QuickStats
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Timeline
  • Rauschenbusch, Walter : Walter Rauschenbusch (1861-1918) was the main founding theologian of the Social Gospel.
  • Benjamin Randall Organizes the Free Will Baptists: Itinerant preacher Benjamin Randall organized the Free Will Baptists in New England in 1780.
  • Millenarian Movement: Since William Miller predicted the return of Jesus Christ in the mid-1800s, Millenarian movements emerged and anticipated the end of the world.
  • Church of Satan: Anton Szandor LaVey (1930-97) started the Church of Satan in 1966, offering a new Golden Rule: "Do unto others as they do unto you."
[Viewing Matches 1-4]  (of 4 total matches in Timelines)
Measurements
[Viewing Matches 1-3]  (of 3 total matches in Measurement Concepts)
ARDA Dictionary
  • Heaven (Christianity):The dwelling place of God, angels and redeemed individuals in the afterlife. It functions as the ultimate reward for the redeemed, as opposed to hell, which is the punishment for the damned (Smith and Green 1995: 411). To find information on survey questions related to heaven, click here .
  • Predestination:The belief that every human being, before birth, was predestined by God to either heaven or hell. This is found in Calvinist theology, also known as Reformed theology (Prothero 2008: 207).
  • Purgatory:The place, state or condition of departed Christian souls in which they undergo purifying suffering before entering heaven. This belief is evident in Roman Catholicism (Reid et al. 1990: 964).
  • Rapture:The belief that Christians will be brought up to heaven and escape a time of tribulation and testing before the return of Christ (Smith and Green 1995: 877).
  • Dispensational Premillennialism:The belief held by some Christians that the current dispensation, or historical period, is near the end, and will conclude with the rapture of the believers into heaven. Jesus will come down from heaven to fight the Antichrist and establish a thousand-year reign of peace. British theologian John Nelson Darby (1800-1882) developed this theology and it spread to the United States after the Civil War. This type of theology was made popular by the Scofield Reference Bible and the fictional Left Behind book series. It is one of the most popular forms of prophecy belief in the United States (Prothero 2008: 217).
  • Religious Compensator:A religious compensator promotes the belief in a future reward and/or justice. According to Iannaccone and Bainbridge (2009:466), "A distinctive feature of religious organizations is that they promise attainment of rewards, such as eternal life in Heaven, that cannot be delivered in the here and now" (2009:466). For more on this concept, click here .
  • Dome of the Rock:A domed shrine in Jerusalem that houses the rock upon which the Prophet Muhammad ascended into the Seven Heavens during his night journey. It was constructed by the Caliph Abd al-Malik and was finished in 691 CE (Smith and Green 1995: 320).
  • Lord’s Prayer:The most popular prayer in Christianity, and widely recited by Christians today. It comes from a passage in the Gospel According to Matthew, where Jesus’ disciples ask him how to pray. It begins (in the King James Bible): "Our Father which art in heaven, Hallowed be thy name…" (Prothero 2008: 246-247).
  • Salvation:The belief that humans require deliverance due to the problem of sin. For Christians, the death and resurrection of Jesus allows individuals to be forgiven of sin, and therefore saved. Salvation also is often associated with receiving admission into heaven (Smith and Green 1995: 954).
  • Calvinism:Also known as Reformed theology, Calvinism is a Protestant theological tradition based on the works of John Calvin (1509-1564). Calvin believed in the absolute sovereignty of God and the total depravity of humans. Calvinism also includes the doctrine of double predestination: the belief that God fated every human being, before birth, to either heaven or hell (Prothero 2008: 207).
[Viewing Matches 1-10] > [View Matches 1-17]  (of 17 total matches in the ARDA Dictionary)
US Maps
[Viewing Matches 1-1]  (of 1 total matches in U.S. Maps)
Teaching Tools
[Viewing Matches 1-2]  (of 2 total matches in Teaching Tools)
Citations
Citations are taken from the Sociology of Religion Searchable Bibliographic Database, created and updated by Anthony J. Blasi (Ph.D. in Sociology, University of Notre Dame; University of Texas at San Antonio). The ARDA is not responsible for content or typographical errors.
  • Finding their way to heaven: Women, self-narratives and Catholicism in Quito, Ecuador.
    Calderón Muñoz, Maria (2016)
    Socal Compass 63;1: 20-37.

