Portraits of American Life Study
Hosted by The ARDA
The PALS seeks to understand the impact of religion in everyday life, and ultimately the connections between religious change and other forms of change among diverse individuals and families over the course of their lives.
Results & Summaries

Race & Ethnicity

  All frequencies weighted by LOWEIGHT


In general, how comfortable or uncomfortable would you be if your daughter marries someone who is white and not Hispanic? (ARE1W1) -- Wave 1 (2006)
TOTAL%
-7) Refused82
1) Very uncomfortable317.7
2) Somewhat uncomfortable245.9
3) Neither comfortable nor uncomfortable9724
4) Somewhat comfortable276.7
5) Very comfortable12931.9
6) Depends8922
Missing909 
TOTAL405100.0
In general, how comfortable or uncomfortable would you be if your daughter married someone who is Asian? (ARE2W1) -- Wave 1 (2006)
TOTAL%
-7) Refused181.4
-4) Dont know7.6
1) Very uncomfortable1239.8
2) Somewhat uncomfortable14311.4
3) Neither comfortable nor uncomfortable36429
4) Somewhat comfortable13210.5
5) Very comfortable24019.1
6) Depends22818.2
Missing59 
TOTAL1255100.0
In general, how comfortable or uncomfortable would you be if your daughter married someone who is Hispanic or Latino? (ARE3W1) -- Wave 1 (2006)
TOTAL%
-7) Refused161.4
-4) Dont know9.8
1) Very uncomfortable11910.4
2) Somewhat uncomfortable15713.7
3) Neither comfortable nor uncomfortable29726
4) Somewhat comfortable11510.1
5) Very comfortable23020.1
6) Depends20117.6
Missing171 
TOTAL1144100.0
In general, how comfortable or uncomfortable would you be if your daughter married someone who is black or African American? (ARE4W1) -- Wave 1 (2006)
TOTAL%
-7) Refused151.3
-4) Dont know7.6
1) Very uncomfortable21418.4
2) Somewhat uncomfortable23620.3
3) Neither comfortable nor uncomfortable24220.8
4) Somewhat comfortable1008.6
5) Very comfortable15613.4
6) Depends19416.7
Missing150 
TOTAL1164100.0
Of the following groups - whites, blacks, Hispanics, Asians, or Indians - which one do you feel you have the most in common with? (ARE5W1) -- Wave 1 (2006) [See Wave 2 version below]
TOTAL%
-7) Refused272.1
-4) Dont know957.2
1) Whites16512.6
2) Blacks26320
3) Hispanics27220.7
4) Asians18514.1
5) American Indians30723.4
TOTAL1314100.0
[Now back to you.] Of the following groups: Whites, Blacks, Hispanics, Asians, or American Indians. Which one do you feel you have the most in common with? (ARE5) -- Wave 2 (2012)
TOTAL%
1) Whites17414.5
2) Blacks28423.6
3) Hispanics26622.1
4) Asians15212.6
5) American Indians32727.2
Missing111 
TOTAL1203100.0
Of the following groups - whites, blacks, Hispanics, Asians, or Indians - which one do you feel you have the least in common with? (ARE6W1) -- Wave 1 (2006) [See Wave 2 version below]
TOTAL%
-7) Refused503.8
-4) Dont know423.2
1) Whites765.8
2) Blacks27320.8
3) Hispanics15211.6
4) Asians41231.4
5) American Indians30923.5
TOTAL1314100.0
[Now back to you.] Of the following groups: Whites, Blacks, Hispanics, Asians, or American Indians. Which one do you feel you have the most in common with? (ARE5) -- Wave 2 (2012)
