Site Features
  • FAQ: Go to the FAQ to see the answers to questions frequently asked of the ARDA staff.
[Viewing Matches 1-1]  (of 1 total matches in Site Features)
Timeline
  • The Cooperative Program Instituted in the Southern Baptist Convention: In 1925, the Southern Baptist Convention's Cooperative Program centralized budgetary authority and aided the growth of the denomination.
  • Sufism Comes to United States: Fulfilling the wishes of his Sufi teacher, Hazrat Inayat Khan sailed to America in 1910 to spread the message of this mystical arm of Islam.
  • Trial of Albert Barnes: The trial of Presbyterian minister Albert Barnes regarding his unorthodox theology in 1835 increased tensions between Old School and New School Presbyterians.
  • Bureau of Immigration: In 1920, the National Catholic Welfare Council gave aid and guidance to new Catholic immigrants through its Bureau of Immigration.
  • James O'Kelly's Congregational Revolt: In 1792, James O'Kelly, concerned with the power of bishops, led the first schism in the American Methodist Church.
  • Adopting Act of Westminster Confession: By adopting the Westminster Confession of Faith (1729) as its doctrinal standard, American Presbyterianism moved a step closer to becoming a fully regularized denomination.
  • Moon, Charlotte "Lottie": Charlotte "Lottie" Moon (1840-1912) was a Southern Baptist missionary known for her evangelistic work in China.
  • the Prophet, Tenskwatawa : Tenskwatawa (1775-1836), also called "The Shawnee Prophet," became the spiritual leader of one of the largest Native American confederations until an 1811 U.S. military defeat.
  • Rise of Equal Rights Movements: The social justice movements of the 1960s were infectious, giving rise to women, racial minorities, and LGBT groups seeking equal rights in the United States.
  • Southern Baptist Convention Founded: The Southern Baptist Convention (1845) resulted from a split between Northern and Southern Baptists over slavery. It is now the largest Protestant denomination in America.
[Viewing Matches 1-10] > [View Matches 1-17]  (of 17 total matches in Timelines)
Measurements
[Viewing Matches 1-2]  (of 2 total matches in Measurement Concepts)
ARDA Dictionary
  • Zakat (Alms-giving):One of the Five Pillars of Islam. Zakat (alms-giving) is the sharing of one's wealth, generally to either an administration or government (Hinnells 1991: 143).
  • Religious Investor:One who gives their church time and money in hopes of some reward (Iannaccone and Bainbridge 2009). For more information on this concept, click here .
  • Intelligent Design:A theory that posits that both the universe and individual organisms are too complex to be a result of either chance or random selection, thus pointing to an "intelligent designer." Critics accuse Intelligent Design proponents of espousing "pseudoscience," and attempting to give creationist sentiments a more scientific facade (Prothero 2008: 214).
  • Five Pillars of Islam:The five essential practices of Islam. These include shahada (profession of faith), salat (worship), zakat (alms-giving), saum (fasting) and Hajj (pilgrimage). The observance of these pillars differs between Sunni and Shi’ite traditions (Hinnells 1984: 136).
  • Second Great Awakening (1790s-1840s):The Second Great Awakening(s) (1790s-1840s) fueled the rise of an evangelical Protestant majority in antebellum America, giving rise to new denominations and social reform organizations. The Cane Ridge camp meeting of 1801 , led by Barton Stone, is considered the largest and most famous religious revival of the Second Great Awakening. For more information on the Second Great Awakening, click here .
  • Bat Mitzvah:A Jewish ceremony, usually performed when a girl is 12, which marks her transition into adulthood. The ceremony includes a reading from the Torah or the Prophets, and is followed by an elaborate party for friends and family. The Bat Mitzvah is a fairly new rite of passage in modern times, and functions as a way to give the girl more of a role in Jewish public life (Hinnells 1984: 37).
  • Per Capita:A rate that refers to the amount of something per individual unit. It is computed by taking the number of cases with a particular characteristic and dividing it by the total number of cases. For instance, if you take the total amount of money received by a congregation and divided by the number of members, you would have "giving per capita," or the average amount of money given per person. (Statistical Term)
  • Pentecost:The annual Christian celebration commemorating the descent of the Holy Spirit on the disciples of Jesus as recorded in the biblical book of Acts. The term derives from Greek, literally meaning "50 days," traditionally the time between the Passover feast and the wheat harvest. In the early church and in some churches today, Pentecost is celebrated fifty days following Easter. Later Judaism associated Pentecost with God giving Moses the Law on Mount Sinai. The Christian celebration is common in liturgical churches with the final lighting of the Paschal candle, readings from the lectionary, and prayer (Reid et al. 1990: 881).
[Viewing Matches 1-8]  (of 8 total matches in the ARDA Dictionary)
Citations
Citations are taken from the Sociology of Religion Searchable Bibliographic Database, created and updated by Anthony J. Blasi (Ph.D. in Sociology, University of Notre Dame; University of Texas at San Antonio). The ARDA is not responsible for content or typographical errors.
  • Individual sensory experiences, socialized senses, and everyday lived religion in practice.
    McGuire, Meredith B. (2016)
    Social Compass 63:2: 152-162.

