QuickStats
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Timeline
  • The Primitive Baptists Coalesce: In 1827, the Primitive Baptists began forming in response to growing Baptist denominationalism.
  • Trial of Albert Barnes: The trial of Presbyterian minister Albert Barnes regarding his unorthodox theology in 1835 increased tensions between Old School and New School Presbyterians.
  • Memorial Movement: With early origins in the 1780s, the memorial movement highlights how Americans commonly commemorate the dead in visual and material forms.
  • Auburn Affirmation: In 1924, the Auburn Affirmation denounced the Five Point Deliverance as a necessary means for ordination in the Presbyterian Church in the U.S.A.
  • Orthodox Presbyterian Church Founded: In 1936, discontented conservative Presbyterians left the Presbyterian Church in the United States of America to form the Orthodox Presbyterian Church.
  • Eddy, Mary Baker: Mary Baker Eddy (1821-1910) founded the Christian Science movement.
  • Warfield, Benjamin : B. B. Warfield (1851-1921) ranks in the forefront of great Presbyterian theologians of Princeton Seminary.
  • Harriet Beecher Stowe Publishes Uncle Tom's Cabin: In 1852, Uncle Tom’s Cabin by Harriet Beecher Stowe (1811-1886) spread a powerful message that slavery was evil and Christian love could eradicate it.
  • Russell, Charles Taze: Charles Taze Russell (1852-1916) sparked the religious tradition later known as the Jehovah's Witnesses.
  • Woosley, Louisa : Louisa Woosley (1862-1952) was the first female ordained minister in the Presbyterian Church.
  • Miller, William : William Miller (1782-1849) predicted that the return of Christ would occur in 1843, garnering both religious fervor and criticism.
  • Crosby, Frances "Fanny": Fanny Crosby (1820-1915) wrote thousands of famous hymns, including "Blessed Assurance," "Jesus Keep Me Near the Cross," and "To God Be the Glory."
[Viewing Matches 1-12]  (of 12 total matches in Timelines)
Measurements
[Viewing Matches 1-1]  (of 1 total matches in Measurement Concepts)
ARDA Dictionary
  • Scriptures:A term often used to denote sacred writings of different religions. Commonly, the authority of the scriptures is believed to come from God (e.g., Christianity, Judaism, and Islam), and sometimes it is believed to come from a legendary person (e.g., Confucianism and Buddhism). Popular scriptures include the Christian Bible, the Torah, the Koran, and the Vedas (Hinnells 1984: 289).
  • Sola Scriptura:A Latin phrase translated as "by Scripture alone," used in the Protestant tradition to signify that biblical scriptures are the ultimate authority of faith and practice. This was a response to the Catholic emphasis on church traditions as an authority (Reid et al. 1990: 1111).
  • Feminist Theology:A system of religious thought that interprets practices and scriptures through a feminist perspective. It tends to challenge male-dominance in religious language, authority, and scripture. This perspective spans across Christian, Jewish, Muslim, and other religions (Lippy and Williams 2000).
  • Bhagavad Gita:The most popular scripture in contemporary Hinduism. It is part of a Hindu epic called the Mahabharata, written in Sanskrit between 200 BCE and 200 CE, and discusses Hindu ethics (Prothero 2008: 201).
  • Kama Sutra:A popular Hindu scripture, originally intended as a sex manual for courtesans. It was written around 400 CE by Hindu thinker Vatsyayana. It provides different types of kisses and different sexual positions for intercourse (Prothero 2008: 244).
  • Christian Science Family:Churches following the teachings of founder Mary Baker Eddy (1821-1910) , who believed that personal healing was the central message of Christianity. She believed that the correct interpretation of Scripture would alleviate disease, suffering, and even death according to her book Science and Health with Key to the Scriptures (1875). The movement became more of an institution in 1879. Worship services include readings from the Bible as well as Eddy's "Science and Health." The largest group in the Christian Science family is the Church of Christ, Scientist (Smith and Green 1995: 264).
  • Jainism:An ancient Indian religion that teaches no supreme deity, although some Hindu gods are recognized. The religion stresses non-violence and takes its authority from spiritual teachers known as Jinas. There are two major sects, the Digambaras and Shvetambara, and both have different canons of scripture (Parrinder 1973: 141).
  • Religious Capital:The degree of mastery and attachment to a particular religious culture. For example, one might learn when or when not to say "Amen" during a sermon, or learn certain passages of scripture in order to accumulate religious capital. The greater their religious capital, the less likely people are to either reaffiliate or to convert (see Stark and Finke 2000: 120).
  • Qiyas:A legal term in Islam that refers to analogical reasoning. This form of deduction often is used in order to understand whether something is forbidden, even if not explicitly stated in any Islamic scriptures (Esposito et al. 2012b: G-9).
  • Angel:A superhuman intermediary between the divine and human realm. Angels exist in Judaism, Christianity and Islam. Perhaps the most famous angel is Gabriel, who reveals himself as God's messenger in the Hebrew scriptures, Christianity's New Testament and Islam's Koran. Theological discussions of the nature of angels vary by tradition (Smith and Green 1995: 49-50).
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Religious Groups
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Teaching Tools
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Citations
Citations are taken from the Sociology of Religion Searchable Bibliographic Database, created and updated by Anthony J. Blasi (Ph.D. in Sociology, University of Notre Dame; University of Texas at San Antonio). The ARDA is not responsible for content or typographical errors.
  • Scriptural coping: An empirical test of hermeneutic theory.
    DeAngelis, Reed T., John P. Bartkowski, and Xiaohe Xu (2019)
    Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 58:1: 174-191.

