Portraits of American Life Study
Hosted by The ARDA
The PALS seeks to understand the impact of religion in everyday life, and ultimately the connections between religious change and other forms of change among diverse individuals and families over the course of their lives.
Results & Summaries

Health

  All frequencies weighted by LOWEIGHT


Would you say your health in general is excellent, very good, good, fair, or poor? (HM1W1) -- Wave 1 (2006) [See Wave 2 version below]
TOTAL%
-7) Refused2.2
-4) Dont know1.1
1) Excellent25919.7
2) Very good43833.4
3) Good35727.2
4) Fair19314.7
5) Poor634.8
TOTAL1313100.0
Would you say your health in general is excellent, very good, good, fair, or poor? (HM1) -- Wave 2 (2012)
TOTAL%
1) Excellent13913.7
2) Very good36035.5
3) Good30229.8
4) Fair15515.3
5) Poor585.7
Missing300 
TOTAL1014100.0
Do you have any physical or nervous condition that limits the type of work or the amount of work you can do? (HM2W1) -- Wave 1 (2006) [See Wave 2 version below]
TOTAL%
-7) Refused2.2
-4) Dont know8.6
1) Yes29022.1
2) No101477.2
TOTAL1314100.0
Do you have any physical or nervous condition that limits the type of work or the amount of work you can do? (HM2) -- Wave 2 (2012)
TOTAL%
1) Yes29829.4
2) No71670.6
Missing300 
TOTAL1014100.0
Has a doctor ever told you that you have or had high blood pressure, hypertension, diabetes, or high blood sugar? (HM3W1) -- Wave 1 (2006) [See Wave 2 version below]
TOTAL%
-7) Refused2.2
1) Yes42232.1
2) No89067.7
TOTAL1314100.0
In the last six years, has a doctor told you that you have or had high blood pressure or hypertension? (HM3Z2) -- Wave 2 (2012)
TOTAL%
1) Yes11415.7
2) No61384.3
Missing588 
TOTAL727100.0
Has a doctor ever told you that you have or had cancer or a malignant tumor, excluding skin cancer? (HM4W1) -- Wave 1 (2006) [See Wave 2 version below]
TOTAL%
-7) Refused2.2
-4) Dont know1.1
1) Yes685.2
2) No124394.6
TOTAL1314100.0
In the last six years, has a doctor told you that you have or had cancer or a malignant tumor, excluding skin cancer? (HM4) -- Wave 2 (2012)
TOTAL%
1) Yes353.6
2) No93696.4
Missing342 
TOTAL971100.0
Has a doctor ever told you that you have or had chronic lung disease such as bronchitis or emphysema? (HM5W1) -- Wave 1 (2006) [See Wave 2 version below]
TOTAL%
-7) Refused2.2
1) Yes1229.3
2) No118990.6
TOTAL1313100.0
In the last six years, has a doctor told you that you have or had chronic lung disease such as bronchitis or emphysema? (HM5) -- Wave 2 (2012)
TOTAL%
1) Yes353.7
2) No92396.3
Missing356 
TOTAL958100.0
Has a doctor ever told you that you have or had a heart attack or stroke? (HM6W1) -- Wave 1 (2006) [See Wave 2 version below]
TOTAL%
-7) Refused2.2
1) Yes836.3
2) No122993.5
TOTAL1314100.0
Our records from your last interview in 2006 show that you had a heart attack or stroke. To be more specific, did you have a heart attack before the last interview, did you have a stroke before the last interview, did you have both a heart attack and a stroke before the last interview, or is this information not correct? (HM6Z1) -- Wave 2 (2012)
TOTAL%
1) Heart attack before the last interview2847.5
2) Stroke before the last interview1016.9
3) Both35.1
4) Not correct1830.5
Missing1255 
TOTAL59100.0
Has a doctor ever told you that you have or had coronary heart disease, angina, congestive heart failure or other heart problems? (HM7W1) -- Wave 1 (2006) [See Wave 2 version below]
TOTAL%
