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Theories, Concepts & Measures: Theories, Concepts & Measures links major Theories to Concepts and Measures from available datasets in an interactive format.
 
ARDA Guiding Papers Series: Prominent scholars provide guidance on the study of religion, new research agendas, and/or commentaries on the current state of the study of religion.

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  Is the influence of religion increasing or decreasing in the U.S.?

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  Secular Movement: Gaining prominence in the mid-20th century, the modern secular movement pushed for a society without religion.
  Christian Fundamentalism: In the 1920s, Christian fundamentalism arose as a means to counter liberal interpretations of the Christian Bible and "secularizing" changes in society.
  Home School Movement: The Home School Movement began in the 1970s and attracted evangelical Christians who feared the secular influences of public education.
  Abington School District v. Schempp: In 1963, the Supreme Court ruled that required Bible readings and recitation of the Lord's Prayer in the public schools was unconstitutional.
  Jerry Falwell Helps Found the Moral Majority : With the help of Baptist preacher Jerry Falwell in 1979, the founding of the Moral Majority would later influence Ronald Reagan's election in 1980.
  Jones, Robert "Bob": "Bob" Jones, Sr. (1883-1926) was a renowned evangelist and educator. He founded Bob Jones University, which promoted a conservative Christian education.
  Presbyterian Church v. Hull Memorial Presbyterian Church: In 1969, this Supreme Court case prohibited the government from interfering in doctrinal disputes between churches.
  New Evangelicalism: After World War II, a movement of conservative, but socially engaged Protestants emerged. They are known as the "new evangelicals."
  Oregon Compulsory Education Act: The Oregon Compulsory Education Act of 1922 required mandatory public education. It was struck down by the Supreme Court following protest by religious groups.
  Lemon v. Kurtzman: This 1971 ruling established an influential precedent (the "Lemon test") for whether a law violates the Establishment Clause of the First Amendment.

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Secular:Someone or something not identified as religious or spiritual (Esposito et al. 2012b: 27).
 
Secularization:1) The process of a group or individual discarding religious beliefs and practices. 2) Sociologists also refer to a society being secularized when religion loses its public presence. 3) A theory about the eventual decline of religion due to modernity (i.e. science, economic development, pluralism, etc.), which is debated among social scientists (Reid et al. 1990: 1069-1070). For more information on secularization, click here .
 
Antinomianism:1) The belief that certain religious allegiances exempt one from following secular law. 2) The belief that secular laws ought to be disobeyed because they are evil (Smith 1995: 53). 3) A theological position in which subjective elements of Christianity are emphasized over objective elements of Christianity, like moral law. The famous "Antinomian Controversy" took place in the 1630s, where Anne Hutchinson was brought to trial in Massachusetts for claiming to follow her direct revelation of the Holy Spirit instead of Scripture alone. She was banished from the colony in 1638 (Reid et al. 1990: 69).
 
Sacralization:The process through which there is little differentiation between religious and secular institutions, and the primary aspects of life, from family to politics, are suffused with religious symbols, rhetoric and rituals (Stark and Finke 2000: 199). For more information on sacralization, click here .
 
Conservative Protestantism:A broad social category of Protestantism that advocates a conservative theological position (e.g., the inspiration of the Bible, the physical resurrection of Jesus Christ, etc.). Conservative Protestants are often subdivided into Evangelical Protestants and Fundamentalists, who differ in terms of their engagement with the secular non-Christian world.
 
Postmillennialism:The belief that the return of Christ will take place after the millennium, which may be a literal period of peace and prosperity or else a symbolic representation of the final triumph of the gospel. This new age will come through Christian teaching and preaching on earth. This view is often dismissed by critics as a Christian version of the secular idea of progress, but it was actually formulated by Puritan theologians (Reid et al. 1990: 919).
 
Anti-Semitism:Unreasoning hostility toward and discrimination against the Jews. It can range from a formal doctrine and from mild antipathy to active efforts to kill the Jews. German writer Wilhelm Marr coined the term in 1880 to distinguish between secular hatred for the Jews as a people and hatred toward the Jewish religion, although the modern usage of the word denotes hatred for the Jews and Judaism in all forms (Smith and Green 1995: 53). Also defined on the ARDA's Theory, Concepts & Measures page.

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  Judaism: Interactice Judaism Family Tree
  American Judaism: Interactive American Judiasm Family Tree

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Citations are taken from the Sociology of Religion Searchable Bibliographic Database, created and updated by Anthony J. Blasi (Ph.D. in Sociology, University of Notre Dame; University of Texas at San Antonio). The ARDA is not responsible for content or typographical errors.
 