TOTAL%
1) Whites17414.5
2) Blacks28423.6
3) Hispanics26622.1
4) Asians15212.6
5) American Indians32727.2
Missing111 
TOTAL1203100.0
In the past 12 months, about how many times have you been in the home of a friend of a different race or had them in your home? (ARE8W1) -- Wave 1 (2006) [See Wave 2 version below]
TOTAL%
-7) Refused11.8
-4) Dont know3.2
0) Never41231.3
1) Once1027.8
2) Two to four times23818.1
3) Five-nine times18714.2
4) Once a month13510.3
5) Twice a month806.1
6) Once a week685.2
7) More than once a week796
TOTAL1315100.0
In the past 12 months, about how many times have you been in the home of a friend of a different race or had them in your home? (ARE7) -- Wave 2 (2012)
NMeanStd.Deviation
TOTAL131416.5150.43
Earlier you told us that you are (respondents selected race). Do you think other Americans would say that you are (respondents selected race) or something else? (RE_12W1) -- Wave 1 (2006)
TOTAL%
-4) Dont know5.4
1) Same110283.9
2) Something else18814.3
3) Varies11.8
4) Doesnt matter8.6
TOTAL1314100.0
Can you think of any occasion in the past three years, that you felt you were treated unfairly because of your race? (RE_13W1) -- Wave 1 (2006) [See Wave 2 version below]
TOTAL%
-7) Refused3.2
-4) Dont know00
1) Yes17213.1
2) No113986.7
TOTAL1314100.0
Can you think of any occasion in the past six years, that you felt you were treated unfairly because of your race? (RE_13) -- Wave 2 (2012)
TOTAL%
1) Yes27321.2
2) No101478.8
Missing27 
TOTAL1287100.0
When you think of yourself, how important to you is being (Rs selected race) to your sense of who you are? (RE_15W1) -- Wave 1 (2006) [See Wave 2 version below]
TOTAL%
-4) Dont know6.5
1) Very47235.9
2) Somewhat33925.8
3) A little15311.6
4) Not at all34426.2
TOTAL1314100.0
When you think about yourself, how important to you is being [race] to your sense of who you are? (RE_15) -- Wave 2 (2012)
TOTAL%
1) Very important42533.3
2) Somewhat important27421.4
3) Only a little important18514.5
4) Not important at all39430.8
Missing35 
TOTAL1278100.0
How closely connected do you feel to your racial group? (RE_16W1) -- Wave 1 (2006) [See Wave 2 version below]
TOTAL%
-7) Refused1.1
-4) Dont know161.2
1) Extremely24318.5
2) Very42932.6
3) Somewhat48937.2
4) Not at all13710.4
TOTAL1315100.0
How closely connected do you feel to your racial group? (RE_16) -- Wave 2 (2012)
TOTAL%
1) Extremely close28322.3
2) Very close38530.3
3) Somewhat close46236.3
4) Not close at all14111.1
Missing42 
TOTAL1271100.0
How often, if it all, do you think about or are you aware of what race you are? (RE_17W1) -- Wave 1 (2006) [See Wave 2 version below]
TOTAL%
-7) Refused4.3
-4) Dont know6.5
1) Every day26820.4
2) Nearly every day1118.4
3) Weekly1148.7
4) Monthly896.8
5) Less than monthly29122.1
6) Never43232.9
TOTAL1315100.0
How often, if at all, do you think about or are you aware of what race you are? (RE_17) -- Wave 2 (2012)
TOTAL%
1) About every day24719.3
2) About once a week1259.8
3) About once a month977.6
4) Less than monthly30724