-7) Refused2.2
1) Yes1047.9
2) No120891.9
TOTAL1314100.0
In the last six years, has a doctor told you that you have or had coronary heart disease, angina, congestive heart failure or other heart problems? (HM7) -- Wave 2 (2012)
TOTAL%
1) Yes444.7
2) No90195.3
Missing368 
TOTAL945100.0
Has a doctor ever told you that you have or had an ulcer? (HM8W1) -- Wave 1 (2006) [See Wave 2 version below]
TOTAL%
-7) Refused2.2
1) Yes13210
2) No118089.8
TOTAL1314100.0
In the last six years, has a doctor told you that you have or had an ulcer? (HM8) -- Wave 2 (2012)
TOTAL%
1) Yes272.9
2) No90797.1
Missing380 
TOTAL934100.0
Has a doctor ever told you that you have or had arthritis or rheumatism? (HM9W1) -- Wave 1 (2006) [See Wave 2 version below]
TOTAL%
-7) Refused2.2
-4) Dont know1.1
1) Yes35026.6
2) No96173.1
TOTAL1314100.0
In the last six years, has a doctor told you that you have or had arthritis or rheumatism? (HM9) -- Wave 2 (2012)
TOTAL%
1) Yes10613.8
2) No66286.2
Missing546 
TOTAL768100.0
Has a doctor ever told you that you have or had asthma? (HM10W1) -- Wave 1 (2006) [See Wave 2 version below]
TOTAL%
-7) Refused2.2
-4) Dont know1.1
1) Yes17012.9
2) No114186.8
TOTAL1314100.0
In the last six years, has a doctor told you that you have or had asthma? (HM10) -- Wave 2 (2012)
TOTAL%
1) Yes303.4
2) No85696.6
Missing427 
TOTAL886100.0
Thinking about your current physical problems, how much do these limit your normal daily activities? (HM11W1) -- Wave 1 (2006) [See Wave 2 version below]
TOTAL%
-7) Refused2.2
1) A lot957.2
2) Somewhat18013.7
3) Just a little22517.1
4) Not at all81261.8
TOTAL1314100.0
Thinking about your current physical problems, how much do these limit your normal daily activities? (HM11) -- Wave 2 (2012)
TOTAL%
1) A lot11511.4
2) Somewhat15715.5
3) Just a little21821.5
4) Not at all52251.6
Missing301 
TOTAL1012100.0
Has a doctor ever told you that you have or had any emotional, nervous, or psychiatric problems? (HM12W1) -- Wave 1 (2006) [See Wave 2 version below]
TOTAL%
-7) Refused3.2
1) Yes20815.8
2) No110383.9
TOTAL1314100.0
In the last six years, has a doctor told you that you have or had any emotional, nervous, or psychiatric problems? (HM12) -- Wave 2 (2012)
TOTAL%
1) Yes728.5
2) No77591.5
Missing467 
TOTAL847100.0
How much do emotional, nervous, or psychiatric problems currently limit your normal daily activities? (HM14W1) -- Wave 1 (2006) [See Wave 2 version below]
TOTAL%
1) A lot2512
2) Somewhat3617.3
3) A little4521.6
4) Not at all10249
Missing1106 
TOTAL208100.0
How much do emotional, nervous, or psychiatric problems currently limit your normal daily activities? (HM14) -- Wave 2 (2012)
TOTAL%
1) A lot2410.2
2) Somewhat5422.9
3) Just a little6929.2
4) Not at all8937.7
Missing1078 
TOTAL236100.0
How often, if at all, do you participate in light physical activity, such as walking, dancing, gardening, golfing, bowling, etc.? (HM15W1) -- Wave 1 (2006)
TOTAL%
-7) Refused2.2
1) Never866.5
2) A few times a year816.2
3) About once a month725.5
4) More than once a month695.3
5) About once a week15211.6
6) More than once a week31824.2
7) About once a day35827.3
8) More than once a day17513.3
TOTAL1313100.0
How often, if at all, do you participate in vigorous physical activity or sports, such as heavy housework, aerobics, running, swimming, or bicycling? (HM16W1) -- Wave 1 (2006) [See Wave 2 version below]
TOTAL%
-7) Refused2.2
1) Never27220.7
2) A few times a year1168.8