    Argues for the importance of sensation in religious; gives examples.

    Associated Search Terms: Body; Experience
  • Religion and giving for international aid: Evidence from a survey of U.S. church members.
    Schnable, Allison (2015)
    Sociology of Religion 76:1: 72-94.

    Analyzes 2005 telephone interview data from U.S.A. church members. Levels of church involvement predict giving to international aid efforts.

    Associated Search Terms: Altruism; Contributions
  • Sociology and theology: With and agaisn the grain of "the world."
    Martin, David (2015)
    Implicit Religion 18:2: 159-175.

    The similarities between sociology & theology give them the potential for undermining one another.

    Associated Search Terms: World rejection; Theology
  • "Give us a sign of your presence": Paranormal investigation as a spiritual practice.
    Eaton Marc A. (2015)
    Sociology of Religion 76:4: 389-412.

    Based on participant observation in 16 investigations of ghost reports.

    Associated Search Terms: Participant observation; Paranormal; Ghost
  • Examining the association of religious context with giving to non-profit organizations.
    Wiepking, Pamala, René Bekkers, and Una Osili (2014)
    European Sociological Review 30:5: 640-654.

    Associated Search Terms: Contributions
  • Generating trust in congregations: Engagement, exchange, and social networks.
    Seymour, Jeffrey M., Michael R. Welch, Karen Monique Gregg, and Jessica Collett (2014)
    Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 53:1: 130-144.

    Analyzes 2006 interview data (Wave 1, Portraits of American Life Study) from adult Americans. Closeness of ties to religious leaders, interpersonal ties within congregations, & giving & receiving aid predict trust.

    Associated Search Terms: Trust; Network; Congregation
  • Gifts of money and gifts of time: Folk religion and civic involvement in a Chinese soiety.
    Hu, Anning (2014)
    Review of Religious Research 56:2: 313-335.

    Analyzes 2009 survey data from Taiwan. Ancestor worship predicts less secular contributing. Local deity worship predicts more religious volunteering. Sectarian membership predicts more religious volunteering. Individual folk religion predicts religious volunteering &, occasionally, giving to Buddhism, Taoism, & folk religion.

    Associated Search Terms: Contributions; Ancestor; Taiwan; Volunteering; Folk religion
  • Mosque-based emotional support among young Muslim Americans.
    Nguyen, Ann W., Robert Joseph Taylor, Linda M. Chatters, Aaron Ahuvia, Elif Izberk-Bilgin, and Fiona Lee (2013)
    Review of Religious Research 55:4: 535-555.

    Analyzes survey data from graduate & undergraduate students, & other young adult Muslims in southeastern Michigan. Giving & receiving social support & experiencing negative interactions in mosques were associated with demographic variables.

    Associated Search Terms: Congregation; Islam, U.S.A.; Mosque; Social support
  • If I Give My Soul: Pentecostalism inside of Prison in Rio de Janeiro.
    Johnson, Andrew R. (2012)
    Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, University of Minnesota.