    Based on 2004-06 interviews with women in Catholic groups in Quito. Conversion experiences after a period of dissatisfaction with traditional Catholicism led to maintaining an individualized personal Catholicism, sometimes at odds with official Church teachings.

    Associated Search Terms: Conversion; Identification; Discourse; Post-structuralism; Women; Ecuador, Quito; Catholic, Ecuador
  • A match made in heaven? Religion-based marriage decisions, marital quality, and the moderating effects of spouse's religious commitment.
    Perry, Samuel L. (2015)
    Social Indicators Research 123:1: 203-225.

    Associated Search Terms: Marriage
  • From religious icon to "our Mother from heaven": The appropriation of the Virgin Mary by Catholic women in Quito.
    Calderón Muñoz, Maria (2014)
    Culture and Religion 15:1: 58-71.

    Associated Search Terms: Marian; Ecuador, Quito; Catholic, Ecuador; Women
  • "Why would our heavenly Father do that to anyone?" Oppressive othering through sexual classification schemes in the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Sants.
    Sumerau, J. Edward, and Ryan T. Cragun (2014)
    Symbolic Interaction 37:3: 331-352.

    Associated Search Terms: Homosexuality; Social distance; Mormon
  • The Heavenly Touch Ministry in the age of Millennial Capitalism. A Phenomenological Perspective.
    Kim, Sung-Gun (2012)
    Nova Religio 15:3: 51-64.

    Sees the Heavenly Touch Ministry as a product of global capitalism.

    Associated Search Terms: Prosperity Gospel, Korea; Heavenly Touch Ministry; Korea (South); Pentecostal, Korea
  • Heaven is a Wonderful Place: The Role of Reasonableness in Religious Discourse.
    Wuthnow, Robert (2010)
    Review of Religious Research 52:1:5-20.

    H. Paul Douglass Lecture.

    Associated Search Terms: Afterlife; Discourse
  • Halfway to Heaven: Four Types of Fuzzy Fidelity in Europe.
    Strom, Ingrid (2009)
    Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 48:4: 702-718.

    Analyzes 1998-99 survey data from 10 European nations; finds 4 types of middling religion: moderately religious, passively religious, belonging without believing, believing without belonging.

    Associated Search Terms: Europe; Religiosity
  • Almost Heaven. Leadership, Decline and the Transformation of New Vrindaban.
    Rochford, E. Burke, Jr., and Kendra Bailey (2006)
    Nova religio 9:3: 6-23.

    Based on 1993-2004 interviews & observation, & 2003 questionnaire data from New Vrindaban members. New Vrindaban is an off-shoot from Hare Krishna.

    Associated Search Terms: New religions; Authority; Hare Krishna, U.S.A.; New Vrindaban; United States, West Virginia
  • Bounded Choice: True Believer and Charismatic Cults.
    Lalich, Judith (2004)
    Berkeley: University of California Press.

    Comparison of Heaven's Gate & the Democratic Workers Party; focuses on themes of charismatic leadership, belief, & control.

    Associated Search Terms: Sect; Heaven´s Gate; Social control; Charisma
  • Popular religion and the World Wide Web: A match made in (cyber) heaven.
    Helland, Christopher (2004)
    In Lorne L. Dawson and Douglas E. Cowan (eds.) Religion Online: Finding Faith on the Internet. New York: Routledge, pp. 23-36.