    Analyzes 2012 General Social Survey (U.S.A.) data. Poor self-rated health & low SES positively predict reading scripture for insights into health & financial status, respectively. Concerning health, reading scripture seems to exacerbate depressive consequences of poor health.

    Associated Search Terms: Depression; Stratification; Health; Coping; Bible reading; Hermeneutic
  • Social Science and the Christian Scriptures: Sociological Introductions and New Translation (3 vols.)
    Blasi, Anthony J. (2017)
    Eugene, Oregon: Wimpf & Stock.

    Sociological theories, cued in by the New Testament texts, are given for each book of the New Testament, in their order of composition, so as to provide a series of "stills" in the early development of the Christian movement.

    Associated Search Terms: Early Christian
  • Why worry about evolution? Boundries, practices, and moral salience in Sunni and Evangelical high schools.
    Guhim, Jeffrey (2016)
    Sociological Theory 34:2: 151-174.

    Based on participant observation in 2 Sunni & 2 Evangelical schools in New York City. Evolution is a greater problem for Evangelicals because of their literal interpretation of scripture.

    Associated Search Terms: Education; Participant observation; Moral; United States, New York, New York; Islam, U.S.A.; Comparative; Evangelical, U.S.A.; Literalism
  • Safe and Risky Readings: Women's Spiritual Reading Practices.
    Llewellyn, Dawn (2012)
    In Mathew Guest and Elisabeth Arweck (eds.) Religion and Knowledge: Sociologial Perspectives. Aldershot, U.K.: Ashgate, pp. 165-180.

    Based on 2005-06 open-ended interviews in Great Britain, focusing on non-scriptural religious reading. Reading is sometimes safe & a form of withdrawal, but sometimes risky, challenging comfortable patterns. Feminist themes not found in scripture are a focus.

    Associated Search Terms: Feminism; Great Britain; Reading; Women
  • The Bible Made Impossible: Why Biblicism is Not a Truly Evangelical Reading of Scripture.
    Smith, Christian (2011)
    Grand Rapids, Michigan: Brazos.

    Associated Search Terms: Literalism; Fundamentalism
  • "We are Anglicans, they are the Church of England." Uses of scripture in the Anglican crisis.
    Rodman, Rosamond C. (2009)
    In James S. Bielo (ed.) The Social Life of Scriptures. Cross-Cultural Perspectives on Biblicism. New Brunswick, New Jersey: Rutgers University Press, pp. 100-113.

    The issue in the Anglican Communion in its crisis was not homosexuality per se but biblical authority, how much context was taken into account when interpreting scripture.

