Portraits of American Life Study
Hosted by The ARDA
The PALS seeks to understand the impact of religion in everyday life, and ultimately the connections between religious change and other forms of change among diverse individuals and families over the course of their lives.
Results & Summaries

Demographics

  All frequencies weighted by LOWEIGHT


What is the highest level of schooling you have completed, or what is the highest degree that you have earned? (DM2W1) -- Wave 1 (2006) [See Wave 2 version below]
TOTAL%
-7) Refused2.2
-4) Dont know2.2
1) No high school diploma13810.5
2) GED896.8
3) High school46135.1
4) Vocational/technical diploma1078.1
5) Associate degree1309.9
7) Bachelors degree21416.3
8) Masters but not religious degree937.1
9) Master of Divinity or other religious post-college degree2.2
10) Doctorate degree11.8
11) Professional degree beyond B.A./B.S.292.2
12) Other352.7
TOTAL1313100.0
What is the highest level of schooling you have completed, or what is the highest degree that you have earned? (DM2) -- Wave 2 (2012)
TOTAL%
1) No GED or less than high school degree62.8
2) GED or high school equivalent, no high school diploma146.4
3) High school diploma2411
4) Vocational-technical diploma2411
5) Associate degree (AA, AS)3114.2
6) Two-year religious degree2.9
7) Bachelors degree (B.A., B.S.)5726.1
8) Masters degree but not religious degree (MA, MS, MBA, etc.)209.2
9) Master of Divinity or other religious post-college degree2.9
10) Doctorate degree (Ph.D., Ed.D.)52.3
11) Professional degree beyond B.A./B.S. (MD, DDS, JD/LLB etc.)31.4
12) Other3013.8
Missing1097 
TOTAL218100.0
Did you ever attend a four-year college or university for at least one year? (DM3W1) -- Wave 1 (2006) [See Wave 2 version below]
TOTAL%
-4) Dont know1.1
1) Yes25727.8
2) No66672.1
Missing390 
TOTAL924100.0
Did you ever attend a four-year college or university for at least one year? (DM3) -- Wave 2 (2012)
TOTAL%
1) Yes2929.3
2) No7070.7
Missing1215 
TOTAL99100.0
The next two questions are about your total household income from all sources during 2005 before taxes and other deductions. Please include all sources of income. Before taxes and other deductions, was your total household income during 2005 more or less than $40,000? (DM5W1) -- Wave 1 (2006) [See Wave 2 version below]
TOTAL%
-7) Refused453.4
-4) Dont know322.4
1) $40,000 or more72254.9
2) Less than $40,00051539.2
TOTAL1314100.0
Please include all sources of income. Before taxes and other deductions, was your total household income during 2011 more or less than $40,000, or the same as your personal wages? (DM5) -- Wave 2 (2012)
TOTAL%
1) $40,000 or more36740.9
2) Less than $40,00039544
3) Same as personal wages13515.1
Missing417 
TOTAL897100.0
Please tell me the number on the card that is your best estimate of your total household income in 2005? (DM6W1) -- Wave 1 (2006) [See Wave 2 version below]
TOTAL%
-7) Refused91.8
-4) Dont know122.3
1) Less than $5,000499.5
2) $5,000 - $9,9995610.9
3) $10,000 - $14,9995811.3
4) $15,000 - $19,9996713
5) $20,000 - $24,9995811.3
6) $25,000 - $29,9995811.3
7) $30,000 - $34,9998115.8
8) $35,000 - $39,9996612.8
Missing799 
TOTAL514100.0
