim
3) Jewish
4) Roman Catholic
5) Mormon
6) Buddhist
7) Hindu
8) Agnostic
9) Atheist
10) Spiritual
11) Don't think about religion
12) Other

 
P_H1W1 from Portraits of American Life Study, Merged Dataset, 2006-2012
[Wave 1] Which of the following do you consider yourself?

1) Roman Catholic
2) Protestant
4) Jewish
6) Buddhist
7) Hindu
8) Agnostic
9) Atheist
10) Don't think about religion
11) Spiritual
12) Other

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