3) About once a month1158.8
4) More than once a month735.6
5) About once a week17713.5
6) More than once a week29422.4
7) About once a day16912.9
8) More than once a day967.3
TOTAL1314100.0
How often, if at all, do you participate in vigorous physical activity or sports - such as heavy housework, aerobics, running, swimming, or bicycling? (HM16) -- Wave 2 (2012)
TOTAL%
1) Never20119.8
2) Occasionally but less than weekly23423.1
3) About once a week13313.1
4) More than once a week24724.4
5) About every day19919.6
Missing301 
TOTAL1014100.0
Have you smoked one hundred or more cigarettes in your life? (HM17W1) -- Wave 1 (2006) [See Wave 2 version below]
TOTAL%
-7) Refused2.2
-4) Dont know1.1
1) Yes58444.4
2) No72755.3
TOTAL1314100.0
Have you smoked 100 or more cigarettes in the last six years? (HM17) -- Wave 2 (2012)
TOTAL%
1) Yes274.8
2) No53195.2
Missing756 
TOTAL558100.0
On average, how many cigarettes per day do you smoke? (HM18W1) -- Wave 1 (2006) [See Wave 2 version below]
TOTAL%
0) None33958
1) One-five376.3
2) Six-108013.7
3) 11-15254.3
4) 16-206511.1
5) More than 20386.5
Missing730 
TOTAL584100.0
On average, how many cigarettes per day do you smoke? (HM18) -- Wave 2 (2012)
NMeanStd.Deviation
TOTAL13148.4911.17
Did you ever smoke cigarettes regularly? (HM19W1) -- Wave 1 (2006) [See Wave 2 version below]
TOTAL%
-7) Refused2.2
1) Yes32030.8
2) No71869
Missing274 
TOTAL1040100.0
In the last six years, did you ever smoke cigarettes regularly? (HM19) -- Wave 2 (2012)
TOTAL%
1) Yes708.2
2) No77991.8
Missing466 
TOTAL849100.0
Do you ever drink any alcoholic beverages such as beer, wine, liquor? (HM20W1) -- Wave 1 (2006) [See Wave 2 version below]
TOTAL%
-7) Refused2.2
1) Yes92470.3
2) No38829.5
TOTAL1314100.0
Do you ever drink any alcoholic beverages such as beer, wine, or liquor? (HM20) -- Wave 2 (2012)
TOTAL%
1) Yes68867.9
2) No32532.1
Missing301 
TOTAL1013100.0
On average, do you have less than one alcoholic drink a day, one to two drinks a day, three to four drinks a day, or five or more drinks a day? (HM21W1) -- Wave 1 (2006) [See Wave 2 version below]
TOTAL%
-4) Dont know1.1
1) Less than 170075.7
2) One or two14315.5
3) Three or four566.1
4) 5 or more252.7
Missing390 
TOTAL925100.0
On average, do you have less than one alcoholic drink a day, one to two drinks a day, three to four drinks a day, or five or more drinks a day? (HM21) -- Wave 2 (2012)
TOTAL%
1) Less than one51474.9
2) One or two12618.4
3) Three or four273.9
4) Five or more192.8
Missing629 
TOTAL686100.0
For the next few questions, please think about the past 12 months. In the past 12 months, have you ever had two weeks or longer when nearly every day you felt sad, empty, or depressed for most of the day? (HM24W1) -- Wave 1 (2006) [See Wave 2 version below]
TOTAL%
-7) Refused2.2
-4) Dont know00
1) Yes34826.5
2) No96473.4
TOTAL1314100.0
For the next few questions, please think about the past 12 months. In the past 12 months, have you ever had two weeks or longer when nearly every day you felt sad, empty, or depressed for most of the day? (HM24) -- Wave 2 (2012)
TOTAL%
1) Yes24224
2) No76876
Missing304 
TOTAL1010100.0
In the past 12 months, have you ever had two weeks or longer when nearly every day you felt worthless? (HM25W1) -- Wave 1 (2006) [See Wave 2 version below]
TOTAL%
-7) Refused2.2
-4) Dont know1.1
1) Yes19414.8
2) No111685
TOTAL1313100.0
