Portraits of American Life Study
Hosted by The ARDA
The PALS seeks to understand the impact of religion in everyday life, and ultimately the connections between religious change and other forms of change among diverse individuals and families over the course of their lives.
Results & Summaries
Did you ever smoke cigarettes regularly? (HM19W1) -- Wave 1 (2006)



Variable Comparisons

[Education | Political Party | Gender | Race | Religious Tradition ]

Education

Less than high schoolGED or high school diplomaVocational/technical diploma or associate degreeBachelorsGraduate degreeOtherTOTAL
Refused0.0%
0
0.0%
0
0.0%
0
0.0%
0
1.3%
2
0.0%
0
0.2%
2
Yes44.0%
40
31.9%
109
39.9%
87
21.3%
45
24.0%
37
12.5%
3
30.9%
321
No56.0%
51
68.1%
233
60.1%
131
78.7%
166
74.7%
115
87.5%
21
68.9%
717
Missing311285838136274
TOTAL 100.0%
91
100.0%
342
100.0%
218
100.0%
211
100.0%
154
100.0%
24

1040



Political party

DemocratNeitherRepublicanMissingTOTAL
Refused0.0%
0
0.0%
0
0.6%
2

0
0.2%
2
Yes31.8%
151
29.9%
58
29.6%
104

8
30.7%
313
No68.2%
324
70.1%
136
69.8%
245

13
69.1%
705
Missing14843780269
TOTAL 100.0%
475
100.0%
194
100.0%
351

21

1020



Gender

FemaleMaleTOTAL
Refused0.0%
0
0.4%
2
0.2%
2
Yes26.2%
143
35.9%
177
30.8%
320
No73.8%
403
63.7%
314
69.0%
717
Missing134140274
TOTAL 100.0%
546
100.0%
493

1039



Race

White/Caucasian/AngloBlack/African AmericanHispanic/Latino(a)Asian/Asian AmericanNative AmericanTOTAL
Refused0.3%
2
0.0%
0
0.0%
0
0.0%
0
0.0%
0
0.2%
2
Yes32.4%
234
25.0%
28
29.1%
43
25.5%
14
50.0%
1
30.8%
320
No67.4%
487
75.0%
84
70.9%
105
74.5%
41
50.0%
1
69.0%
718
Missing194422972274
TOTAL 100.0%
723
100.0%
112
100.0%
148
100.0%
55
100.0%
2

1040



Religion

Black ProtestantEvangelical ProtestantMainline ProtestantCatholicOther faithNonaffiliatedTOTAL
Refused0.0%
0
0.8%
2
0.0%
0
0.0%
0
0.0%
0
0.0%
0
0.2%
2
Yes22.7%
10
28.3%
75
28.7%
33
37.5%
98
23.9%
44
35.7%
61
30.9%
321
No77.3%
34
70.9%
188
71.3%
82
62.5%
163
76.1%
140
64.3%
110
68.9%
717
Missing257522582867275
TOTAL 100.0%
44
100.0%
265
100.0%
115
100.0%
261
100.0%
184
100.0%
171

1040