Beyond the paradigm of secularization?
Koenig, matthias (2016)
In Florian Zemmin, Colin Jager, and Guido Vanheesijck (eds.) Working with a Secular Age. Boston: DeGruyter, pp. 23-48.
Associated Search Terms: Secularization
 
American Secularism. Cultural Contours of Nonreligious Belief Systems.
Baker, Joseph O., and Buster G. Smith (2016)
New York: New York University Press.
Associated Search Terms: Atheist, U.S.A.; Secularism
 
The Nonreligious. Understanding Secular People and Societies.
Zuckerman, Phil, Luke W. Galen, and Frank L. Pasquale (2016)
New York: Oxford University Press.
Associated Search Terms: Atheist
 
Religious seekers' attraction to the plain Mennonites and Amish.
Anderson, Cory (2016)
Review of Religious Research 58:1: 125-147.
Factor analysis of survey data from a web-based convenience sample of seekers attracted to austere plain Anabaptist sects. Factor themes: familism, rejection of sexualized youth culture, fundamentalism perceived as anti-secularization, primitivism, desire for structure, Anabaptist ancestors.
Associated Search Terms: Internet survey; Mennonite; Factor analysis; Conversion; Anabaptist; Amish; Seeker
 
Bridging alone: Religious conservatism, marital homogamy, and voluntary association membership.
Kim, Young-Il (2016)
Review of Religious Research 58:1: 47-73.
Analyzes 1992-94 (2nd wave) National (U.S.A.) Survey of families and Households data. Conservative religious homogamy, paired with belief in biblical authority & inerrancy, increases membership in religious groups & reduces wives' membership in secular organizations.
Associated Search Terms: Marriage; Social participation; Civic engagement; Conservative, U.S.A.
 
Disenchantment revisited: Formations of the "secular" and "religious" in the technological discourse of modernity.
Han, Sam (2015)
Social Compass 61:1: 76-88.
Weber's concept of demagicalization is not as important as a grand narrative of modernit & secularization but as a prompt to redefining the technological & the religious.
Associated Search Terms: Discourse; Secularization; Weber, Max; Modernity; Disenchantment
 
How does the state structure secularization?
Maryl, Damon (2015)
European Journal of Sociology 56:2: 207-239.
Associated Search Terms: Secularization; State
 
Islam and Secularity: The Future of Europe's Public Sphere.
Göle, Nilüfer (2015)
Durham, North Carolina: Duke University Press.
Associated Search Terms: Secularism; Europe; Islam, Europe; Laďcité
 
Traditional, modern, and post-secular perspectives on science and religion in the Untied States.
O'Brien, Timothy L., and Shiri Noy (2015)
American Sociological REview 80:1: 92-115.
Associated Search Terms: United States; Science; Post-secular
 
Religious diversity in the neoliberal welfare state: Secularity and the ethos of egalitarianism in Sweden.
Schenk, Susanne, Marian Burchart, and Monika Wohlrab-Sahr (2015)
Inernational Sociology 30:1: 3-20.
In the politics of confessional schools, the discourse of free choice & freedom of religion confront the Swedish tradition of creating equality through a unitary public school system.
Associated Search Terms: Sweden; Education; Equality; Politics, Sweden; State; Discourse; Diversity; Secularism

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The 2000 American Rabbi Study:
The data result from a mail survey of rabbis conducted in the fall and winter of 2000 in the four major movements of American Judaism—Conservative, Orthodox, Reconstructionist, and Reform. The first wave was sent two days before the presidential election. The data collection effort loosely paralleled the 2000 Cooperative Clergy Study format but differed in several important respects to capture concerns important to the Jewish community. The survey effort collected data on rabbi political activism, public political speech, political attitudes and electoral choices, thoughts on the role of religion in society, attitudes on issues related to Jewish unity and Jewish law, ratings of and membership in Jewish and secular political organizations, attitudes about Joseph Lieberman, and personal attributes, as well as aspects of congregations.
Funded By: The data collection effort was funded by the Denison University Research Foundation and the Association for the Sociology of Religion .
Collected: 2000, Uploaded 4/23/2010
 
Jewish Day School Study, 1993:
During the last several decades, two opposing trends have been taking place. On the one hand, there has been growth in the Jewish day school movement. On the other, there has been a serious decline in Jewish supplementary school enrollment and a defection from Jewish life of growing numbers of Jews. These two opposing trends give rise to several questions including: What happens when intensive and extensive Jewish education confronts a world full of secular, intermixing and challenging modalities? What role does a Jewish day school experience play in Jewish continuity of its exponents?