In the past 12 months, have you ever had two weeks or longer when nearly every day you felt worthless? (HM25) -- Wave 2 (2012)
TOTAL%
1) Yes12712.5
2) No88687.5
Missing301 
TOTAL1013100.0
In the past 12 months, have you ever had two weeks or longer when nearly every day you felt hopeless? (HM26W1) -- Wave 1 (2006) [See Wave 2 version below]
TOTAL%
-7) Refused2.2
-4) Dont know5.4
1) Yes18313.9
2) No112485.5
TOTAL1314100.0
In the past 12 months, have you ever had two weeks or longer when nearly every day you felt hopeless? (HM26) -- Wave 2 (2012)
TOTAL%
1) Yes15515.3
2) No85884.7
Missing301 
TOTAL1013100.0
In the past three years, have you had any of the following life events or problems happened to you: You yourself suffered a serious illness, injury, or an assault? (HM27W1) -- Wave 1 (2006)
TOTAL%
-7) Refused2.2
-4) Dont know00
1) Yes29022.1
2) No102277.8
TOTAL1314100.0
In the past three years, have you had any of the following life events or problems happened to you: A serious illness, injury or assault happened to a close relative or spouse/partner? (HM28W1) -- Wave 1 (2006)
TOTAL%
-7) Refused2.2
-4) Dont know1.1
1) Yes60946.3
2) No70253.4
TOTAL1314100.0
In the past three years, have you had any of the following life events or problems happened to you: Your parent, child, or spouse died? (HM29W1) -- Wave 1 (2006) [See Wave 2 version below]
TOTAL%
-7) Refused2.2
-4) Dont know00
1) Yes21916.7
2) No109283.2
TOTAL1313100.0
In the past six years, have any of the following life events or problems happened to you: your parent, child, or spouse died? (HM29) -- Wave 2 (2012)
TOTAL%
1) Yes22922.6
2) No78477.4
Missing301 
TOTAL1013100.0
In the past three years, have you had any of the following life events or problems happened to you: A close family friend or another relative (aunt, cousin, grandparent) died? (HM30W1) -- Wave 1 (2006) [See Wave 2 version below]
TOTAL%
-7) Refused2.2
-4) Dont know2.2
1) Yes82863.1
2) No48136.6
TOTAL1313100.0
In the past six years, have any of the following life events or problems happened to you: a close family friend or another relative (aunt, cousin, grandparent) died? (HM30) -- Wave 2 (2012)
TOTAL%
1) Yes63162.4
2) No38137.6
Missing301 
TOTAL1012100.0
In the past three years, have you had any of the following life events or problems happened to you: You had a separation due to marital difficulties? (HM31W1) -- Wave 1 (2006) [See Wave 2 version below]
TOTAL%
-7) Refused2.2
-4) Dont know00
1) Yes757.4
2) No94292.4
Missing295 
TOTAL1019100.0
In the past six years, have any of the following life events or problems happened to you: you had a separation due to marital difficulties? (HM31) -- Wave 2 (2012)
TOTAL%
1) Yes10612.9
2) No71387.1
Missing496 
TOTAL819100.0
In the past three years, have you had any of the following life events or problems happened to you: You broke off a steady, romantic relationship? (HM32W1) -- Wave 1 (2006) [See Wave 2 version below]
TOTAL%
-7) Refused2.2
-4) Dont know1.1
1) Yes19915.2
2) No111184.6
TOTAL1313100.0
In the past six years, have any of the following life events or problems happened to you: you broke off a steady, romantic relationship? (HM32) -- Wave 2 (2012)
TOTAL%
1) Yes17217
2) No84183
Missing301 
TOTAL1013100.0
In the past three years, have you had any of the following life events or problems happened to you: You had a serious problem with a close friend, neighbor, or relative? (HM33W1) -- Wave 1 (2006)
TOTAL%
-7) Refused2.2
-4) Dont know00
