Timeline
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ARDA Dictionary
  • Patriarchate:A seat of authority in the Eastern Orthodox churches . See Patriarch.
  • Icon:A religious sacred image. Icons are an integral part of worship in Eastern Orthodox Churches . They also are important to Catholic Churches and Anglican Churches (Hinnells 1984: 159).
  • Liturgy:A set order of public worship, often comprised of chants, prayers and readings. Catholic , Eastern Orthodox and Anglican churches have more ornate liturgies than other churches that stress preaching and the singing of hymns (Reid et al. 1990: 662).
  • Eastern Liturgical (Orthodox) Family:One of the three great divisions of Christianity; the others are the Protestant churches and the Roman Catholic Church . The Catholic and Orthodox churches were originally united, but they parted in the eleventh century, when they differed over several points of doctrine, including the supreme authority of the pope, which Orthodox Christians reject (Melton 2009: 169-172). Since the 20th century, the Catholic and Orthodox churches have made greater efforts toward reconciliation.
  • Archdiocese:A large diocese overseen by the Archbishop. Since the fourth century CE, neighboring dioceses have been grouped into provinces, and the most important province has been designated as the archdiocese, while the others are called "suffragan dioceses." Catholic Churches and Eastern Orthodox Churches recognize archdioceses, although Eastern Orthodox Churches prefer the terminology of "eparchey" and "archeparchy." Although Episcopalians organize dioceses into provinces, they do not officially recognize archdioceses (Reid et al. 1990: 74).
  • Joint Catholic-Orthodox Declaration of 1965:The Joint Catholic-Orthodox Declaration of 1965 revoked the mutual excommunications of 1054 that led to the Great Schism, which separated Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox churches. During the Second Vatican Council in 1964, Catholic leaders and Orthodox representatives began discussing greater efforts of ecumenism between Catholic and Orthodox churches, which came to fruition in 1965. This event reflected a growing desire for reconciliation between both churches and led to firmer ecumenical relations after centuries of mutual excommunication. For more information on this historical event, click here .
  • Patriarch:1) The head bishop of an Eastern Orthodox Church (see Athenagoras I of Constantinople, 1886-1972 ). 2) A historical title for the bishops in the ancient cities of Rome, Alexandria, Antioch, Constantinople, and Jerusalem. 3) A term for Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob in the Hebrew Bible (Smith and Green 1995: 833).
  • Archbishop:The bishop of an Archdiocese. The archbishop's power extends over an ecclesiastical province, not just a diocese. Catholic Churches , Eastern Orthodox Churches , and Anglican Churches maintain these hierarchal positions, although the jurisdiction, positional rank and specific role of the archbishop differs by tradition (Reid et al. 1990: 73). Famous archbishops in American Catholic history include James Gibbons and John Hughes .
  • Clergy:Ordained leaders who carry out religious duties. Roman Catholic , Eastern Orthodox , and Anglican churches tend to emphasize the distinction between the clergy and the laity, although this distinction exists in various other Protestant denominations to a lesser degree (Reid et al. 1990: 293).
  • Ordination:The setting apart of some members by a church for ministerial or priestly leadership. In Christianity, this usually is done by either the laying on of hands or invocation of the Holy Spirit. Ordination is considered a sacrament in the Catholic and Orthodox traditions. Roman Catholic , Eastern Orthodox , and evangelical churches ordain men only, while liberal , some Holiness , and some Pentecostal churches have ordained women (Reid et al. 1990: 846). Ordinations also exist in Buddhism and Judaism (Smith and Green 1995: 815-816).
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Religious Family Trees
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Citations
Citations are taken from the Sociology of Religion Searchable Bibliographic Database, created and updated by Anthony J. Blasi (Ph.D. in Sociology, University of Notre Dame; University of Texas at San Antonio). The ARDA is not responsible for content or typographical errors.
  • "A part of who I am": Material objects as "plot devices" in the formation of religious selves.
    Winchester, Daniel (2017)
    Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 56:1: 83-103.

    Based on participant observation in 3 Orthodox churches in Minneapolis/St. Paul. Focuses on the use of material objects, especially icons, in the identity narratives of converts.

    Associated Search Terms: Icon; United States, Minnesota, Minneapolis; Self; Participant observation; Orthodox, eastern, U.S.A.; Identity; Art; Material culture
  • Getting to church. Exploring Narratives of Gender and Joining.
    Gallagher, Sally K. (2017)
    New York: Oxford University Press.

    Based on interviews, focus groups, & participant observation with 3 congregations (Presbyterian, Baptist, Orthodox) in the US Northwest. Describes how people join each congregation and gendered differences in what new members resonated with. Congregational cultures mattered.

    Associated Search Terms: Baptist, U.S.A.; Congregation; Focus group; Gender; Orthodox, eastern, U.S.A.; Participant observation; Presbyterian Church in the U.S.A.; Socialization
  • Converting to continuity: Temporality and self in Eastern Orthodox covnersion narratives.
    Winchester, Daniel (2015)
    Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 54:3: 439-460.

    Conversion narratives of Americans who joined Orthodox churches reveal a progressive discourse of latent religiosity, not a dramatic break with a past.

    Associated Search Terms: Conversion; Discourse; Orthodox, eastern, U.S.A.
  • La costellazione delle chiese ortodosse.
    Giordan, Giuseppe (2013)
    In Enzo Pace (ed.) Le religioni nell'Italia che cambia: mappe e bussole. Roma: Carocci, pp. 13-30.