    Associated Search Terms: Pentecostal, Brazil; Prisoners; Penology; Brazil, Rio de Janeiro
  • Explaining Differences in Philanthropic Behavior between Christians, Muslims, and Hindus in the Netherlands.
    Carabain, Christine L., and René Bekers (2012)
    Review of Religious Research 53:4: 419-440.

    Analyzes 2008 Dutch interview data. Community orientation, communal worship orientation, & beliefs affect giving patterns. Dutch Hindus have more secular & less religious giving levels, Dutch Muslims more religious & less secular.

    Associated Search Terms: Islam, Netherlands; Altruism; Belief; Contributions; Hindu, Netherlands; Netherlands; Protestant, Netherlands; Indian Dutch; Catholic, Netherlands
[Viewing Matches 1-10] > [View Matches 1-140]  (of 140 total matches in Citations)
Data Archive
  • ABC News Views of Islam Poll, 2003:
    In this September 2003 ABC News poll, a random national sample of 1,004 Americans were asked to give their opinions on a variety of issues related to Islam, the Middle East, terrorism, and the war in Iraq. Some of the included topics were the respondent’s views of Islam as a violent or peaceful religion, the success or failure of the war in Iraq and the war on terrorism, concerns about traveling, and threats to privacy as a result of the war on terrorism. Demographic variables include: Gender, age, race, income, religion and education.
    Funded By: ABC News , Gary E. Langer, Director of Polling
    Collected: 2003, Uploaded 7/1/2004
  • ABC News Church Abuse, 2004:
    In this February 2004 ABC News/Washington Post poll, a random national sample of 1,028 Americans were asked to give their opinions on the child sex-abuse issues within the Catholic Church. In addition, this poll asks the respondents about their views on homosexual marriage. Demographic variables include: gender, age, race, income, religion and education.
    Funded By: ABC News /Washington Post
    Collected: 2004, Uploaded 9/22/2004
  • General Social Survey, 1998:
    The General Social Surveys (GSS) have been conducted by the National Opinion Research Center annually since 1972 except for the years 1979, 1981, and 1992 (a supplement was added in 1992), and biennially beginning in 1994. The GSS are designed as part of a program of social indicator research, replicating questionnaire items and wording in order to facilitate time-trend studies. Items in the 1998 GSS include special modules on religion (with items measuring giving, volunteering, religious self-identification, religious schooling, congregational affiliation, and spiritualism), culture, job experiences, inter-racial friendships, national security, medical care, medical ethics, and the social security system.
    Funded By: National Science Foundation , National Opinion Research Center (NORC) , The Lilly Endowment, Inc. , the Fetzer Institute , Academy Sinica, the Lilly Corporation, the National Institutes of Mental Health , the Office of Naval Research , the American Association of Retired Persons , and the Luce Foundation .
    Collected: 1998, Uploaded 12/20/2000
  • Social Capital Community Benchmark Survey, 2000:
    The 2000 Social Capital Benchmark Survey was undertaken by the Saguaro Seminar at the John F. Kennedy School of Government at Harvard Unversity. This purpose of the SCCBS, conducted nationally as well as in 41 U.S. communities, is to measure various manifestations of social capital as well as its suspected correlates to (1) provide a rich database for analysis by interested researchers who wish to better understand social capital and (2) provide a tool for communities and organizations to use in program development and evaluation, in part, by enabling relative assessment to other communities and the nation. As a “benchmark” survey, it is the first attempt at widespread systematic measurement of social capital, especially within communities, and it will serve as a point of comparison for future research which attempts to assess changes in key indicators. It is hoped that discussion and use of the survey will also stimulate interest in the broader purpose of fostering civic and social engagement across the country and thus contribute to the revitalization of community institutions.

    The survey developed 11 dimensions of social capital for which there are indices including one on religion. The survey also contains 11 measures of religiosity: 1) the respondent's religion (if any) and denomination; 2) how important religion is to the respondent; 3) whether respondent is a member of a religious group; 4) frequency of religious attendance; 5) religious participation, outside of weekly services; 6) level of religious volunteering; 7) level of religious giving; 8) trust of co-congregants; 9) whether respondent has a personal friend of a different religion; 10) degree to which house of worship gives respondent a sense of belonging; 11) whether respondent is an active member in a religious group (other than his/her house of worship).

    For more information, visit the SCCBS website.
    Funded By: The national survey was funded jointly by a grant from the Ford Foundation; the community surveys, by 34 local community foundations. Technical support, management, and some initial data analysis was provided by staff at the Saguaro Seminar, John F. Kennedy School of Government – Harvard University.
    Collected: 2000, Uploaded 5/5/2004
  • ABC News/Washington Post Poll: The New Pope, 2005:
    In this April 2005 ABC News/Washington Post poll, a national sample of 1,082 Americans (including a Catholic oversample for a total of 284 Catholics) was asked to discuss their attitudes and opinions regarding the Catholic Church, and the recent selection of Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger as Pope Benedict the 16th. Respondents were asked to give their views on questions about: Pope Benedict's priority list, maintaining traditions, modernizing policies, the priesthood, women, and overall opinions of the Catholic Church. Demographic variables include: gender, age, race, and education.
    Funded By: ABC News /Washington Post .
    Collected: 2005, Uploaded 8/25/2005
  • ABC News Church Scandal Poll, 2002:
    In this December 2002 ABC News/Washington Post poll, a random national sample of 1,209 Americans were asked to give their opinions on a variety of topics. These topics ranged from questions about President Bush's handling of domestic and international issues, to opinions about potential military action in Iraq, and finally to the Catholic Church priest sexual abuse scandal. The Catholic Church questions were designed to be follow-up questions to previous surveys on the Catholic Church. Questions related to the Catholic Church include: whether or not respondents had a favorable or unfavorable view of the Catholic Church, respondents views on sexual abuse reporting by the church, and opinions on trust in the Church to handle the sexual abuse issue. Questions on religion and church attendance were also asked. Demographic variables include gender, age, race, income, and education.
    Funded By: ABC News , Gary E. Langer, Director of Polling
    Collected: 2002, Uploaded 7/7/2003
  • American Congregational Giving Study, Congregational Profiles, 1993:
    No church is entirely satisfied with the level of financial support that it receives from its members. For this reason, the Lilly Endowment commissioned a nation-wide study of giving in U.S. churches, which came to be known as the American Congregational Giving Study. One aspect was a five denomination study which included: Assemblies of God, Southern Baptist Convention, Roman Catholic Church, Evangelical Lutheran Church of America and the Presbyterian Church (U.S.A). A total of 125 congregations from each denomination were studied. The congregations were chosen from nine sampling regions, one in each of the nine U.S. census regions. Field workers personally visited each congregation in the sample. They had two tasks. First, they assisted the pastor in the completion of a Congregational Profile, which summarized the major socioeconomic characteristics, beliefs, programs and finances of the congregation. Second, they selected a random sample of 30 congregation members. Each of these was sent a Lay Questionnaire, which asked members about their personal religious beliefs, opinions about both their congregation and denomination and their personal socioeconomic characteristics. The data were collected into two separate data files, one containing the congregational profiles (ACGSCONG) and the other containing the responses from the member questionnaires (ACGSMBRS). The data from each congregational profile and that congregation's member questionnaires are easily merged through their common congregational id (Variable name CONGID).
    Funded By: The Lilly Endowment, Inc. For information on the Lilly Endowment project collecting the data, http://www.resourcingchristianity.org/grant-project/research-on-religious-giving
    Collected: 1993, Uploaded 12/1/1998
  • Exploring Orthodox Generosity: Giving in US Orthodox Christian Parishes:
    This data-file was used to conduct the national study "Exploring Orthodox Generosity: Giving in US Orthodox Parishes." The nationally representative sample includes over 2,800 respondents - the lay-members of US various Orthodox Christian Churches. The study had three main goals:

    1. To examine patterns and trends in religious giving among Orthodox Church members: both to their home parishes (congregations) and to wider religious causes;

    2. To explore differences in giving between members of various Orthodox jurisdictions (denominations) and between various categories of parishioners (in particular, between various generations and between cradle Orthodox and converts to Orthodoxy);

    3. To learn what might be done to increase "generosity" of church members.
    Funded By: The project was sponsored by the Assembly of Canonical Orthodox Bishops of the United States of America .
    Collected: 2015, Uploaded 11/14/2016
  • ABC News Poll: Religion and Politics, 2004:
    In this May 2004 ABC News/Washington Post poll, a random national sample of 1,005 Americans were asked to give their views on the relationship between religion and politics. Questions were also asked concerning the 2004 election. Demographic variables include: Gender, age, race, income, religion and education.
    Funded By: ABC News /Washington Post
    Collected: 2004, Uploaded 9/22/2004
  • American Congregational Giving Study, Member Questionnaires, 1993:
    No church is entirely satisfied with the level of financial support that it receives from its members. For this reason, the Lilly Endowment commissioned a nation-wide study of giving in U.S. churches, which came to be known as the American Congregational Giving Study. One aspect was a five denomination study of church members which included: Assemblies of God, Southern Baptist Convention, Roman Catholic Church, Evangelical Lutheran Church of America and the Presbyterian Church (U.S.A.). A total of 30 households from each of the 125 congregations were studied.

    The congregations were chosen from nine sampling regions, one in each of the nine U.S. census regions. Field workers personally visited each congregation in the sample. They had two tasks. First, they assisted the pastor in the completion of a Congregational Profile, which summarized the major socioeconomic characteristics, beliefs, programs and finances of the congregation. Second, they selected a random sample of 30 congregation members. Each of these was sent a Lay Questionnaire, which asked members about their personal religious beliefs, opinions about both their congregation and denomination and their personal socioeconomic characteristics. The data were collected into two separate data files, one containing the congregational profiles (ACGSCONG) and the other containing the responses from the member questionnaires (ACGSMBRS). The data from each congregational profile and that congregation's member questionnaires are easily merged through their common congregational id (Variable name CONGID).
    Funded By: The Lilly Endowment, Inc.
    Collected: 1993, Uploaded 12/1/1998
[Viewing Matches 1-10] > [View Matches 1-42]  (of 42 total matches in the Data Archive Files)
Investigators/Researchers
[Viewing Matches 1-8]  (of 8 total matches in Investigators)
Questions/Variables on Surveys
  • EXPDESGN from General Social Survey 2012 Cross-Section and Panel Combined
    Now, please think about this situation. Two scientists want to know if a certain drug is effective against high blood pressure. The first scientist wants to give the drug to 1,000 people with high blood pressure and see how many of them experience lower blood pressure levels. The second scientist wants to give the drug to 500 people with high blood pressure, and not give the drug to another 500 people with high blood pressure, and see how many in both groups experience lower blood pressure levels. Which is the better way to test this drug?

    0) Inapplicable
    1) All 1,000 get the drug
    2) 500 get the drug; 500 don't
    8) Don't know
    9) No answer

  • EXPDESGN from General Social Survey 2014 Cross-Section and Panel Combined
    Now, please think about this situation. Two scientists want to know if a certain drug is effective against high blood pressure. The first scientist wants to give the drug to 1,000 people with high blood pressure and see how many of them experience lower blood pressure levels. The second scientist wants to give the drug to 500 people with high blood pressure, and not give the drug to another 500 people with high blood pressure, and see how many in both groups experience lower blood pressure levels. Which is the better way to test this drug?

    0) Inapplicable
    1) All 1,000 get the drug
    2) 500 get the drug; 500 don't
    8) Don't know
    9) No answer

  • EXPDESGN from General Social Survey, 2016
    Now, please think about this situation. Two scientists want to know if a certain drug is effective against high blood pressure. The first scientist wants to give the drug to 1,000 people with high blood pressure and see how many of them experience lower blood pressure levels. The second scientist wants to give the drug to 500 people with high blood pressure, and not give the drug to another 500 people with high blood pressure, and see how many in both groups experience lower blood pressure levels. Which is the better way to test this drug?