[HH income less than $20K] (CATI: Please stop me when I read)/(WEB: Please select) the number that is your best estimate of your total household income in 2011 (DM6Z4) -- Wave 2 (2012)
TOTAL%
1) Less than $5,0003115.3
2) $5,000 -- $9,9993718.3
3) $10,000 -- $14,9996130.2
4) $15,000 -- $19,9997336.1
Missing1111 
TOTAL202100.0
Please tell me the number on the card that is your best estimate of your total household income in 2005? (DM7W1) -- Wave 1 (2006) [See Wave 2 version below]
TOTAL%
-7) Refused202.8
-4) Dont know121.7
1) $40,000 - $49,00011916.5
2) $50,000 - $59,99910915.1
3) $60,000 - $69,9999012.5
4) $70,000 - $79,9998611.9
5) $80,000 - $89,999628.6
6) $90,000 - $99,999547.5
7) $100,000 - $124,999699.6
8) $125,000 - $149,999446.1
9) $150,000 - $174,999192.6
10) $175,000 - $199,999141.9
11) $200,000 or more233.2
Missing592 
TOTAL721100.0
[HH income less than $20K] (CATI: Please stop me when I read)/(WEB: Please select) the number that is your best estimate of your total household income in 2011 (DM6Z4) -- Wave 2 (2012)
TOTAL%
1) Less than $5,0003115.3
2) $5,000 -- $9,9993718.3
3) $10,000 -- $14,9996130.2
4) $15,000 -- $19,9997336.1
Missing1111 
TOTAL202100.0
Earlier in the interview, I recorded the name of your primary congregation. To enhance our research, we would like to call your primary congregation, to get some basic information, such as its size and number of religious services or programs. The questions would not have anything to do with you personally or with your answers to this survey. Your answers to this questionnaire will be kept confidential, and your name will not be used in any way. Would it be all right if we called your congregation? (DM8W1) -- Wave 1 (2006)
TOTAL%
-7) Refused2.3
1) Yes63489.3
2) No7410.4
Missing603 
TOTAL710100.0
Were both of your parents born in the United States? (DM1AW1) -- Wave 1 (2006)
TOTAL%
-7) Refused2.2
-4) Dont know00
1) Yes101076.9
2) No30122.9
TOTAL1313100.0
Were you born in the United States? (DM1BW1) -- Wave 1 (2006)
TOTAL%
-7) Refused2.2
1) Yes112985.9
2) No18313.9
TOTAL1314100.0
Are you a United States citizen? (DM1EW1) -- Wave 1 (2006) [See Wave 2 version below]
TOTAL%
-7) Refused31.6
1) Yes7138.6
2) No9551.6
3) In the process of becoming158.2
Missing1129 
TOTAL184100.0
Are you a United States citizen? (DM1E) -- Wave 2 (2012)
TOTAL%
1) Yes4439.6
2) No5347.7
3) In process of becoming U.S. citizen1412.6
Missing1203 
TOTAL111100.0
Were both of your spouses/partners parents born in the United States? (DM1FW1) -- Wave 1 (2006) [See Wave 2 version below]
TOTAL%
-7) Refused2.2
-4) Dont know5.6
1) Yes62675.1
2) No20124.1
Missing480 
TOTAL834100.0
Were both of your [spouse/partners] parents born in the United States? (Please include adoptive parents.) (DM1F) -- Wave 2 (2012)
TOTAL%
1) Yes9180.5
2) No2219.5
Missing1201 
TOTAL113100.0
Was your spouse/partner born in the United States or not? (DM1GW1) -- Wave 1 (2006) [See Wave 2 version below]
TOTAL%
-7) Refused2.2
1) Yes69283
2) No14016.8
Missing480 
TOTAL834100.0
Was your [spouse/partner] born in the United States, or not? (DM1G) -- Wave 2 (2012)
TOTAL%
1) Yes9987.6
2) No1412.4
Missing1200 
TOTAL113100.0