    Associated Search Terms: Homosexuality; Schism; Anglican; Authority
  • "In the beginning." A chapter from the living testament of Rastafari.
    Pulis, John W. (2009)
    In James S. Bielo (ed.) The Social Life of Scriptures. Cross-Cultural Perspectives on Biblicism. New Brunswick, New Jersey: Rutgers University Press, pp. 30-43.

    Practitioners subordinate scriptural texts to the spoken word.

    Associated Search Terms: Jamaica; Orality; Rastafarian, Jamaica
  • The trouble with Good News. Scripture and charisma in Northern Ireland.
    Murphy, Liam D. (2009)
    In James S. Bielo (ed.) The Social Life of Scriptures. Cross-Cultural Perspectives on Biblicism. New Brunswick, New Jersey: Rutgers University Press, pp. 10-29.

    Unlike the use of the Bible as a symbol in Unionist Northern Irish identity, charismatics use "gifts" mentioned in specific texts for their identity.

    Associated Search Terms: Orange Order; Identity; Great Britain, Northern Ireland; Pentecostal, neo, Great Britain
  • The bones restored to life. Dialogue and dissemination in the Vineyard's dialectic of text and presence.
    Bialecki, Jon (2009)
    In James S. Bielo (ed.) The Social Life of Scriptures. Cross-Cultural Perspectives on Biblicism. New Brunswick, New Jersey: Rutgers University Press, pp. 136-156.

    In the Vineyard Church of Southern California, charism & scripture complement & control one another.

    Associated Search Terms: Dialectic; Pentecostal, U.S.A.; United States, California; Vineyard Churches
  • "The man is the head." Evangelical discourse and the construction of masculinities in a Tzotzil village.
    Baron, Akesha (2009)
    In James S. Bielo (ed.) The Social Life of Scriptures. Cross-Cultural Perspectives on Biblicism. New Brunswick, New Jersey: Rutgers University Press, pp. 44-63.

    Studies villagers who formulate a masculine ideal in changing times by interpreting scripture as known to them through oral narration.

    Associated Search Terms: Change; Evangelical, Mexico; Gender role; Masculinity ideology; Mexico, Chiapas, San Miguel
[Viewing Matches 1-10] > [View Matches 1-32]  (of 32 total matches in Citations)
Data Archive
  • General Social Survey 2012 Cross-Section and Panel Combined:
    The General Social Surveys (GSS) have been conducted by the National Opinion Research Center (NORC) annually since 1972, except for the years 1979, 1981, and 1992 (a supplement was added in 1992), and biennially beginning in 1994. The GSS are designed to be part of a program of social indicator research, replicating questionnaire items and wording in order to facilitate time-trend studies. This data file has all cases and variables asked on the 2012 GSS. There are a total of 4,820 cases in the data set but their initial sampling years vary because the GSS now contains panel cases. Sampling years can be identified with the variable SAMPTYPE.

    The 2012 GSS featured special modules on religious scriptures, the environment, dance and theater performances, health care system, government involvement, health concerns, emotional health, financial independence and income inequality.

    The GSS has switched from a repeating, cross-section design to a combined repeating cross-section and panel-component design. This file has a rolling panel design, with the 2008 GSS as the base year for the first panel. A sub-sample of 2,000 GSS cases from 2008 was selected for reinterview in 2010 and again in 2012 as part of the GSSs in those years. The 2010 GSS consisted of a new cross-section plus the reinterviews from 2008. The 2012 GSS consists of a new cross-section of 1,974, the first reinterview wave of the 2010 panel cases with 1,551 completed cases, and the second and final reinterview of the 2008 panel with 1,295 completed cases. Altogether, the 2012 GSS had 4,820 cases (1,974 in the new 2012 panel, 1,551 in the 2010 panel, and 1,295 in the 2008 panel).