This study seeks to assess the impact of Jewish all-day education. Questions such as the following are addressed: What kind of Jewish behavior do young adults who attend Jewish day schools exhibit? Do those who attended for longer periods of time demonstrate higher levels of Jewish observance and involvement? Is Jewish behavior of day school graduates related to things such as home background, Jewish camp experience, Israel visitation or study in Israel? What are the marriage patterns of graduates? Does a college education reduce the possibility that Jewish day school graduates will remain practicing Jews? In short, what is the Jewishness quotient of Jewish day school graduates who are at risk of losing their Jewish identity because of the lure of contemporary society?
Funded By: Irving Stone
Collected: 1993, Uploaded 3/30/1999
 
Survey of Religious, Social Service and Community Organizations in Metropolitan Chicago, 1996:
This survey was conducted to supplement the research on congregations being conducted by the Religion in Urban America Program. The primary concern was to learn whether and to what extent religious, social service and community organizations related to and extended the work of churches. That is, whether they bridged geographic and/or social boundaries and whether there was a difference between religious and secular organizations with respect to the bridging function.
Funded By: The Lilly Endowment, Inc. Park Ridge Center of Health, Faith, and Ethics
Collected: 1996, Uploaded 7/20/1999
 
The Gravestone Index:
This file is a record of the religious and secular information found on headstones and tombstones in the United States, Canada, Britain, and Australia. The death dates on the grave markers cover the period from the early 19th century to the early 21st century. Also included is a record of carvings, statues, and other objects connected to the front or back of the grave markers.
Funded By: Wilbur Zelinsky
Collected: 2007, Uploaded 8/12/2011
 
Religion and State--Minorities:
This Religion and State-Minorities (RASM) dataset is supplemental to the Religion and State round 2 (RAS2) dataset. It codes the RAS religious discrimination variable using the minority as the unit of analysis (RAS2 uses a country as the unit of analysis and, is a general measure of all discrimination in the country). RASM codes religious discrimination by governments against all 566 minorities in 175 countries which make a minimum population cut off. Any religious minority which is at least 0.25 percent of the population or has a population of at least 500,000 (in countries with populations of 200 million or more) are included. The dataset also includes all Christian minorities in Muslim countries and all Muslim minorities in Christian countries for a total of 597 minorities. The data cover 1990 to 2008 with yearly codings.

These religious discrimination variables are designed to examine restrictions the government places on the practice of religion by minority religious groups. It is important to clarify two points. First, these variables focus on restrictions on minority religions. Restrictions that apply to all religions are not coded in this set of variables. This is because the act of restricting or regulating the religious practices of minorities is qualitatively different from restricting or regulating all religions. Second, this set of variables focuses only on restrictions of the practice of religion itself or on religious institutions and does not include other types of restrictions on religious minorities. The reasoning behind this is that there is much more likely to be a religious motivation for restrictions on the practice of religion than there is for political, economic, or cultural restrictions on a religious minority. These secular types of restrictions, while potentially motivated by religion, also can be due to other reasons. That political, economic, and cultural restrictions are often placed on ethnic minorities who share the same religion and the majority group in their state is proof of this.

This set of variables is essentially a list of specific types of religious restrictions which a government may place on some or all minority religions. These variables are identical to those included in the RAS2 dataset, save that one is not included because it focuses on foreign missionaries and this set of variables focuses on minorities living in the country. Each of the items in this category is coded on the following scale:

0. The activity is not restricted or the government does not engage in this practice.
1. The activity is restricted slightly or sporadically or the government engages in a mild form of this practice or a severe form sporadically.
2. The activity is significantly restricted or the government engages in this activity often and on a large scale.

A composite version combining the variables to create a measure of religious discrimination against minority religions which ranges from 0 to 48 also is included.
Funded By: The John Templeton Foundation , Israel Science Foundation and The Sara and Simha Lainer Chair in Democracy and Civility
Collected: 2008, Uploaded 7/11/2014
 
Mennonite Church Member Profile, 1989:
"The objectives of the survey were to obtain a profile of the religious beliefs, attitudes, and practices of members of the participating [Mennonite] denominations...to identify trends in these areas that would provide clues regarding the impact of modernization on Mennonite life and thought....There was also interest in determining whether modernization involved increases in secularism, individualism, and materialism." (Kauffman and Driedger, 1991).
Funded By: The project was under the supervision of an Administrative Committee composed of a representative from each of the five participating denominations. A budget of $70,000 was raised from the participating denominations, various church boards and several foundations.
Collected: 1989, Uploaded 10/27/1998

                       [Viewing Matches 1-6]  (of 6 total matches in the Data Archive Files)


 
WCDSTRL from Data from the ARDA National Profiles, 2005 Update: Religion Indexes, Adherents and Other Data
Re-coding of World Christian Database State Religion variable (Grim and Finke, 2006)