    Associated Search Terms: Orthodox, eastern, Italy; Italy
  • A world in motion: The plurality of Orthodox churches in Italy.
    Giordan, Giuseppe (2013)
    In Giuseppe Giordan and William H. Swatos, Jr. (eds.) Testing Pluralism. Globalizing Belief, Localizing Gods. Leiden: Brill, pp. 57-74.

    Based on official data & questionnaires sent to parishes.

    Associated Search Terms: Orthodox, eastern, Italy; Migration; Migrant; Italy
  • Religion, spirituality and civil participation.
    deHart, Joep, and Paul Dekker (2013)
    In Joep de Hart, Paul Dekker, and Loek Halman (eds.) Religion and Civil Society in Europe. Dordrecht: Springer, pp. 169-188.

    Reports data from various European surveys. Among the European nations, the proportion protestant correlates positively with secular volunteering, & the proportion Orthodox or Muslim correlates negatively with secular volunteering.

    Associated Search Terms: Islam, Europe; Catholic, Europe; Europe; Orthodox, eastern, Europe; Protestant, Europe; Volunteering; Civic engagement
  • Achilles and the tortoise. A society monoplized by Catholicism faced with an unexpected religious pluralism.
    Pace, Enzo (2013)
    Social Compass 60:3: 315-331.

    Descriptive data & maps of other-than-Catholic places of worship, Catholic Charismatic Renewal centers, & Catholic ministries to immigrants.

    Associated Search Terms: Orthodox, eastern, Italy; Sikh, Italy; Pentecostal, Catholic, Italy; Migrant; Jehovah´s Witness, Italy; Italy; Islam, Italy; Catholic, Italy; Assemblies of God, Italy; Pluralism
  • Orthodox Christianity, modernity and postmodernity: Overview, analysis and assessment.
    Makrides, Vasilios N. (2012)
    Religion, State and Society 40: 248-285.

    Associated Search Terms: Modernity; Orthodox, eastern; Post-modern
  • The Eastern Church in the Spiritual Marketplace: American Conversions to Orthodox Christianity.
    Slagle, Amy (2011)
    DeKalb, Illinois: Northern Illinois Univrsity Press.

    Associated Search Terms: United States, Pennsylvania, Pittsburgh; United States, Mississippi, Jackson; Participant observation; Orthodox, eastern, U.S.A.; Market model; Conversion
  • The Future of Christianity: Reflections on Violence and Democracy, Religion and Secularization.
    Martin, David (2011)
    Farnham, UK, and Williston, Vermont: Ashgate.

    Associated Search Terms: Orthodox, eastern; Violence; Secularization; Pentecostal; Catholic; Protestant
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Data Archive
  • The Ethno-Linguistic Situation in the Parishes of U.S. Orthodox Christian Churches:
    The goal of this study and survey was to assess the usage of various languages and the strength of the ethnic culture in U.S. Orthodox parishes. This survey includes parishes from different parts of the United States and from various Orthodox jurisdictions.
    Funded By: This study was conducted under auspices of the Assembly of Canonical Orthodox Bishops of the United States--a religious organization that unites the bishops representing the following Orthodox Church jurisdictions (denominations): Albanian Orthodox Diocese of America; American Carpatho-Russian Orthodox Diocese; Antiochian Orthodox Christian Archdiocese of North America; Bulgarian Eastern Orthodox Diocese of the USA and Canada; Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of America; Orthodox Church in America; Parishes of the Georgian Orthodox Church; Romanian Orthodox Archdiocese in the Americas; Russian Orthodox Church Outside of Russia; Russian Orthodox Church in the USA; Serbian Orthodox Church in North America; Ukrainian Orthodox Church of the USA.
    Collected: 2011, Uploaded 9/19/2014
  • Orthodox Christian Fellowship in the United States: The Study of Orthodox Christian Clergy Serving as Chaplains in U.S. Colleges and Universities:
    This survey and study was designed in order to assess the present state of the Orthodox Christian Fellowship on the campuses of U.S. colleges and universities. Orthodox Christian Fellowship (OCF) is a U.S. national pan-Orthodox agency responsible for the Orthodox collegiate campus ministry. The study had three major goals:

    The first goal was to conduct a comprehensive "inventory" of the local OCF chapters that are currently present on the campuses of American colleges and universities, to analyze their geography and membership, and to examine their programs and activities, their strengths and weaknesses.

    The second goal was to investigate the question of what type of challenges local OCF chapters face and what their major needs are so that these challenges and needs could be properly addressed by the national Orthodox Church leadership and by the national OCF organization.

    The third goal was to take a close look at the group of Orthodox clergy who serve as spiritual advisors (chaplains) for the local OCF chapters: to examine their "demography," professional training, forms and degree of involvement with various OCF activities and -- most importantly -- to better understand their major problems and concerns.
    Funded By: This study was conducted under auspices of the Assembly of Canonical Orthodox Bishops of the United States --a religious organization that unites the bishops representing the following Orthodox Church jurisdictions (denominations): Albanian Orthodox Diocese of America; American Carpatho-Russian Orthodox Diocese; Antiochian Orthodox Christian Archdiocese of North America; Bulgarian Eastern Orthodox Diocese of the USA and Canada; Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of America; Orthodox Church in America; Parishes of the Georgian Orthodox Church; Romanian Orthodox Archdiocese in the Americas; Russian Orthodox Church Outside of Russia; Russian Orthodox Church in the USA; Serbian Orthodox Church in North America; Ukrainian Orthodox Church of the USA.
    Collected: 2013, Uploaded 12/1/2014
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Questions/Variables on Surveys
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