Site Features
  • Theories, Concepts & Measures: Theories, Concepts & Measures links major Theories to Concepts and Measures from available datasets in an interactive format.
  • ARDA Guiding Papers Series: Prominent scholars provide guidance on the study of religion, new research agendas, and/or commentaries on the current state of the study of religion.
[Viewing Matches 1-2]  (of 2 total matches in Site Features)
QuickStats
[Viewing Matches 1-1]  (of 1 total matches in QuickStats)
Timeline
  • Secular Movement: Gaining prominence in the mid-20th century, the modern secular movement pushed for a society without religion.
  • Christian Fundamentalism: In the 1920s, Christian fundamentalism arose as a means to counter liberal interpretations of the Christian Bible and "secularizing" changes in society.
  • Home School Movement: The Home School Movement began in the 1970s and attracted evangelical Christians who feared the secular influences of public education.
  • Abington School District v. Schempp: In 1963, the Supreme Court ruled that required Bible readings and recitation of the Lord's Prayer in the public schools was unconstitutional.
  • Jerry Falwell Helps Found the Moral Majority : With the help of Baptist preacher Jerry Falwell in 1979, the founding of the Moral Majority would later influence Ronald Reagan's election in 1980.
  • Jones, Robert "Bob": "Bob" Jones, Sr. (1883-1926) was a renowned evangelist and educator. He founded Bob Jones University, which promoted a conservative Christian education.
  • Presbyterian Church v. Hull Memorial Presbyterian Church: In 1969, this Supreme Court case prohibited the government from interfering in doctrinal disputes between churches.
  • New Evangelicalism: After World War II, a movement of conservative, but socially engaged Protestants emerged. They are known as the "new evangelicals."
  • Lemon v. Kurtzman: This 1971 ruling established an influential precedent (the "Lemon test") for whether a law violates the Establishment Clause of the First Amendment.
  • Missional Church Movement: Founded in 1998, the missional church movement arose and changed the focus of modern Christian missions.
[Viewing Matches 1-10] > [View Matches 1-11]  (of 11 total matches in Timelines)
ARDA Dictionary
  • Secular:Someone or something not identified as religious or spiritual (Esposito et al. 2012b: 27).
  • Secularization:1) The process of a group or individual discarding religious beliefs and practices. 2) Sociologists also refer to a society being secularized when religion loses its public presence. 3) A theory about the eventual decline of religion due to modernity (i.e. science, economic development, pluralism, etc.), which is debated among social scientists (Reid et al. 1990: 1069-1070).
  • Sacralization:The process through which there is little differentiation between religious and secular institutions, and the primary aspects of life, from family to politics, are suffused with religious symbols, rhetoric and rituals (Stark and Finke 2000: 199).
  • Antinomianism:1) The belief that certain religious allegiances exempt one from following secular law. 2) The belief that secular laws ought to be disobeyed because they are evil (Smith 1995: 53). 3) A theological position in which subjective elements of Christianity are emphasized over objective elements of Christianity, like moral law. The famous "Antinomian Controversy" took place in the 1630s, where Anne Hutchinson was brought to trial in Massachusetts for claiming to follow her direct revelation of the Holy Spirit instead of Scripture alone. She was banished from the colony in 1638 (Reid et al. 1990: 69).
  • Secular Humanism:The lack of connection, or desire to connect to the transcendent, the sacred, God or the supernatural (Koenig et al. 2012: 47). It is a philosophy that involves beliefs, behavior and relationships valued by their own intrinsic merit. In this way, humans are believed to be capable of good without the need to believe in God or the divine. Secular humanists often are categorized, along with atheists and agnostics, as “non-religious” given they do not see the need for religion in instilling morality in society.
  • Conservative Protestantism:A broad social category of Protestantism that advocates a conservative theological position (e.g., the inspiration of the Bible, the physical resurrection of Jesus Christ, etc.). Conservative Protestants are often subdivided into Evangelical Protestants and Fundamentalists, who differ in terms of their engagement with the secular non-Christian world.
  • Smith, Adam (1723-1790):Adam Smith was a Scottish philosopher and pioneer of political economics. He is well known for The Theory of Moral Sentiments (1759) and An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations (1776), often known just as Wealth of Nations . The latter not only is considered one of the first modern works of economics, but it also laid the foundation for economic theories of religion. In Wealth of Nations , he argues that clergy, much like secular producers, are motivated by self-interest. He also highlights the ways in which market forces constrain churches just as they do secular organizations. Finally, and perhaps most noteworthy, he argued that state regulation of religion and religious monopolies were harmful to religious vitality and produced more social conflict. These ideas underlie popular economics of religion theories, including rational choice theory and religious economies theory (see Finke and Stark 1992; Stark and Finke 2000).
  • Demand-Side Model of Religion:Demand-side models of religion emphasize that changes in religious demand impact religious participation or vitality in society (Olson 2011). For example, religion may be in demand during times of greater stress or national trauma and perhaps in less demand over time due to secularization (see Bruce 2002). This perspective is heavily challenged by supply-side theories of religion (see Supply and Demand, Religious).
  • Social Network Theory:Studies of conversion, religious schisms and secularization utilize social network theory to understand the influence of community and networks on the religious life of individuals, groups and societies. In his classic study of suicide, Emile Durkheim used religion as an indicator of how well or poorly a society was socially integrated (Durkheim 1897). Other research indicates that religion actively builds social networks (Bainbridge 2006).
  • Counseling, Religious:A type of counseling that incorporates religious teachings to serve mental health needs. Many clients are already religious, although counselors may reach out to those nominally religious, homeless or poor. Depending on the particular faith group, counseling may incorporate prayer, meditation or scripture reading. Some forms of religious counseling may be completely faith-based, while others may incorporate secular therapeutic practices (Koenig, King and Carson 2012: 56-57).
[Viewing Matches 1-10] > [View Matches 1-20]  (of 20 total matches in the ARDA Dictionary)
Religious Family Trees
[Viewing Matches 1-2]  (of 2 total matches in Religion Family Trees)
Teaching Tools
[Viewing Matches 1-1]  (of 1 total matches in Teaching Tools)
Citations
Citations are taken from the Sociology of Religion Searchable Bibliographic Database, created and updated by Anthony J. Blasi (Ph.D. in Sociology, University of Notre Dame; University of Texas at San Antonio). The ARDA is not responsible for content or typographical errors.
  • From religious to secular place-making: How does the secular matter for religious place construction in the local?
    Berg, Anna Lea (2019)
    Social Compass 66:1: 35-48.