0) Atheist
1) Secular
2) Religious
3) Specific religion

 
SACSECVL from World Values Survey 2010
Overall Secular values [SACSECVAL]

 
SCVLWGT from World Values Survey 2010
Weight for overall secular values [SECVALWGT]

 
SRCE1_98 from National Congregations Study, Panel Dataset (1998 and 2006-2007)
(source1_98) Who provided these services to you? (FIRST MENTION)

-3) All other missing data
-2) Don't know
1) Private secular firm or sole practitioner (includes members)
2) Private firm-sole practitioner, unspecified
7) Publishing houses, religious
11) Congregations (own denomination)
13) Regional office of own denomination
17) Office of own denomination, level unspecified
18) Office of other denomination, level unspecified
19) Other religious firm, organization or sole practitioner
20) Other
21) Can't tell

 
SRCE2_98 from National Congregations Study, Panel Dataset (1998 and 2006-2007)
(source2_98) Who provided these services to you? (SECOND MENTION)

-3) All other missing data
1) Private secular firm or sole practitioner (includes members)
2) Private firm-sole practitioner, unspecified
7) Publishing houses, religious
11) Congregations (own denomination)
13) Regional office of own denomination
15) National office of own denomination
17) Office of own denomination, level unspecified
19) Other religious firm, organization or sole practitioner
21) Can't tell

 
SRCE3_98 from National Congregations Study, Panel Dataset (1998 and 2006-2007)
(source3_98) Who provided these services to you? (THIRD MENTION)

-3) All other missing data
1) Private secular firm or sole practitioner (includes members)
2) Private firm-sole practitioner, unspecified
7) Publishing houses, religious
13) Regional office of own denomination
15) National office of own denomination
17) Office of own denomination, level unspecified
19) Other religious firm, organization or sole practitioner
20) Other
21) Can't tell

 
PARTYAG from International Religious Freedom Data, Aggregate File (2003-2008)
According to the Report, what is the nature of political parties (in practice)? [Category labels are the following: 0 = All political parties are secular. 1 = Correlation between political party and religion. 2 = Political parties can be religious or secular. 3 = Political parties must be religious. 999 = Unable to assess based on the Report.]

 
GVTYPEAG from International Religious Freedom Data, Aggregate File (2003-2008)
According to the Report, what is the type of state or official religion?

0) Secular (or no state religion specified)
1) Atheistic
2) Christian
3) Islamic
4) Jewish
5) Buddhist
6) Nonsecular/theistic
9) Status changed during coding period, see Note 4 in the ARDA summary page for more information

 
SOURCE1 from National Congregations Study, Cumulative Dataset (1998, 2006-2007, and 2012), Version 2
Who provided these services to you? First mention. Remarks: This item was asked only if the congregation reported using a consultant at least once in the past 12 months (CONSULT1=1). These variables were coded from verbatim responses to SOURCE1-SOURCE3.

1) Private secular firm or sole practitioner (includes members)
2) Private firm or sole practitioner, religious or secular not specified
4) Professor
5) Clergy or evangelist
7) Publishing houses, religious
9) Community organizing agency
11) Congregations (own denomination)
12) Congregations (other denomination)
13) Regional office of own denomination
15) National office of own denomination
17) Office of own denomination, level unspecified
18) Office of other denomination, level unspecified
19) Other religious firm, organization or sole practitioner
20) Other
21) Can't tell
22) Congregation, unspecified denomination
23) Government employee or agency
24) Accrediting officer

 
SOURCE2 from National Congregations Study, Cumulative Dataset (1998, 2006-2007, and 2012), Version 2
Who provided these services to you? Second mention. Remarks: This item was asked only if the congregation reported using a consultant at least once in the past 12 months (CONSULT1=1). These variables were coded from verbatim responses to SOURCE1-SOURCE3.

1) Private secular firm or sole practitioner (includes members)
2) Private firm or sole practitioner, religious or secular not specified
4) Professor
5) Clergy or evangelist
7) Publishing houses, religious
11) Congregations (own denomination)
12) Congregations (other denomination)
13) Regional office of own denomination
15) National office of own denomination
17) Office of own denomination, level unspecified
18) Office of other denomination, level unspecified
19) Other religious firm, organization or sole practitioner
20) Other
21) Can't tell
22) Congregation, unspecified denomination
23) Government employee or agency

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Secularization: "The process by which sectors of society and culture are removed from the domination of religious institutions and symbols." (Berger, 1967:107)...
 
Social Network Theory: Studies of conversion, religious schisms, and secularization utilize social network theory to understand the influence of community and networks on the religious life of individuals, groups and societies...

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Secularization: The decline of religious faith and of the influence of the churches...

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