1) Yes30223
2) No101076.9
TOTAL1314100.0
In the past three years, have you had any of the following life events or problems happened to you: You had a serious problem with someone in your congregation? (HM34W1) -- Wave 1 (2006)
TOTAL%
-7) Refused2.2
-4) Dont know4.5
1) Yes394.8
2) No77594.5
Missing494 
TOTAL820100.0
In the past three years, have you had any of the following life events or problems happened to you: You became unemployed or you were seeking work unsuccessfully for more than one month? (HM35W1) -- Wave 1 (2006) [See Wave 2 version below]
TOTAL%
-7) Refused2.2
-4) Dont know00
1) Yes26219.9
2) No105079.9
TOTAL1314100.0
In the past six years, have any of the following life events or problems happened to you: you became unemployed or you were seeking work unsuccessfully for more than one month? (HM35) -- Wave 2 (2012)
TOTAL%
1) Yes27226.9
2) No74173.1
Missing301 
TOTAL1013100.0
In the past three years, have you had any of the following life events or problems happened to you: You were fired from your job? (HM36W1) -- Wave 1 (2006) [See Wave 2 version below]
TOTAL%
-7) Refused2.2
-4) Dont know00
1) Yes534
2) No125895.8
TOTAL1313100.0
In the past six years, have any of the following life events or problems happened to you: you were fired from your job? (HM36) -- Wave 2 (2012)
TOTAL%
1) Yes807.9
2) No93292.1
Missing302 
TOTAL1012100.0
In the past three years, have you had any of the following life events or problems happened to you: You had a major financial crisis? (HM37W1) -- Wave 1 (2006) [See Wave 2 version below]
TOTAL%
-7) Refused2.2
-4) Dont know00
1) Yes29722.6
2) No101477.2
TOTAL1313100.0
In the past six years, have any of the following life events or problems happened to you: you had a major financial crisis? (HM37) -- Wave 2 (2012)
TOTAL%
1) Yes32231.8
2) No69068.2
Missing301 
TOTAL1012100.0
In the past three years, have you had any of the following life events or problems happened to you: You had problems with the police or you had to make a court appearance? [NOTE: DO NOT INCLUDE MINOR TRAFFIC VIOLATIONS SUCH AS SPEEDING OR RUNNING STOP SIGNS] (HM38W1) -- Wave 1 (2006) [See Wave 2 version below]
TOTAL%
-7) Refused2.2
-4) Dont know1.1
1) Yes1138.6
2) No119891.2
TOTAL1314100.0
In the past six years, have any of the following life events or problems happened to you: you had problems with the police or you had to make a court appearance? (HM38) -- Wave 2 (2012)
TOTAL%
1) Yes979.6
2) No91590.4
Missing302 
TOTAL1012100.0
In the last six years, has a doctor told you that you have or had diabetes or high blood sugar? (HM3Z3) -- Wave 2 (2012)
TOTAL%
1) Yes505.5
2) No85494.5
Missing410 
TOTAL904100.0
Is your blood pressure generally under control? (HM3A) -- Wave 2 (2012)
TOTAL%
1) Yes37995
2) No205
Missing915 
TOTAL399100.0
Is your diabetes generally under control? (HM3B) -- Wave 2 (2012)
TOTAL%
1) Yes13484.8
2) No2415.2
Missing1156 
TOTAL158100.0
Our records from your last interview in 2006 show that you have had cancer or a malignant tumor. Since then, has this condition gotten better, worse, stayed about the same, or is this information not correct? (HM4A) -- Wave 2 (2012)
TOTAL%
1) Gotten better2859.6
2) Worse36.4
3) Stayed about the same1327.7
4) Not correct36.4
Missing1267 
TOTAL47100.0
In the last six years, has a doctor told you that you have or had a heart attack? (HM6Z2) -- Wave 2 (2012)
TOTAL%
1) Yes232.3
2) No95897.7
Missing333 
TOTAL981100.0