    Rather than treating the secular as a void into which the sacred is inserted, its agents contest sacralization. Based on 2014 field work in Montrueil, a working class city east of Paris, the secular officials required Islam to unify as one "religion" to build a mosque while difficulties were created for Evangelicals, who were "sects."

    Associated Search Terms: Urban; France, Montrueil; Islam, France; Space; Evangelical, France; Laïcité
  • One to serve them all. The growthof chaplaincy in public institutions in Denmark.
    Kühle, Lene, and Henrik Reintoft Christensen (2019)
    Social Compass 66:2: 182-197.

    There are numerous interactions between the religious & the secular in secular Denmark. The state shapes the religious landscape by requiring specialist chaplains.

    Associated Search Terms: Denmark; Lutheran, Denmark; Chaplain
  • Unorganized atheism and the secular movement: Reddit as a site for studying "lived atheism."
    Lundmark, Evelina, and Stephen LeDrew (2019)
    Social Compass 66:1: 112-129.

    Discourse on an atheist online forum resembles those in formal atheist organizations.

    Associated Search Terms: Atheist; Discourse; Internet
  • French and German teenagers in multicultural cities: Religious indifference as a paradox of secular societies.
    Michon, Bruno (2019)
    Social Compass 66:1: 94-111.

    Based on 2006-09 interviews with secondary students in France & Germany. Develops a typology of indifference.

    Associated Search Terms: Europe, western; Pluralism; Students, secondary; Indifference
  • The Twentysomething Soul: Understanding the Religious and Secular Lives of American Young Adults.
    Clydesdale, Timothy T., and Kathleen Garces-Foley (2019)
    New York: Oxford University Press.

    Associated Search Terms: Young adults
  • Religious urbanism in Singapore: Competition, commercialism and compromise in the search for space.
    Woods, Orlando (2019)
    Social Compass 66:1: 24-34.

    The dense settlement pattern of Singapore forces religious organizations there to compete for space, sometimes resulting in mixed sacred & secular uses a some spaces.