Is your spouse/partner a United States citizen, or not? (DM1JW1) -- Wave 1 (2006) [See Wave 2 version below]
TOTAL%
-7) Refused32.1
1) Yes6143.3
2) No6646.8
3) In the process of becoming U.S. citizen117.8
Missing1172 
TOTAL141100.0
Is your [spouse/partner] a United States citizen, or not? (DM1J) -- Wave 2 (2012)
TOTAL%
1) Yes3345.8
2) No2940.3
3) In process of becoming U.S. citizen1013.9
Missing1242 
TOTAL72100.0
Is English/Spanish the primary language spoken in your home? (DM1KW1) -- Wave 1 (2006) [See Wave 2 version below]
TOTAL%
-7) Refused2.2
1) Yes122793.4
2) No856.5
TOTAL1314100.0
Is [English] the primary language spoken in your home? (DM1K) -- Wave 2 (2012)
TOTAL%
1) Yes118193.5
2) No826.5
Missing52 
TOTAL1263100.0
Did one or both of your parents speak a language other than English as their main language at home? (DM1LW1) -- Wave 1 (2006)
TOTAL%
-7) Refused2.2
-4) Dont know00
1) Yes31524
2) No99775.9
TOTAL1314100.0
What is the highest level of schooling you have completed, or what is the highest degree that you have earned? (DM2_2W1) -- Wave 1 (2006) [See Wave 2 version below]
TOTAL%
-7) Refused2.2
-4) Dont know2.2
1) No high school diploma13810.5
2) GED896.8
3) High school47836.4
4) Vocational/technical diploma1088.2
5) Associates degree1309.9
7) Bachelors degree21516.4
8) Masters but not religious degree987.5
9) Master of Divinity or other religious post-college degree2.2
10) Doctorate degree11.8
11) Professional degree beyond B.A./B.S.292.2
12) Other11.8
TOTAL1313100.0
What is the highest level of schooling you have completed, or what is the highest degree that you have earned? (DM2) -- Wave 2 (2012)
TOTAL%
1) No GED or less than high school degree62.8
2) GED or high school equivalent, no high school diploma146.4
3) High school diploma2411
4) Vocational-technical diploma2411
5) Associate degree (AA, AS)3114.2
6) Two-year religious degree2.9
7) Bachelors degree (B.A., B.S.)5726.1
8) Masters degree but not religious degree (MA, MS, MBA, etc.)209.2
9) Master of Divinity or other religious post-college degree2.9
10) Doctorate degree (Ph.D., Ed.D.)52.3
11) Professional degree beyond B.A./B.S. (MD, DDS, JD/LLB etc.)31.4
12) Other3013.8
Missing1097 
TOTAL218100.0
Total household income (DMINCW1) -- Wave 1 (2006) [See Wave 2 version below]
TOTAL%
-7) Refused745.6
-4) Dont know574.3
1) Less than $5,000493.7
2) $5,000 - $9,999564.3
3) $10,000 - $14,999584.4
4) $15,000 - $19,999675.1
5) $20,000 - $24,999584.4
6) $25,000 - $29,999584.4
7) $30,000 - $34,999816.2
8) $35,000 - $39,999665
9) $40,000 - $49,9991199.1
10) $50,000 - $59,9991098.3
11) $60,000 - $69,999906.9
12) $70,000 - $79,999866.5
13) $80,000 - $89,999624.7
14) $90,000 - $99,999544.1
15) $100,000 - $124,999695.3
16) $125,000 - $149,999443.4
17) $150,000 - $174,999191.4
18) $175,000 - $199,999141.1
19) $200,000 or more231.8
TOTAL1313100.0
Please include all sources of income. Before taxes and other deductions, was your total household income during 2011 more or less than $40,000, or the same as your personal wages? (DM5) -- Wave 2 (2012)
TOTAL%
1) $40,000 or more36740.9
2) Less than $40,00039544
3) Same as personal wages13515.1
Missing417 
TOTAL897100.0
Are you a United States citizen? (P_I2W1) -- Wave 1 (2006) [See Wave 2 version below]
TOTAL%
1) Yes47993.9
2) No316.1
Missing804 
TOTAL510100.0
Are you a United States citizen? (DM1E) -- Wave 2 (2012)
TOTAL%
1) Yes4439.6
2) No5347.7
3) In process of becoming U.S. citizen1412.6
Missing1203 
TOTAL111100.0
What is the highest level of schooling you have completed, or what is the highest degree that you have earned? (P_I3W1) -- Wave 1 (2006) [See Wave 2 version below]
TOTAL%
1) Less than high school479.5
2) GED418.3
3) High school13527.4
4) Vocational-technical479.5
5) Associate448.9
7) Bachelors10521.3
8) Masters418.3
10) Doctorate4.8
11) Professional degree173.4
12) Other122.4
Missing821 
TOTAL493100.0
What is the highest level of schooling you have completed, or what is the highest degree that you have earned? (DM2) -- Wave 2 (2012)
TOTAL%
1) No GED or less than high school degree62.8
2) GED or high school equivalent, no high school diploma146.4
3) High school diploma2411
4) Vocational-technical diploma2411
5) Associate degree (AA, AS)3114.2
6) Two-year religious degree2.9
7) Bachelors degree (B.A., B.S.)5726.1
8) Masters degree but not religious degree (MA, MS, MBA, etc.)209.2
9) Master of Divinity or other religious post-college degree2.9
10) Doctorate degree (Ph.D., Ed.D.)52.3
11) Professional degree beyond B.A./B.S. (MD, DDS, JD/LLB etc.)31.4
12) Other3013.8
Missing1097 
TOTAL218100.0
Before taxes and other deductions, was your total personal income from all jobs that you worked at during 2005 more or less than $40,000? (P_I6W1) -- Wave 1 (2006) [See Wave 2 version below]
TOTAL%
1) $40,000 or more14730
2) Less than $40,00021343.5
3) No personal income13026.5
Missing823 
TOTAL490100.0
Wed like to ask you how much did you personally earn altogether from wages or salaries during 2011, that is, before anything was deducted for taxes or other things? Please do not include other sources of income. Before taxes and other deductions, were your total wages or salaries during 2011 more or less than $40,000? (DM4Z2) -- Wave 2 (2012)
TOTAL%
1) $40,000 or more34744.4
2) Less than $40,00043555.6
Missing532 
TOTAL782100.0
Please check the number that is your best estimate of your total income in 2005 (P_I7W1) -- Wave 1 (2006) [See Wave 2 version below]
TOTAL%
1) Less than $5,000208.1
2) $5,000-$9,9994116.5
3) $10,000-$14,9993112.5
4) $15,000-$19,999228.9
5) $20,000-$24,9994216.9
6) $25,000-$29,9992911.7
7) $30,000-$34,9992610.5
8) $35,000-$39,9993714.9
Missing1066 
TOTAL248100.0
[Personal wages less than $20K] (CATI: Please stop me when I read)/(WEB: Please select) the number that is your best estimate of your total personal wages or salaries in 2011 (DM4Z4) -- Wave 2 (2012)
TOTAL%
1) Less than $5,0005425.2
2) $5,000 -- $9,9994119.2
3) $10,000 -- $14,9996028
4) $15,000 -- $19,9995927.6
Missing1100 
TOTAL214100.0
Please check the number that is your best estimate of your total income in 2005 (P_I8W1) -- Wave 1 (2006) [See Wave 2 version below]
TOTAL%
1) $40,000-$49,9996733.3
2) $50,000-$59,9994019.9
3) $60,000-$69,9992914.4
4) $70,000-$79,999189
5) $80,000-$89,999115.5
6) $90,000-$99,99984
7) $100,000-$124,999115.5
8) $125,000-$149,99973.5
9) $150,000-$174,9991.5