In the last six years, has a doctor told you that you have or had a stroke? (HM6Z3) -- Wave 2 (2012)
TOTAL%
1) Yes181.8
2) No98298.2
Missing315 
TOTAL1000100.0
Do you still have any remaining problems because of your heart attack(s)? (HM6A) -- Wave 2 (2012)
TOTAL%
1) Yes3259.3
2) No2240.7
Missing1260 
TOTAL54100.0
Do you still have any remaining problems because of your stroke(s)? (HM6B) -- Wave 2 (2012)
TOTAL%
1) Yes1754.8
2) No1445.2
Missing1283 
TOTAL31100.0
Our records from your last interview in 2006 show that you have had an ulcer. Since then, has this condition gotten better, worse, stayed about the same, or is this information not correct? (HM8A) -- Wave 2 (2012)
TOTAL%
1) Gotten better4455
2) Worse22.5
3) Stayed about the same3240
4) Not correct22.5
Missing1234 
TOTAL80100.0
Our records from your last interview in 2006 show that you have had arthritis or rheumatism. Since then, has this condition gotten better, worse, stayed about the same, or is this information not correct? (HM9A) -- Wave 2 (2012)
TOTAL%
1) Gotten better3815.4
2) Worse9940.1
3) Stayed about the same10743.3
4) Not correct31.2
Missing1066 
TOTAL247100.0
Our records from your last interview in 2006 show that you have had asthma. Since then, has this condition gotten better, worse, stayed about the same, or is this information not correct? (HM10A) -- Wave 2 (2012)
TOTAL%
1) Gotten better5439.7
2) Worse53.7
3) Stayed about the same6346.3
4) Not correct1410.3
Missing1178 
TOTAL136100.0
Our records from your last interview in 2006 show that you have had some emotional, nervous, or psychiatric problems. Since then, have these problems gotten better, worse, stayed about the same, or is this information not correct? (HM12A) -- Wave 2 (2012)
TOTAL%
1) Gotten better8549.4
2) Worse2313.4
3) Stayed about the same5733.1
4) Not correct74.1
Missing1142 
TOTAL172100.0
How often, if at all, do you participate in vigorous physical activity or sports - such as heavy housework, aerobics, running, swimming, or bicycling? (HM16) -- Wave 2 (2012)
TOTAL%
1) Never20119.8
2) Occasionally but less than weekly23423.1
3) About once a week13313.1
4) More than once a week24724.4
5) About every day19919.6
Missing301 
TOTAL1014100.0
On average, how many cigarettes per day do you smoke? Dont currently smoke regularly (HM18DK) -- Wave 2 (2012)
TOTAL%
0) No29160.4
1) Yes19139.6
Missing832 
TOTAL482100.0
In the past six years, have any of the following life events or problems happened to you: a close family friend or another relative (aunt, cousin, grandparent) died? (HM30) -- Wave 2 (2012)
TOTAL%
1) Yes63162.4
2) No38137.6
Missing301 
TOTAL1012100.0
In the past six years, have any of the following life events or problems happened to you: you had a separation due to marital difficulties? (HM31) -- Wave 2 (2012)
TOTAL%
1) Yes10612.9
2) No71387.1
Missing496 
TOTAL819100.0
During the past 30 days, on average, how many hours do you sleep per night? (HM39) -- Wave 2 (2012)
NMeanStd.Deviation
TOTAL13146.761.44
During the past 30 days, for about how many days have you felt you did not get enough rest or sleep? (HM40) -- Wave 2 (2012)
NMeanStd.Deviation
TOTAL13149.709.80


Instructions
View each question on our survey and how our respondents answered to the left.

To perform an auto-analysis of how an item relates to key demographics such as gender, education, religion and more, click on the "Analyze results" link below a variable.
Modules