    Associated Search Terms: Sacred/profane; Urban; Singapore; Competition; Space
  • Spiritism as a target of "annihilation"--conceptual clarification and exemplification of a rhetorical strategy.
    Usarski, Frank (2019)
    Social Compass 66:2: 211-223.

    Describes the rhetorical strategy of doing away with a target by socially constructing it. Gives the example of the 1890-1940 campaign by secular Brazilian authorities against Spiritism, led by physicians.

    Associated Search Terms: Spiritism; Social construction of reality; Kardecist; Brazil; Discourse
  • Elitist by Default? Interaction Dynamics and the Inclusiveness of Secularization in Turkish Literary Milieus.
    Büyükokutan, Bar?? (2018)
    American Journal of Sociology 123:5: 1249-1295.

    The secularization of poetry in Turkey, unlike most non-western secularization processes, was not elitist.

    Associated Search Terms: Secularization; Network; Turkey; Literature
  • Divergent global roads to secularization and religious pluralism.
    Casanova, José V. (2018)
    Social Compass 65:2: 187-198.

    In continental Western Europe modernization & urbanization came with drastic secularization & limited religious pluralism; elsewhere modernization & urbanization have led to religious pluralism with limited secularization. In the present global era, the 2 dynamics intertwin & interrelate.

    Associated Search Terms: Globalization; Modernization; Pluralism; Secularization; Urbanization
  • Secularization and attribution: How mainline Protestant clergy and congregants explain church growth and decline.
    Flatt, Kevin N., D. Millard Haskell, and Stephanie Burgoyne (2018)
    Sociology of Religion 79:1: 78-107.

    Based on a small survey; suggests varying reasons given for growth or decline in congregation membership point to secularization.

    Associated Search Terms: Attribution theory; Protestant, Canada; Secularization; Canada, Ontario
[Viewing Matches 1-10] > [View Matches 1-150]  (of 1395 total matches in Citations)
Data Archive
  • The 2000 American Rabbi Study:
    The data result from a mail survey of rabbis conducted in the fall and winter of 2000 in the four major movements of American Judaism-Conservative, Orthodox, Reconstructionist, and Reform. The first wave was sent two days before the presidential election. The data collection effort loosely paralleled the 2000 Cooperative Clergy Study format but differed in several important respects to capture concerns important to the Jewish community. The survey effort collected data on rabbi political activism, public political speech, political attitudes and electoral choices, thoughts on the role of religion in society, attitudes on issues related to Jewish unity and Jewish law, ratings of and membership in Jewish and secular political organizations, attitudes about Joseph Lieberman, and personal attributes, as well as aspects of congregations.
    Funded By: The data collection effort was funded by the Denison University Research Foundation and the Association for the Sociology of Religion .
    Collected: 2000, Uploaded 4/23/2010
  • Jewish Day School Study, 1993:
    During the last several decades, two opposing trends have been taking place. On the one hand, there has been growth in the Jewish day school movement. On the other, there has been a serious decline in Jewish supplementary school enrollment and a defection from Jewish life of growing numbers of Jews. These two opposing trends give rise to several questions including: What happens when intensive and extensive Jewish education confronts a world full of secular, intermixing and challenging modalities? What role does a Jewish day school experience play in Jewish continuity of its exponents?

    This study seeks to assess the impact of Jewish all-day education. Questions such as the following are addressed: What kind of Jewish behavior do young adults who attend Jewish day schools exhibit? Do those who attended for longer periods of time demonstrate higher levels of Jewish observance and involvement? Is Jewish behavior of day school graduates related to things such as home background, Jewish camp experience, Israel visitation or study in Israel? What are the marriage patterns of graduates? Does a college education reduce the possibility that Jewish day school graduates will remain practicing Jews? In short, what is the Jewishness quotient of Jewish day school graduates who are at risk of losing their Jewish identity because of the lure of contemporary society?
    Funded By: Irving Stone
    Collected: 1993, Uploaded 3/30/1999
  • Survey of Religious, Social Service and Community Organizations in Metropolitan Chicago, 1996:
    This survey was conducted to supplement the research on congregations being conducted by the Religion in Urban America Program. The primary concern was to learn whether and to what extent religious, social service and community organizations related to and extended the work of churches. That is, whether they bridged geographic and/or social boundaries and whether there was a difference between religious and secular organizations with respect to the bridging function.
    Funded By: The Lilly Endowment, Inc. Park Ridge Center of Health, Faith, and Ethics
    Collected: 1996, Uploaded 7/20/1999
  • The Gravestone Index:
    This file is a record of the religious and secular information found on headstones and tombstones in the United States, Canada, Britain, and Australia. The death dates on the grave markers cover the period from the early 19th century to the early 21st century. Also included is a record of carvings, statues, and other objects connected to the front or back of the grave markers.
    Funded By: Wilbur Zelinsky
    Collected: 2007, Uploaded 8/12/2011
  • Religion and State - Minorities:
    This Religion and State-Minorities (RASM) dataset is supplemental to the Religion and State round 2 (RAS2) dataset. It codes the RAS religious discrimination variable using the minority as the unit of analysis (RAS2 uses a country as the unit of analysis and, is a general measure of all discrimination in the country). RASM codes religious discrimination by governments against all 566 minorities in 175 countries which make a minimum population cut off. Any religious minority which is at least 0.25 percent of the population or has a population of at least 500,000 (in countries with populations of 200 million or more) are included. The dataset also includes all Christian minorities in Muslim countries and all Muslim minorities in Christian countries for a total of 597 minorities. The data cover 1990 to 2008 with yearly codings.

