Site Features
  • FAQ: Go to the FAQ to see the answers to questions frequently asked of the ARDA staff.
[Viewing Matches 1-1]  (of 1 total matches in Site Features)
Timeline
  • The Cooperative Program Instituted in the Southern Baptist Convention: In 1925, the Southern Baptist Convention's Cooperative Program centralized budgetary authority and aided the growth of the denomination.
  • Sufism Comes to United States: Fulfilling the wishes of his Sufi teacher, Hazrat Inayat Khan sailed to America in 1910 to spread the message of this mystical arm of Islam.
  • Trial of Albert Barnes: The trial of Presbyterian minister Albert Barnes regarding his unorthodox theology in 1835 increased tensions between Old School and New School Presbyterians.
  • Bureau of Immigration: In 1920, the National Catholic Welfare Council gave aid and guidance to new Catholic immigrants through its Bureau of Immigration.
  • James O'Kelly's Congregational Revolt: In 1792, James O'Kelly, concerned with the power of bishops, led the first schism in the American Methodist Church.
  • Adopting Act of Westminster Confession: By adopting the Westminster Confession of Faith (1729) as its doctrinal standard, American Presbyterianism moved a step closer to becoming a fully regularized denomination.
  • Moon, Charlotte "Lottie": Charlotte "Lottie" Moon (1840-1912) was a Southern Baptist missionary known for her evangelistic work in China.
  • the Prophet, Tenskwatawa : Tenskwatawa (1775-1836), also called "The Shawnee Prophet," became the spiritual leader of one of the largest Native American confederations until an 1811 U.S. military defeat.
  • Rise of Equal Rights Movements: The social justice movements of the 1960s were infectious, giving rise to women, racial minorities, and LGBT groups seeking equal rights in the United States.
  • Southern Baptist Convention Founded: The Southern Baptist Convention (1845) resulted from a split between Northern and Southern Baptists over slavery. It is now the largest Protestant denomination in America.
[Viewing Matches 1-10] > [View Matches 1-17]  (of 17 total matches in Timelines)
Measurements
[Viewing Matches 1-3]  (of 3 total matches in Measurement Concepts)
ARDA Dictionary
  • Zakat (Alms-giving):One of the Five Pillars of Islam. Zakat (alms-giving) is the sharing of one's wealth, generally to either an administration or government (Hinnells 1991: 143).
  • Religious Investor:One who gives their church time and money in hopes of some reward (Iannaccone and Bainbridge 2009).
  • Intelligent Design:A theory that posits that both the universe and individual organisms are too complex to be a result of either chance or random selection, thus pointing to an "intelligent designer." Critics accuse Intelligent Design proponents of espousing "pseudoscience," and attempting to give creationist sentiments a more scientific facade (Prothero 2008: 214).
  • Theory:A theory is a set of statements, or hypotheses, about relationships among a set of abstract concepts. These statements say how and why the concepts are interrelated. Furthermore, these statements must give rise to implications that potentially are empirically falsifiable (Stark and Bainbridge 1987). (Statistical Term)
  • Financial Contributions, Measures of:These survey items measure how much a respondent gives to his or her religious congregation or organization. Examples are found in the 2005 Baylor Religion Survey and the 2003 National Study of Youth and Religion , both of which are available in the ARDA’s Data Archive.
  • Five Pillars of Islam:The five essential practices of Islam. These include shahada (profession of faith), salat (worship), zakat (alms-giving), saum (fasting) and Hajj (pilgrimage). The observance of these pillars differs between Sunni and Shi'ite traditions (Hinnells 1984: 136).
  • Second Great Awakening (1790s-1840s):The Second Great Awakening(s) (1790s-1840s) fueled the rise of an evangelical Protestant majority in antebellum America, giving rise to new denominations and social reform organizations. The Cane Ridge camp meeting of 1801 , led by Barton Stone, is considered the largest and most famous religious revival of the Second Great Awakening. For more information on the Second Great Awakening, click here .
  • Bat Mitzvah:A Jewish ceremony, usually performed when a girl is 12, which marks her transition into adulthood. The ceremony includes a reading from the Torah or the Prophets, and is followed by an elaborate party for friends and family. The Bat Mitzvah is a fairly new rite of passage in modern times, and functions as a way to give the girl more of a role in Jewish public life (Hinnells 1984: 37).
  • Per Capita:A rate that refers to the amount of something per individual unit. It is computed by taking the number of cases with a particular characteristic and dividing it by the total number of cases. For instance, if you take the total amount of money received by a congregation and divided by the number of members, you would have "giving per capita," or the average amount of money given per person.
  • Volunteering, Measures of:These survey items measure whether individuals are giving time, money or other resources to their religious group or to organizations beyond the religious group. Examples can be found in the 2006 Portraits of American Life Study , 2005 Baylor Religion Survey , 2003 National Study of Youth and Religion and the 2002 General Social Survey , all of which are available in the ARDA’s Data Archive.
[Viewing Matches 1-10] > [View Matches 1-14]  (of 14 total matches in the ARDA Dictionary)
Citations
Citations are taken from the Sociology of Religion Searchable Bibliographic Database, created and updated by Anthony J. Blasi (Ph.D. in Sociology, University of Notre Dame; University of Texas at San Antonio). The ARDA is not responsible for content or typographical errors.
  • Spiritism as a target of "annihilation"--conceptual clarification and exemplification of a rhetorical strategy.
    Usarski, Frank (2019)
    Social Compass 66:2: 211-223.

    Describes the rhetorical strategy of doing away with a target by socially constructing it. Gives the example of the 1890-1940 campaign by secular Brazilian authorities against Spiritism, led by physicians.

    Associated Search Terms: Spiritism; Brazil; Discourse; Kardecist; Social construction of reality
  • Religious involvement and substance use among urban mothers.
    Burdette, Amy M., Terrence D. Hill, Noah S. Webb, Jason A. Ford, and Stacy H. Haynes (2018)
    Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 57:1: 156-172.

    Analyzes 1998-2007 panel study data from low income urban mothers giving birth in selected hospitals in 1996-97. Church attendance but not other indicators of religious involvement suppressed illicit drug use.

    Associated Search Terms: Experience; Salience; Drug; Panel study; Practice
  • If I Give My Soul: Faith Behind Bars in Rio de Janeiro.
    Johnson, Andrew R. (2017)
    New York: Oxford University Press.

    Ethnographic study of Pentecostalism in 3 Brazilian prisons. The Pentecostalism accords prisoners what they do not obtain elsewhere--dignity. It coexists with domination by organized crime, however.

    Associated Search Terms: Penology; Brazil; Participant observation; Pentecostal, Brazil; Prisoners
  • Religion in public health-care institutions: U.S. and U.K. perspectives.
    Idler, Ellen, and Allan Kellehear (2017)
    Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 56:2: 234-240.

    Describes degrees of separation/fusion of religion & health care in the U.S.A. & U.K. Gives examples.

    Associated Search Terms: Great Britain; Hospital; Medical; United States; Differentiation
  • Why did God make me this way? Religious coping and framing in the virtuous pedophile community.
    Cranney, Stephen (2017)
    Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 56:4: 852-868.

    Interview & content analysis data from people having a predisposition toward pedophilia but do not commit pedophiliac acts. They use religion to cope with their predisposition by giving it meaning.

    Associated Search Terms: Content analysis; Coping; Stigma; Pedophilia
  • Individual sensory experiences, socialized senses, and everyday lived religion in practice.
    McGuire, Meredith B. (2016)
    Social Compass 63:2: 152-162.

    Argues for the importance of sensation in religious; gives examples.

    Associated Search Terms: Experience; Body
  • Religion and giving for international aid: Evidence from a survey of U.S. church members.
    Schnable, Allison (2015)
    Sociology of Religion 76:1: 72-94.

    Analyzes 2005 telephone interview data from U.S.A. church members. Levels of church involvement predict giving to international aid efforts.

    Associated Search Terms: Altruism; Contributions
  • Sociology and theology: With and agaisn the grain of "the world."
    Martin, David (2015)
    Implicit Religion 18:2: 159-175.

    The similarities between sociology & theology give them the potential for undermining one another.

    Associated Search Terms: Theology; World rejection
  • "Give us a sign of your presence": Paranormal investigation as a spiritual practice.
    Eaton Marc A. (2015)
    Sociology of Religion 76:4: 389-412.

    Based on participant observation in 16 investigations of ghost reports.

    Associated Search Terms: Ghost; Participant observation; Paranormal
  • Religiously traditional, unusually supportive? Examining who gives, helps, and advises in Americans' close networks.
    Schafer, Markus H. (2015)
    Social Currents 2: 81-104.

    Associated Search Terms: Network; Social support
[Viewing Matches 1-10] > [View Matches 1-147]  (of 147 total matches in Citations)
Data Archive
  • ABC News Views of Islam Poll, 2003:
    In this September 2003 ABC News poll, a random national sample of 1,004 Americans were asked to give their opinions on a variety of issues related to Islam, the Middle East, terrorism, and the war in Iraq. Some of the included topics were the respondent's views of Islam as a violent or peaceful religion, the success or failure of the war in Iraq and the war on terrorism, concerns about traveling, and threats to privacy as a result of the war on terrorism. Demographic variables include: Gender, age, race, income, religion and education.
    Funded By: ABC News , Gary E. Langer, Director of Polling
    Collected: 2003, Uploaded 7/1/2004
  • ABC News Church Abuse, 2004:
    In this February 2004 ABC News/Washington Post poll, a random national sample of 1,028 Americans were asked to give their opinions on the child sex-abuse issues within the Catholic Church. In addition, this poll asks the respondents about their views on homosexual marriage. Demographic variables include: gender, age, race, income, religion and education.
    Funded By: ABC News /Washington Post
    Collected: 2004, Uploaded 9/22/2004
  • Social Capital Community Benchmark Survey, 2000:
    The 2000 Social Capital Community Benchmark Survey was undertaken by the Saguaro Seminar at the John F. Kennedy School of Government at Harvard Unversity. This purpose of the SCCBS, conducted nationally as well as in 41 U.S. communities, is to measure various manifestations of social capital as well as its suspected correlates to (1) provide a rich database for analysis by interested researchers who wish to better understand social capital and (2) provide a tool for communities and organizations to use in program development and evaluation, in part, by enabling relative assessment to other communities and the nation. As a "benchmark" survey, it is the first attempt at widespread systematic measurement of social capital, especially within communities, and it will serve as a point of comparison for future research which attempts to assess changes in key indicators. It is hoped that discussion and use of the survey will also stimulate interest in the broader purpose of fostering civic and social engagement across the country and thus contribute to the revitalization of community institutions. The survey developed 11 dimensions of social capital for which there are indices including one on religion. The survey also contains 11 measures of religiosity: 1) the respondent's religion (if any) and denomination; 2) how important religion is to the respondent; 3) whether respondent is a member of a religious group; 4) frequency of religious attendance; 5) religious participation, outside of weekly services; 6) level of religious volunteering; 7) level of religious giving; 8) trust of co-congregants; 9) whether respondent has a personal friend of a different religion; 10) degree to which house of worship gives respondent a sense of belonging; 11) whether respondent is an active member in a religious group (other than his/her house of worship). For more information, visit the SCCBS website.
    Funded By: The national survey was funded jointly by a grant from the Ford Foundation; the community surveys, by 34 local community foundations. Technical support, management, and some initial data analysis was provided by staff at the Saguaro Seminar, John F. Kennedy School of Government - Harvard University.
    Collected: 2000, Uploaded 5/5/2004
  • General Social Survey, 1998:
    The General Social Surveys (GSS) have been conducted by the National Opinion Research Center annually since 1972 except for the years 1979, 1981, and 1992 (a supplement was added in 1992), and biennially beginning in 1994. The GSS are designed as part of a program of social indicator research, replicating questionnaire items and wording in order to facilitate time-trend studies. Items in the 1998 GSS include special modules on religion (with items measuring giving, volunteering, religious self-identification, religious schooling, congregational affiliation, and spiritualism), culture, job experiences, inter-racial friendships, national security, medical care, medical ethics, and the social security system.

    To download syntax files for the GSS that reproduce well-known religious group recodes, including RELTRAD, please visit the ARDA’s Syntax Repository .
    Funded By: National Science Foundation , National Opinion Research Center (NORC) , The Lilly Endowment, Inc. , the Fetzer Institute , Academy Sinica, the Lilly Corporation, the National Institutes of Mental Health , the Office of Naval Research , the American Association of Retired Persons , and the Luce Foundation .
    Collected: 1998, Uploaded 12/20/2000
  • ABC News/Washington Post Poll: The New Pope, 2005:
    In this April 2005 ABC News/Washington Post poll, a national sample of 1,082 Americans (including a Catholic oversample for a total of 284 Catholics) was asked to discuss their attitudes and opinions regarding the Catholic Church, and the recent selection of Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger as Pope Benedict the 16th. Respondents were asked to give their views on questions about: Pope Benedict's priority list, maintaining traditions, modernizing policies, the priesthood, women, and overall opinions of the Catholic Church. Demographic variables include: gender, age, race, and education.
    Funded By: ABC News /Washington Post .
    Collected: 2005, Uploaded 8/25/2005
  • ABC News Church Scandal Poll, 2002:
    In this December 2002 ABC News/Washington Post poll, a random national sample of 1,209 Americans were asked to give their opinions on a variety of topics. These topics ranged from questions about President Bush's handling of domestic and international issues, to opinions about potential military action in Iraq, and finally to the Catholic Church priest sexual abuse scandal. The Catholic Church questions were designed to be follow-up questions to previous surveys on the Catholic Church. Questions related to the Catholic Church include: whether or not respondents had a favorable or unfavorable view of the Catholic Church, respondents views on sexual abuse reporting by the church, and opinions on trust in the Church to handle the sexual abuse issue. Questions on religion and church attendance were also asked. Demographic variables include gender, age, race, income, and education.
    Funded By: ABC News , Gary E. Langer, Director of Polling
    Collected: 2002, Uploaded 7/7/2003
  • American Congregational Giving Study, Congregational Profiles, 1993:
    No church is entirely satisfied with the level of financial support that it receives from its members. For this reason, the Lilly Endowment commissioned a nation-wide study of giving in U.S. churches, which came to be known as the American Congregational Giving Study. One aspect was a five denomination study which included: Assemblies of God, Southern Baptist Convention, Roman Catholic Church, Evangelical Lutheran Church in America and the Presbyterian Church (U.S.A). A total of 125 congregations from each denomination were studied. The congregations were chosen from nine sampling regions, one in each of the nine U.S. census regions. Field workers personally visited each congregation in the sample. They had two tasks. First, they assisted the pastor in the completion of a Congregational Profile, which summarized the major socioeconomic characteristics, beliefs, programs and finances of the congregation. Second, they selected a random sample of 30 congregation members. Each of these was sent a Lay Questionnaire, which asked members about their personal religious beliefs, opinions about both their congregation and denomination and their personal socioeconomic characteristics. The data were collected into two separate data files, one containing the congregational profiles (ACGSCONG) and the other containing the responses from the member questionnaires (ACGSMBRS). The data from each congregational profile and that congregation's member questionnaires are easily merged through their common congregational id (Variable name CONGID).
    Funded By: The Lilly Endowment, Inc.
    Collected: 1993, Uploaded 12/1/1998
  • Exploring Orthodox Generosity: Giving in US Orthodox Christian Parishes:
    This data-file was used to conduct the national study "Exploring Orthodox Generosity: Giving in US Orthodox Parishes." The nationally representative sample includes over 2,800 respondents - the lay-members of US various Orthodox Christian Churches. The study had three main goals:

    1. To examine patterns and trends in religious giving among Orthodox Church members: both to their home parishes (congregations) and to wider religious causes;

    2. To explore differences in giving between members of various Orthodox jurisdictions (denominations) and between various categories of parishioners (in particular, between various generations and between cradle Orthodox and converts to Orthodoxy);

    3. To learn what might be done to increase "generosity" of church members.
    Funded By: The project was sponsored by the Assembly of Canonical Orthodox Bishops of the United States of America .
    Collected: 2015, Uploaded 11/14/2016
  • ABC News Poll: Religion and Politics, 2004:
    In this May 2004 ABC News/Washington Post poll, a random national sample of 1,005 Americans were asked to give their views on the relationship between religion and politics. Questions were also asked concerning the 2004 election. Demographic variables include: Gender, age, race, income, religion and education.
    Funded By: ABC News /Washington Post
    Collected: 2004, Uploaded 9/22/2004
  • American Congregational Giving Study, Member Questionnaires, 1993:
    No church is entirely satisfied with the level of financial support that it receives from its members. For this reason, the Lilly Endowment commissioned a nation-wide study of giving in U.S. churches, which came to be known as the American Congregational Giving Study. One aspect was a five denomination study of church members which included: Assemblies of God, Southern Baptist Convention, Roman Catholic Church, Evangelical Lutheran Church in America and the Presbyterian Church (U.S.A.). A total of 30 households from each of the 125 congregations were studied.

    The congregations were chosen from nine sampling regions, one in each of the nine U.S. census regions. Field workers personally visited each congregation in the sample. They had two tasks. First, they assisted the pastor in the completion of a Congregational Profile, which summarized the major socioeconomic characteristics, beliefs, programs and finances of the congregation. Second, they selected a random sample of 30 congregation members. Each of these was sent a Lay Questionnaire, which asked members about their personal religious beliefs, opinions about both their congregation and denomination and their personal socioeconomic characteristics. The data were collected into two separate data files, one containing the congregational profiles (ACGSCONG) and the other containing the responses from the member questionnaires (ACGSMBRS). The data from each congregational profile and that congregation's member questionnaires are easily merged through their common congregational id (Variable name CONGID).
    Funded By: The Lilly Endowment, Inc.
    Collected: 1993, Uploaded 12/1/1998
[Viewing Matches 1-10] > [View Matches 1-45]  (of 45 total matches in the Data Archive Files)
Investigators/Researchers
[Viewing Matches 1-8]  (of 8 total matches in Investigators)
Questions/Variables on Surveys
  • NET8A_7 from Nebraska Annual Social Indicators Survey, 2001
    Can you explain why you would not be interested in making a donation? (Give to all the charities I want to)

    0) Not checked
    1) Checked

  • NET9A from Nebraska Annual Social Indicators Survey, 2001
    How likely would you be to give a one-time donation to the Nebraska Environmental Trust?

    1) Very likely
    2) Somewhat likely
    3) Neutral
    4) Somewhat unlikely
    5) Very unlikely
    8) Don't know

  • NET9B from Nebraska Annual Social Indicators Survey, 2001
    How likely would you be to give an annual donation to the Nebraska Environmental Trust?

    1) Very likely
    2) Somewhat likely
    3) Neutral
    4) Somewhat unlikely
    5) Very unlikely
    8) Don't know

  • EXPDESGN from General Social Survey 2012 Cross-Section and Panel Combined
    Now, please think about this situation. Two scientists want to know if a certain drug is effective against high blood pressure. The first scientist wants to give the drug to 1,000 people with high blood pressure and see how many of them experience lower blood pressure levels. The second scientist wants to give the drug to 500 people with high blood pressure, and not give the drug to another 500 people with high blood pressure, and see how many in both groups experience lower blood pressure levels. Which is the better way to test this drug?