5) Never50239.3
Missing35 
TOTAL1278100.0
Please tell me the places where you were treated unfairly because of your race. 1. Store (RE14_1W1) -- Wave 1 (2006) [See Wave 2 version below]
TOTAL%
1) Yes57100
Missing1257 
TOTAL57100.0
Which of the following locations, if any, were you treated unfairly because of your race: at a store? (RE14_1) -- Wave 2 (2012)
TOTAL%
0) No15155.5
1) Yes12144.5
Missing1041 
TOTAL272100.0
Please tell me the places where you were treated unfairly because of your race. 2. While traveling (RE14_2W1) -- Wave 1 (2006) [See Wave 2 version below]
TOTAL%
1) Yes32100
Missing1282 
TOTAL32100.0
Which of the following locations, if any, were you treated unfairly because of your race: while traveling? (RE14_2) -- Wave 2 (2012)
TOTAL%
0) No20475
1) Yes6825
Missing1041 
TOTAL272100.0
Please tell me the places where you were treated unfairly because of your race. 3. At work (RE14_3W1) -- Wave 1 (2006) [See Wave 2 version below]
TOTAL%
1) Yes78100
Missing1236 
TOTAL78100.0
Which of the following locations, if any, were you treated unfairly because of your race: at work? (RE14_3) -- Wave 2 (2012)
TOTAL%
0) No14753.8
1) Yes12646.2
Missing1041 
TOTAL273100.0
Please tell me the places where you were treated unfairly because of your race. 4. Restaurant, bar, theater, or other entertainment place (RE14_4W1) -- Wave 1 (2006) [See Wave 2 version below]
TOTAL%
1) Yes41100
Missing1273 
TOTAL41100.0
Which of the following locations, if any, were you treated unfairly because of your race: at a restaurant, bar, theater, or other entertainment place? (RE14_4) -- Wave 2 (2012)
TOTAL%
0) No19471.3
1) Yes7828.7
Missing1041 
TOTAL272100.0
Please tell me the places where you were treated unfairly because of your race. 5. Place of worship (RE14_5W1) -- Wave 1 (2006) [See Wave 2 version below]
TOTAL%
1) Yes6100
Missing1308 
TOTAL6100.0
Which of the following locations, if any, were you treated unfairly because of your race: at a place of worship? (RE14_5) -- Wave 2 (2012)
TOTAL%
0) No26196
1) Yes114
Missing1041 
TOTAL272100.0
Please tell me the places where you were treated unfairly because of your race. 6. Other (SPECIFY) (RE14_6W1) -- Wave 1 (2006) [See Wave 2 version below]
TOTAL%
1) Yes39100
Missing1275 
TOTAL39100.0
Which of the following locations, if any, were you treated unfairly because of your race: other? (RE14_8) -- Wave 2 (2012)
TOTAL%
0) No21478.4
1) Yes5921.6
Missing1041 
TOTAL273100.0
Are you . . . (RE_2AW1) -- Wave 1 (2006)
TOTAL%
1) Chinese1017.2
2) Filipino1220.7
3) Japanese23.4
4) Asian Indian2136.2
6) Vietnamese46.9
7) Other915.5
Missing1255 
TOTAL58100.0
[ASK IF RE_1a= only 4 or RE_2w=4. ELSE SKIP TO RE_2g.] Which term do you prefer? (RE_2CW1) -- Wave 1 (2006)
TOTAL%
1) Asian2543.1
2) Asian-American2237.9
3) Oriental11.7
4) Other35.2
5) No preference712.1
Missing1255 
TOTAL58100.0
Are you . . . (RE_2EW1) -- Wave 1 (2006)
TOTAL%
-7) Refused1.1
-4) Dont know495.4
1) European68675.6
2) Middle Eastern8.9
3) Hispanic7.8
4) Other697.6
5) No preference647.1
6) Mixed232.5