    These religious discrimination variables are designed to examine restrictions the government places on the practice of religion by minority religious groups. It is important to clarify two points. First, these variables focus on restrictions on minority religions. Restrictions that apply to all religions are not coded in this set of variables. This is because the act of restricting or regulating the religious practices of minorities is qualitatively different from restricting or regulating all religions. Second, this set of variables focuses only on restrictions of the practice of religion itself or on religious institutions and does not include other types of restrictions on religious minorities. The reasoning behind this is that there is much more likely to be a religious motivation for restrictions on the practice of religion than there is for political, economic, or cultural restrictions on a religious minority. These secular types of restrictions, while potentially motivated by religion, also can be due to other reasons. That political, economic, and cultural restrictions are often placed on ethnic minorities who share the same religion and the majority group in their state is proof of this.

    This set of variables is essentially a list of specific types of religious restrictions which a government may place on some or all minority religions. These variables are identical to those included in the RAS2 dataset, save that one is not included because it focuses on foreign missionaries and this set of variables focuses on minorities living in the country. Each of the items in this category is coded on the following scale:

    0. The activity is not restricted or the government does not engage in this practice.
    1. The activity is restricted slightly or sporadically or the government engages in a mild form of this practice or a severe form sporadically.
    2. The activity is significantly restricted or the government engages in this activity often and on a large scale.

    A composite version combining the variables to create a measure of religious discrimination against minority religions which ranges from 0 to 48 also is included.

    ARDA Note: This file was revised on October 6, 2017. At the PIs request, we removed the variable reporting on the minority's percentage of a country's population after finding inconsistencies with the reported values. For detailed data on religious demographics, see the Religious Characteristics of States Dataset Project .
    Funded By: The John Templeton Foundation , Israel Science Foundation and The Sara and Simha Lainer Chair in Democracy and Civility
    Collected: 2008, Uploaded 7/11/2014
  • Mennonite Church Member Profile, 1989:
    "The objectives of the survey were to obtain a profile of the religious beliefs, attitudes, and practices of members of the participating [Mennonite] denominations...to identify trends in these areas that would provide clues regarding the impact of modernization on Mennonite life and thought....There was also interest in determining whether modernization involved increases in secularism, individualism, and materialism." (Kauffman and Driedger, 1991).
    Funded By: The project was under the supervision of an Administrative Committee composed of a representative from each of the five participating denominations. A budget of $70,000 was raised from the participating denominations, various church boards and several foundations.
    Collected: 1989, Uploaded 10/27/1998
[Viewing Matches 1-6]  (of 6 total matches in the Data Archive Files)
Questions/Variables on Surveys
  • WCDSTRL from Data from the ARDA National Profiles, 2005 Update: Religion Indexes, Adherents and Other Data
    Re-coding of World Christian Database State Religion variable (Grim and Finke, 2006)

    0) Atheist
    1) Secular
    2) Religious
    3) Specific religion

  • SACSECVL from World Values Survey, 2010
    Overall Secular values [SACSECVAL]

  • SCVLWGT from World Values Survey, 2010
    Weight for overall secular values [SECVALWGT]