10) $175,000-$199,99931.5
11) $200,000 or more63
Missing1113 
TOTAL201100.0
[Personal wages less than $20K] (CATI: Please stop me when I read)/(WEB: Please select) the number that is your best estimate of your total personal wages or salaries in 2011 (DM4Z4) -- Wave 2 (2012)
TOTAL%
1) Less than $5,0005425.2
2) $5,000 -- $9,9994119.2
3) $10,000 -- $14,9996028
4) $15,000 -- $19,9995927.6
Missing1100 
TOTAL214100.0
Respondents age has been updated from Wave 2 data (FLAGNAGE) -- Wave 1 (2006)
TOTAL%
0) No130899.5
1) Yes6.5
TOTAL1314100.0
Were both of your [spouse/partners] parents born in the United States? (Please include adoptive parents.) (DM1F) -- Wave 2 (2012)
TOTAL%
1) Yes9180.5
2) No2219.5
Missing1201 
TOTAL113100.0
How well do you speak Spanish? Very well, well, not well, or not at all? (DM1KZ1) -- Wave 2 (2012)
TOTAL%
1) Very well766.2
2) Well494
3) Not well34027.8
4) Not at all75862
Missing91 
TOTAL1223100.0
How well do you speak English? Very well, well, not well, or not at all? [Asked Spanish-language respondent] (DM1KZ2) -- Wave 2 (2012)
TOTAL%
1) Very well12.7
2) Well821.6
3) Not well1951.4
4) Not at all924.3
Missing1276 
TOTAL37100.0
In our last interview, you reported your highest level of completed schooling was [HighestSchool2006]. Has that changed? (DM1Z8) -- Wave 2 (2012)
TOTAL%
1) Yes19915.7
2) No106784.3
Missing49 
TOTAL1266100.0
In our last interview, you described your occupation as [Occupation 2006]. Has it changed? (DM3Z8) -- Wave 2 (2012)
TOTAL%
1) Yes24137.4
2) No40362.6
Missing671 
TOTAL644100.0
Before taxes and other deductions, were your total wages or salaries during 2011 more or less than $20,000? (DM4Z3) -- Wave 2 (2012)
TOTAL%
1) $20,000 or more21850.5
2) Less than $20,00021449.5
Missing882 
TOTAL432100.0
[Personal wages between $20K $40K] (CATI: Please stop me when I read)/(WEB: Please select) the number that is your best estimate of your total personal wages or salaries in 2011 (DM4Z5) -- Wave 2 (2012)
TOTAL%
1) $20,000 -- $24,9997534.6
2) $25,000 -- $29,9995726.3
3) $30,000 -- $34,9994922.6
4) $35,000 -- $39,9993616.6
Missing1098 
TOTAL217100.0
[Personal wages less than $100K] Before taxes and other deductions, were your total wages or salaries during 2011 more or less than $100,000? (DM4Z6) -- Wave 2 (2012)
TOTAL%
1) $100,000 or more7722.3
2) Less than $100,00026877.7
Missing969 
TOTAL345100.0
[Personal wages between $40K and $100K] CATI: Please stop me when I read)/(WEB: Please select) the number that is your best estimate of your total personal wages or salaries in 2011 (DM4Z7) -- Wave 2 (2012)
TOTAL%
1) $40,000 -- $49,9997930
2) $50,000 -- $59,9997327.8
3) $60,000 -- $69,9995320.2
4) $70,000 -- $79,999259.5
5) $80,000 -- $89,999197.2
6) $90,000 -- $99,999145.3
Missing1050 
TOTAL263100.0
[Personal wages greater than $100K] CATI: Please stop me when I read)/(WEB: Please select) the number that is your best estimate of your total personal wages or salaries in 2011 (DM4Z8) -- Wave 2 (2012)
TOTAL%
1) $100,000 -- $124,9992634.2
2) $125,000 -- $149,9992532.9
3) $150,000 -- $174,9991114.5
4) $175,000 -- $199,99922.6
5) $200,000 or more1215.8
Missing1237 
TOTAL76100.0