    To download syntax files for the GSS that reproduce well-known religious group recodes, including RELTRAD, please visit the ARDA’s Syntax Repository .
    Funded By: National Science Foundation
    Collected: 2012, Uploaded 10/16/2013
  • General Social Survey 2012 Cross-Section and Panel Combined, (Inapplicable Responses Coded as Missing):
    This file differs from the General Social Survey 2012 in that all inapplicable values are set to system missing. The General Social Surveys (GSS) have been conducted by the National Opinion Research Center (NORC) annually since 1972, except for the years 1979, 1981, and 1992 (a supplement was added in 1992), and biennially beginning in 1994. The GSS are designed to be part of a program of social indicator research, replicating questionnaire items and wording in order to facilitate time-trend studies. This data file has all cases and variables asked on the 2012 GSS. There are a total of 4,820 cases in the data set but their initial sampling years vary because the GSS now contains panel cases. Sampling years can be identified with the variable SAMPTYPE.

    The 2012 GSS featured special modules on religious scriptures, the environment, dance and theater performances, health care system, government involvement, health concerns, emotional health, financial independence and income inequality.

    The GSS has switched from a repeating, cross-section design to a combined repeating cross-section and panel-component design. This file has a rolling panel design, with the 2008 GSS as the base year for the first panel. A sub-sample of 2,000 GSS cases from 2008 was selected for reinterview in 2010 and again in 2012 as part of the GSSs in those years. The 2010 GSS consisted of a new cross-section plus the reinterviews from 2008. The 2012 GSS consists of a new cross-section of 1,974, the first reinterview wave of the 2010 panel cases with 1,551 completed cases, and the second and final reinterview of the 2008 panel with 1,295 completed cases. Altogether, the 2012 GSS had 4,820 cases (1,974 in the new 2012 panel, 1,551 in the 2010 panel, and 1,295 in the 2008 panel).

    To download syntax files for the GSS that reproduce well-known religious group recodes, including RELTRAD, please visit the ARDA’s Syntax Repository .
    Funded By: National Science Foundation
    Collected: 2012, Uploaded 3/17/2014
  • General Social Survey 2012 Cross-Section and Panel Combined - Instructional Dataset:
    This file contains all of the cases and variables that are in the original 2012 General Social Survey, but is prepared for easier use in the classroom. Changes have been made in two areas. First, to avoid confusion when constructing tables or interpreting basic analysis, all missing data codes have been set to system missing. Second, many of the continuous variables have been categorized into fewer categories, and added as additional variables to the file.

    The General Social Surveys (GSS) have been conducted by the National Opinion Research Center (NORC) annually since 1972, except for the years 1979, 1981, and 1992 (a supplement was added in 1992), and biennially beginning in 1994. The GSS are designed to be part of a program of social indicator research, replicating questionnaire items and wording in order to facilitate time-trend studies. This data file has all cases and variables asked on the 2012 GSS. There are a total of 4,820 cases in the data set but their initial sampling years vary because the GSS now contains panel cases. Sampling years can be identified with the variable SAMPTYPE.

    The 2012 GSS featured special modules on religious scriptures, the environment, dance and theater performances, health care system, government involvement, health concerns, emotional health, financial independence and income inequality.

    The GSS has switched from a repeating, cross-section design to a combined repeating cross-section and panel-component design. This file has a rolling panel design, with the 2008 GSS as the base year for the first panel. A sub-sample of 2,000 GSS cases from 2008 was selected for reinterview in 2010 and again in 2012 as part of the GSSs in those years. The 2010 GSS consisted of a new cross-section plus the reinterviews from 2008. The 2012 GSS consists of a new cross-section of 1,974, the first reinterview wave of the 2010 panel cases with 1,551 completed cases, and the second and final reinterview of the 2008 panel with 1,295 completed cases. Altogether, the 2012 GSS had 4,820 cases (1,974 in the new 2012 panel, 1,551 in the 2010 panel, and 1,295 in the 2008 panel).

    To download syntax files for the GSS that reproduce well-known religious group recodes, including RELTRAD, please visit the ARDA’s Syntax Repository .
    Funded By: National Science Foundation
    Collected: 2012, Uploaded 10/9/2014
[Viewing Matches 1-3]  (of 3 total matches in the Data Archive Files)
Questions/Variables on Surveys
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