  • SRCE1_98 from National Congregations Study, Panel Dataset (1998 and 2006-2007)
    (source1_98) Who provided these services to you? (FIRST MENTION)

    -3) All other missing data
    -2) Don't know
    1) Private secular firm or sole practitioner (includes members)
    2) Private firm-sole practitioner, unspecified
    7) Publishing houses, religious
    11) Congregations (own denomination)
    13) Regional office of own denomination
    17) Office of own denomination, level unspecified
    18) Office of other denomination, level unspecified
    19) Other religious firm, organization or sole practitioner
    20) Other
    21) Can't tell

  • SRCE2_98 from National Congregations Study, Panel Dataset (1998 and 2006-2007)
    (source2_98) Who provided these services to you? (SECOND MENTION)

    -3) All other missing data
    1) Private secular firm or sole practitioner (includes members)
    2) Private firm-sole practitioner, unspecified
    7) Publishing houses, religious
    11) Congregations (own denomination)
    13) Regional office of own denomination
    15) National office of own denomination
    17) Office of own denomination, level unspecified
    19) Other religious firm, organization or sole practitioner
    21) Can't tell

  • SRCE3_98 from National Congregations Study, Panel Dataset (1998 and 2006-2007)
    (source3_98) Who provided these services to you? (THIRD MENTION)

    -3) All other missing data
    1) Private secular firm or sole practitioner (includes members)
    2) Private firm-sole practitioner, unspecified
    7) Publishing houses, religious
    13) Regional office of own denomination
    15) National office of own denomination
    17) Office of own denomination, level unspecified
    19) Other religious firm, organization or sole practitioner
    20) Other
    21) Can't tell

  • PARTYAG from International Religious Freedom Data, Aggregate File (2003-2008)
    According to the Report, what is the nature of political parties (in practice)? [Category labels are the following: 0 = All political parties are secular. 1 = Correlation between political party and religion. 2 = Political parties can be religious or secular. 3 = Political parties must be religious. 999 = Unable to assess based on the Report.]

  • GVTYPEAG from International Religious Freedom Data, Aggregate File (2003-2008)
    According to the Report, what is the type of state or official religion?

    0) Secular (or no state religion specified)
    1) Atheistic
    2) Christian
    3) Islamic
    4) Jewish
    5) Buddhist
    6) Nonsecular/theistic
    9) Status changed during coding period, see Note 4 in the ARDA summary page for more information

  • SOURCE1 from National Congregations Study, Cumulative Dataset (1998, 2006-2007, and 2012), Version 2
    Who provided these services to you? First mention. Remarks: This item was asked only if the congregation reported using a consultant at least once in the past 12 months (CONSULT1=1). These variables were coded from verbatim responses to SOURCE1-SOURCE3.

    1) Private secular firm or sole practitioner (includes members)
    2) Private firm or sole practitioner, religious or secular not specified
    4) Professor
    5) Clergy or evangelist
    7) Publishing houses, religious
    9) Community organizing agency
    11) Congregations (own denomination)
    12) Congregations (other denomination)
    13) Regional office of own denomination
    15) National office of own denomination
    17) Office of own denomination, level unspecified
    18) Office of other denomination, level unspecified
    19) Other religious firm, organization or sole practitioner
    20) Other
    21) Can't tell
    22) Congregation, unspecified denomination
    23) Government employee or agency
    24) Accrediting officer

  • SOURCE2 from National Congregations Study, Cumulative Dataset (1998, 2006-2007, and 2012), Version 2
    Who provided these services to you? Second mention. Remarks: This item was asked only if the congregation reported using a consultant at least once in the past 12 months (CONSULT1=1). These variables were coded from verbatim responses to SOURCE1-SOURCE3.

    1) Private secular firm or sole practitioner (includes members)
    2) Private firm or sole practitioner, religious or secular not specified
    4) Professor
    5) Clergy or evangelist
    7) Publishing houses, religious
    11) Congregations (own denomination)
    12) Congregations (other denomination)
    13) Regional office of own denomination
    15) National office of own denomination
    17) Office of own denomination, level unspecified
    18) Office of other denomination, level unspecified
    19) Other religious firm, organization or sole practitioner
    20) Other
    21) Can't tell
    22) Congregation, unspecified denomination
    23) Government employee or agency

[Viewing Matches 1-10] > [View Matches 1-150]  (of 1005 total matches in Data Archive Questions/Variables)
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