Before taxes and other deductions, was your total household income during 2011 more or less than $20,000? (DM6Z3) -- Wave 2 (2012)
TOTAL%
1) $20,000 or more18647.4
2) Less than $20,00020652.6
Missing922 
TOTAL392100.0
[HH income between $20K and $40K] (CATI: Please stop me when I read)/(WEB: Please select) the number that is your best estimate of your total household income in 2011 (DM6Z5) -- Wave 2 (2012)
TOTAL%
1) $20,000 -- $24,9995026.7
2) $25,000 -- $29,9994825.7
3) $30,000 -- $34,9995227.8
4) $35,000 -- $39,9993719.8
Missing1128 
TOTAL187100.0
[HH income less or greater than $100K] Before taxes and other deductions, was your total household income during 2011 more or less than $100,000? (DM7Z6) -- Wave 2 (2012)
TOTAL%
1) $100,000 or more23332.8
2) Less than $100,00047867.2
Missing603 
TOTAL711100.0
[HH income between $40K and $100K] Before taxes and other deductions, was your total household income during 2011 more or less than $100,000? (DM7Z7) -- Wave 2 (2012)
TOTAL%
1) $40,000 -- $49,99911324
2) $50,000 -- $59,9999921.1
3) $60,000 -- $69,9998417.9
4) $70,000 -- $79,9996814.5
5) $80,000 -- $89,9996714.3
6) $90,000 -- $99,999398.3
Missing843 
TOTAL470100.0
[HH income greater than $100K] Before taxes and other deductions, was your total household income during 2011 more or less than $100,000? (DM7Z8) -- Wave 2 (2012)
TOTAL%
1) $100,000 -- $124,99910545.3
2) $125,000 -- $149,9994318.5
3) $150,000 -- $174,9992611.2
4) $175,000 -- $199,999135.6
5) $200,000 or more4519.4
Missing1081 
TOTAL232100.0
Personal wages (DMWAGES) -- Wave 2 (2012)
TOTAL%
1) Less than $5,000547
2) $5,000-$9,999415.3
3) $10,000-$14,999607.8
4) $15,000-$19,999597.7
5) $20,000-$24,999759.7
6) $25,000-$29,999577.4
7) $30,000-$34,999496.4
8) $35,000-$39,999364.7
9) $40,000-$49,9997910.3
10) $50,000-$59,999739.5
11) $60,000-$69,999536.9
12) $70,000-$79,999253.2
13) $80,000-$89,999192.5
14) $90,000-$99,999141.8
15) $100,000-$124,999263.4
16) $125,000-$149,999253.2
17) $150,000-$174,999111.4
18) $175,000-$199,9992.3
19) $200,000 or more121.6
Missing544 
TOTAL770100.0
Total household income (DMINC) -- Wave 2 (2012)
TOTAL%
1) Less than $5,000373
2) $5,000-$9,999524.3
3) $10,000-$14,999756.1
4) $15,000-$19,999897.3
5) $20,000-$24,999816.6
6) $25,000-$29,999695.6
7) $30,000-$34,999685.6
8) $35,000-$39,999494
9) $40,000-$49,9991139.2
10) $50,000-$59,999998.1
11) $60,000-$69,999846.9
12) $70,000-$79,999685.6
13) $80,000-$89,999675.5
14) $90,000-$99,999393.2
15) $100,000-$124,9991058.6
16) $125,000-$149,999433.5
17) $150,000-$174,999262.1
18) $175,000-$199,999131.1
19) $200,000 or more453.7
Missing89 
TOTAL1222100.0
Education (EDUC) -- Wave 2 (2012)
TOTAL%
1) Less than high school1219.2
2) GED856.5
3) High school38529.3
4) Vo-tech1249.4
5) Associate15211.6
6) Two year religious2.2
7) Bachelors24818.9
8) Masters1158.8
9) Master of Divinity4.3
10) Doctorate161.2
11) Professional degree322.4
12) Other302.3
TOTAL1314100.0


Instructions
View each question on our survey and how our respondents answered to the left.

To perform an auto-analysis of how an item relates to key demographics such as gender, education, religion and more, click on the "Analyze results" link below a variable.
Modules