    0) Inapplicable
    1) All 1,000 get the drug
    2) 500 get the drug; 500 don't
    8) Don't know
    9) No answer

  • EXPDESGN from General Social Survey 2014 Cross-Section and Panel Combined
    Now, please think about this situation. Two scientists want to know if a certain drug is effective against high blood pressure. The first scientist wants to give the drug to 1,000 people with high blood pressure and see how many of them experience lower blood pressure levels. The second scientist wants to give the drug to 500 people with high blood pressure, and not give the drug to another 500 people with high blood pressure, and see how many in both groups experience lower blood pressure levels. Which is the better way to test this drug?

    0) Inapplicable
    1) All 1,000 get the drug
    2) 500 get the drug; 500 don't
    8) Don't know
    9) No answer

  • EXPDESGN from General Social Survey, 2016
    Now, please think about this situation. Two scientists want to know if a certain drug is effective against high blood pressure. The first scientist wants to give the drug to 1,000 people with high blood pressure and see how many of them experience lower blood pressure levels. The second scientist wants to give the drug to 500 people with high blood pressure, and not give the drug to another 500 people with high blood pressure, and see how many in both groups experience lower blood pressure levels. Which is the better way to test this drug?

    0) Not applicable
    1) All 1,000 get the drug
    2) 500 get the drug; 500 don't
    8) Don't know
    9) No answer

  • EXPDESGN from General Social Survey, 2018
    Now, please think about this situation. Two scientists want to know if a certain drug is effective against high blood pressure. The first scientist wants to give the drug to 1,000 people with high blood pressure and see how many of them experience lower blood pressure levels. The second scientist wants to give the drug to 500 people with high blood pressure, and not give the drug to another 500 people with high blood pressure, and see how many in both groups experience lower blood pressure levels. Which is the better way to test this drug?

    0) Not applicable
    1) All 1,000 get the drug
    2) 500 get the drug; 500 don't
    8) Don't know
    9) No answer

  • FAMBUDGT from General Social Survey 2012 Cross-Section and Panel Combined
    How do you and your spouse/partner organize the income that one or both of you receive? Please choose the option that comes closest

    0) Inapplicable
    1) I manage all the money and give my partner his/her share
    2) My partner manages all the money and gives me my share
    3) We pool all the money and each take out what we need
    4) We pool some of the money and keep the rest separate
    5) We each keep our own money separate
    8) Don't know
    9) No answer

  • HELPBLK from General Social Survey 2012 Cross-Section and Panel Combined
    Some people think that African Americans have been discriminated against for so long that the government has a special obligation to help improve their living standards; they are at point 1. Others believe that the government should not be giving special treatment to blacks/negroes/African-Americans; they are at point 5. Where would you place yourself on this scale or haven't you made up your mind on this?

    0) Inapplicable
    1) The government has a special obligation to help improve their living standards
    2) 2
    3) Agree with both
    4) 4
    5) The government should not be giving special treatment to African Americans
    8) Don't know
    9) No answer

  • HELPBLK from General Social Survey 2014 Cross-Section and Panel Combined
    Some people think that African Americans have been discriminated against for so long that the government has a special obligation to help improve their living standards; they are at point 1. Others believe that the government should not be giving special treatment to blacks/negroes/African-Americans; they are at point 5. Where would you place yourself on this scale or haven't you made up your mind on this?

    0) Inapplicable
    1) The government has a special obligation to help improve their living standards
    2) 2
    3) Agree with both
    4) 4
    5) The government should not be giving special treatment to African Americans
    8) Don't know
    9) No answer

[Viewing Matches 1-10] > [View Matches 1-150]  (of 5719 total matches in Data Archive Questions/Variables)
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