    0) Not applicable
    1) All 1,000 get the drug
    2) 500 get the drug; 500 don't
    8) Don't know
    9) No answer

  • FAMBUDGT from General Social Survey 2012 Cross-Section and Panel Combined
    How do you and your spouse/partner organize the income that one or both of you receive? Please choose the option that comes closest

    0) Inapplicable
    1) I manage all the money and give my partner his/her share
    2) My partner manages all the money and gives me my share
    3) We pool all the money and each take out what we need
    4) We pool some of the money and keep the rest separate
    5) We each keep our own money separate
    8) Don't know
    9) No answer

  • HELPBLK from General Social Survey 2012 Cross-Section and Panel Combined
    Some people think that African Americans have been discriminated against for so long that the government has a special obligation to help improve their living standards; they are at point 1. Others believe that the government should not be giving special treatment to blacks/negroes/African-Americans; they are at point 5. Where would you place yourself on this scale or haven't you made up your mind on this?

    0) Inapplicable
    1) The government has a special obligation to help improve their living standards
    2) 2
    3) Agree with both
    4) 4
    5) The government should not be giving special treatment to African Americans
    8) Don't know
    9) No answer

  • HELPBLK from General Social Survey 2014 Cross-Section and Panel Combined
    Some people think that African Americans have been discriminated against for so long that the government has a special obligation to help improve their living standards; they are at point 1. Others believe that the government should not be giving special treatment to blacks/negroes/African-Americans; they are at point 5. Where would you place yourself on this scale or haven't you made up your mind on this?

    0) Inapplicable
    1) The government has a special obligation to help improve their living standards
    2) 2
    3) Agree with both
    4) 4
    5) The government should not be giving special treatment to African Americans
    8) Don't know
    9) No answer

  • HELPBLK from General Social Survey, 2016
    Some people think that (Blacks/Negroes/African-Americans) have been discriminated against for so long that the government has a special obligation to help improve their living standards. Others believe that the government should not be giving special treatment to (Blacks/Negroes/African-Americans). Where would you place yourself on this scale or haven't you made up your mind on this?

    0) Not applicable
    1) The government has a special obligation to help improve their living standards
    2) 2
    3) Agree with both
    4) 4
    5) The government should not be giving special treatment to African Americans
    8) Don't know
    9) No answer

  • JOBMEANS from General Social Survey 2012 Cross-Section and Panel Combined
    Would you please look at this card and tell me which one thing on this list you would most prefer in a job? Which comes next? Which is third most important? Which is fourth most important? E. Work important and gives a feeling of accomplishment

    0) Inapplicable
    1) Most important
    2) Second
    3) Third
    4) Fourth
    5) Fifth
    9) No answer

  • INFOBIZ from General Social Survey 2012 Cross-Section and Panel Combined
    How much trust do you have in each of the following groups to give you correct information about causes of pollution: business and industry?

    0) Inapplicable
    1) A great deal of trust
    2) Quite a lot of trust
    3) Some trust
    4) Not much trust
    5) Hardly any trust
    8) Don't know

  • INFOGRN from General Social Survey 2012 Cross-Section and Panel Combined
    How much trust do you have in each of the following groups to give you correct information about causes of pollution: environmental groups?

    0) Inapplicable
    1) A great deal of trust
    2) Quite a lot of trust
    3) Some trust
    4) Not much trust
    5) Hardly any trust
    8) Don't know

[Viewing Matches 1-10] > [View Matches 1-150]  (of 4972 total matches in Data Archive Questions/Variables)
Theories
  • Cyclical Theory: Asian religions, and some classical western philosophers, believed that history consisted of an endless series of cycles: the Wheel of Life, eternal return, or eternal recurrence...
  • Civilization Theory: Theories in this broad category assert that each major civilization, and perhaps smaller units as well in prehistoric times and remote regions, has a degree of cultural coherence, often marked by a distinctive religion...
[Viewing Matches 1-2]  (of 2 total matches in Theories)
Concepts
[Viewing Matches 1-3]  (of 3 total matches in Concepts)
Measures
[Viewing Matches 1-1]  (of 1 total matches in Measures)
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