Missing406 
TOTAL907100.0
[ASK IF RE_1a= only 1 or RE_2w=1. ELSE SKIP TO RE_2k.] Which term do you prefer most? (RE_2GW1) -- Wave 1 (2006)
TOTAL%
1) White53158.5
2) Caucasian21323.5
3) Anglo141.5
4) European American171.9
5) Other192.1
6) No preference11412.6
Missing406 
TOTAL908100.0
Are you . . . (RE_2IW1) -- Wave 1 (2006)
TOTAL%
-7) Refused00
1) Mexican11366.9
2) Cuban53
3) Puerto Rican137.7
4) Dominican74.1
5) Colombian1.6
6) Central American84.7
7) Other2011.8
8) No preference21.2
Missing1143 
TOTAL169100.0
[ASK IF RE_1a= only 3 or RE_2w=3. ELSE SKIP TO RE_2o.] Which term do you prefer most? (RE_2KW1) -- Wave 1 (2006)
TOTAL%
1) Hispanic11668.2
2) Latino2313.5
3) Chicano74.1
4) Latin American95.3
5) Other105.9
6) No preference52.9
Missing1143 
TOTAL170100.0
Are you . . .? (RE_2MW1) -- Wave 1 (2006)
TOTAL%
-4) Dont know1.7
1) African American12784.7
2) African32
3) Caribbean53.3
7) Other117.3
8) No preference32
Missing1164 
TOTAL150100.0
[ASK IF RE_1a=2 only or RE_2w=2. ELSE SKIP TO RE_2r.] Which term do you prefer most? (RE_2OW1) -- Wave 1 (2006)
TOTAL%
1) Black7047
2) African-American5738.3
3) Negro1.7
4) Afro-American128.1
5) Other32
6) No preference64
Missing1164 
TOTAL149100.0
[ASK RE_3a IF RE_1a=3 AND NOTHING ELSE.] Do you consider yourself white, black, Asian, American Indian, or something else? (RE_3AW1) -- Wave 1 (2006)
TOTAL%
-4) Dont know1.6
1) White7646.1
2) Black1.6
4) American Indian148.5
5) Other7344.2
Missing1148 
TOTAL165100.0
Respondents race - Asian (RE_ASW1) -- Wave 1 (2006)
TOTAL%
0) No125495.4
1) Yes604.6
TOTAL1314100.0
Respondents race - Black (RE_BLW1) -- Wave 1 (2006)
TOTAL%
0) No116488.6
1) Yes15011.4
TOTAL1314100.0
Respondents race - Dont know/refused (RE_DKW1) -- Wave 1 (2006)
TOTAL%
0) No1314100
TOTAL1314100.0
Respondents race - Hispanic (RE_HIW1) -- Wave 1 (2006)
TOTAL%
0) No114086.8
1) Yes17413.2
TOTAL1314100.0
Respondents race - Mixed (RE_MIW1) -- Wave 1 (2006)
TOTAL%
0) No130299.1
1) Yes12.9
TOTAL1314100.0
Respondents race - Native American (RE_NAW1) -- Wave 1 (2006)
TOTAL%
0) No130899.5
1) Yes6.5
TOTAL1314100.0
Respondents race - Other (RE_OTW1) -- Wave 1 (2006)
TOTAL%
0) No130399.2
1) Yes11.8
TOTAL1314100.0
Respondents race - Pacific Islander (RE_PAW1) -- Wave 1 (2006) [See Wave 2 version below]
TOTAL%
0) No131299.8
1) Yes2.2
TOTAL1314100.0
What race or ethnic group do you consider yourself? (That is, are you white, black, Hispanic, Asian American, Pacific Islander, American Indian or of mixed race?) Answer: Pacific Islander (RE_1A_5) -- Wave 2 (2012)
TOTAL%
0) No131299.8
1) Yes2.2
TOTAL1314100.0
Respondents race (RE_RAW1) -- Wave 1 (2006) [See Wave 2 version below]
TOTAL%
1) White90869
2) Black15011.4
3) Hispanic17113
4) Asian594.5
5) Pacific Islander2.2
6) Native American2.2
7) Mixed race12.9
9) Other11.8
TOTAL1315100.0
Respondents race (RE_RACE) -- Wave 2 (2012)
TOTAL%
1) White/Caucasian/Anglo90869
2) Black/African American15011.4
3) Hispanic/Latino(a)17113
4) Asian/Asian American594.5
5) Pacific Islander2.2
6) Native American2.2
7) Mixed Race12.9
9) