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  • Rauschenbusch, Walter : Walter Rauschenbusch (1861-1918) was the main founding theologian of the Social Gospel.
  • Benjamin Randall Organizes the Free Will Baptists: Itinerant preacher Benjamin Randall organized the Free Will Baptists in New England in 1780.
  • Millenarian Movement: Since William Miller predicted the return of Jesus Christ in the mid-1800s, Millenarian movements emerged and anticipated the end of the world.
  • Church of Satan: Anton Szandor LaVey (1930-97) started the Church of Satan in 1966, offering a new Golden Rule: "Do unto others as they do unto you."
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ARDA Dictionary
  • Heaven (Christianity):The dwelling place of God, angels and redeemed individuals in the afterlife. It functions as the ultimate reward for the redeemed, as opposed to hell, which is the punishment for the damned (Smith and Green 1995: 411). To find information on survey questions related to heaven, click here .
  • Predestination:The belief that every human being, before birth, was predestined by God to either heaven or hell. This is found in Calvinist theology, also known as Reformed theology (Prothero 2008: 207).
  • Purgatory:The place, state or condition of departed Christian souls in which they undergo purifying suffering before entering heaven. This belief is evident in Roman Catholicism (Reid et al. 1990: 964).
  • Rapture:The belief that Christians will be brought up to heaven and escape a time of tribulation and testing before the return of Christ (Smith and Green 1995: 877).
  • Dispensational Premillennialism:The belief held by some Christians that the current dispensation, or historical period, is near the end, and will conclude with the rapture of the believers into heaven. Jesus will come down from heaven to fight the Antichrist and establish a thousand-year reign of peace. British theologian John Nelson Darby (1800-1882) developed this theology and it spread to the United States after the Civil War. This type of theology was made popular by the Scofield Reference Bible and the fictional Left Behind book series. It is one of the most popular forms of prophecy belief in the United States (Prothero 2008: 217).
  • Religious Compensator:A religious compensator promotes the belief in a future reward and/or justice. According to Iannaccone and Bainbridge (2009:466), "A distinctive feature of religious organizations is that they promise attainment of rewards, such as eternal life in Heaven, that cannot be delivered in the here and now" (2009:466).
  • Dome of the Rock:A domed shrine in Jerusalem that houses the rock upon which the Prophet Muhammad ascended into the Seven Heavens during his night journey. It was constructed by the Caliph Abd al-Malik and was finished in 691 CE (Smith and Green 1995: 320).
  • Lord's Prayer:The most popular prayer in Christianity, and widely recited by Christians today. It comes from a passage in the Gospel According to Matthew, where Jesus' disciples ask him how to pray. It begins (in the King James Bible): "Our Father which art in heaven, Hallowed be thy name.. (Prothero 2008: 246-247).
  • Salvation:The belief that humans require deliverance due to the problem of sin. For Christians, the death and resurrection of Jesus allows individuals to be forgiven of sin, and therefore saved. Salvation also is often associated with receiving admission into heaven (Smith and Green 1995: 954).
  • Calvinism:Also known as Reformed theology, Calvinism is a Protestant theological tradition based on the works of John Calvin (1509-1564). Calvin believed in the absolute sovereignty of God and the total depravity of humans. Calvinism also includes the doctrine of double predestination: the belief that God fated every human being, before birth, to either heaven or hell (Prothero 2008: 207).
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Religious Membership County Reports
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Teaching Tools
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Citations are taken from the Sociology of Religion Searchable Bibliographic Database, created and updated by Anthony J. Blasi (Ph.D. in Sociology, University of Notre Dame; University of Texas at San Antonio). The ARDA is not responsible for content or typographical errors.
  • Heaven and health: How Black, Latino, and Korean Christians view the relationship between faith and health.
    Bolger, Daniel (2018)
    Review of Religious Research 60: 389-402.

    Considers congregations as access points for medical services. reports focus group & interview results. All congregations promoted initiatives for physical care. African Americans & Latinos highlighted faith, Korean Americans highlighted social support. African Americans evinced distrust of medicine.

    Associated Search Terms: Latino Americans; Medical; African Americans; Focus group; Korean Americans
  • Finding their way to heaven: Women, self-narratives and Catholicism in Quito, Ecuador.
    Calderón Muñoz, Maria (2016)
    Socal Compass 63;1: 20-37.

    Based on 2004-06 interviews with women in Catholic groups in Quito. Conversion experiences after a period of dissatisfaction with traditional Catholicism led to maintaining an individualized personal Catholicism, sometimes at odds with official Church teachings.

    Associated Search Terms: Identification; Catholic, Ecuador; Discourse; Ecuador, Quito; Conversion; Women; Post-structuralism
  • A match made in heaven? Religion-based marriage decisions, marital quality, and the moderating effects of spouse's religious commitment.
    Perry, Samuel L. (2015)
    Social Indicators Research 123:1: 203-225.

    Associated Search Terms: Marriage
  • From religious icon to "our Mother from heaven": The appropriation of the Virgin Mary by Catholic women in Quito.
    Calderón Muñoz, Maria (2014)
    Culture and Religion 15:1: 58-71.

    Associated Search Terms: Marian; Women; Catholic, Ecuador; Ecuador, Quito
  • "Why would our heavenly Father do that to anyone?" Oppressive othering through sexual classification schemes in the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Sants.
    Sumerau, J. Edward, and Ryan T. Cragun (2014)
    Symbolic Interaction 37:3: 331-352.

    Associated Search Terms: Mormon; Homosexuality; Social distance
  • The Heavenly Touch Ministry in the age of Millennial Capitalism. A Phenomenological Perspective.
    Kim, Sung-Gun (2012)
    Nova Religio 15:3: 51-64.

    Sees the Heavenly Touch Ministry as a product of global capitalism.

    Associated Search Terms: Pentecostal, Korea; Prosperity Gospel, Korea; Korea (South); Heavenly Touch Ministry
  • Binding Earth and Heaven: Patriarchal Blessings in the Prophetic Developmentof Early Mormonism.
    Shepherd Gary, and Gordon Shepherd (2012)
    University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press.

    Associated Search Terms: Mormon; Prophecy
  • Heaven is a Wonderful Place: The Role of Reasonableness in Religious Discourse.
    Wuthnow, Robert (2010)
    Review of Religious Research 52:1:5-20.

    H. Paul Douglass Lecture.

    Associated Search Terms: Afterlife; Discourse
  • Halfway to Heaven: Four Types of Fuzzy Fidelity in Europe.
    Strom, Ingrid (2009)
    Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 48:4: 702-718.

    Analyzes 1998-99 survey data from 10 European nations; finds 4 types of middling religion: moderately religious, passively religious, belonging without believing, believing without belonging.

    Associated Search Terms: Europe; Religiosity
  • Almost Heaven. Leadership, Decline and the Transformation of New Vrindaban.
    Rochford, E. Burke, Jr., and Kendra Bailey (2006)
    Nova religio 9:3: 6-23.

    Based on 1993-2004 interviews & observation, & 2003 questionnaire data from New Vrindaban members. New Vrindaban is an off-shoot from Hare Krishna.

    Associated Search Terms: New religions; New Vrindaban; United States, West Virginia; Authority; Hare Krishna, U.S.A.
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Questions/Variables on Surveys
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