    Associated Search Terms: Internet; Popular religion
[Viewing Matches 1-10] > [View Matches 1-40]  (of 40 total matches in Citations)
Questions/Variables on Surveys
  • V36 from International Social Survey Programme 2008: Religion III
    Q18b. Do you believe in: Heaven?

    1) Yes, definitely
    2) Yes, probably
    3) No, probably not
    4) No, definitely not
    8) Can't choose
    9) No answer

  • WHOHEAV from National Study of Youth and Religion, Wave 3 (2007-2008)
    (whoheaven_w3) [IF BELIEVES IN HEAVEN, DK OR REF] I:10. Which of the following comes closest to your beliefs about who goes to heaven? Do you believe . . .

    1) All people go to heaven
    2) Only good people go to heaven
    3) Only people whose sins are forgiven through faith in Jesus Christ go to heaven
    4) Something else
    5) Do you really not know or care who goes to heaven
    888) Refused
    999) Legitimate skip

  • WHOHEAV2 from National Study of Youth and Religion, Wave 3 (2007-2008)
    (whoheaven2_w3) Which of the following comes closest to your beliefs about who goes to heaven? (Combines believers and non-believers)

    0) Does not believe in heaven
    1) All people go to heaven
    2) Only good people go to heaven
    3) Only people whose sins are forgiven through faith in Jesus Christ
    4) Something else
    5) Do not really know or care about who goes to heaven
    888) Refused
    999) Legitimate skip

  • GETAVAMR from Baylor Religion Survey, Wave II (2007)
    Q25a. If you believe in Heaven, how many of the following people do you think will get into Heaven? Average Americans

    0) None
    1) A few
    2) About half
    3) Most
    4) All
    8) No opinion

  • GETFAM from Baylor Religion Survey, Wave II (2007)
    Q25d. If you believe in Heaven, how many of the following people do you think will get into Heaven? Family members

    0) None
    1) A few
    2) About half
    3) Most
    4) All
    8) No opinion

  • GETCHRST from Baylor Religion Survey, Wave II (2007)
    Q25e. If you believe in Heaven, how many of the following people do you think will get into Heaven? Christians

    0) None
    1) A few
    2) About half
    3) Most
    4) All
    8) No opinion

  • GETBUDDH from Baylor Religion Survey, Wave II (2007)
    Q25f. If you believe in Heaven, how many of the following people do you think will get into Heaven? Buddhists

    0) None
    1) A few
    2) About half
    3) Most
    4) All
    8) No opinion

  • GETMUSLM from Baylor Religion Survey, Wave II (2007)
    Q25g. If you believe in Heaven, how many of the following people do you think will get into Heaven? Muslims

    0) None
    1) A few
    2) About half
    3) Most
    4) All
    8) No opinion

  • GETJEWS from Baylor Religion Survey, Wave II (2007)
    Q25h. If you believe in Heaven, how many of the following people do you think will get into Heaven? Jews

    0) None
    1) A few
    2) About half
    3) Most
    4) All
    8) No opinion

  • GETNONRL from Baylor Religion Survey, Wave II (2007)
    Q25f. If you believe in Heaven, how many of the following people do you think will get into Heaven? Non-religious people

    0) None
    1) A few
    2) About half
    3) Most
    4) All
    8) No opinion

[Viewing Matches 1-10] > [View Matches 1-150]  (of 312 total matches in Data Archive Questions/Variables)
Concepts
  • Religious Investor: One of the economic roles individuals play when engaged in religious behavior…
  • Religious Compensator: "A distinctive feature of religious organizations is that they promise attainment of rewards, such as eternal life in Heaven, that cannot be delivered in the here and now (Iannaconne and Bainbridge 466).
[Viewing Matches 1-2]  (of 2 total matches in Concepts)
Measures
  • Belief in Heaven: View on certainty of a postive afterlife existing and who will be allowed to go there.
[Viewing Matches 1-1]  (of 1 total matches in Measures)
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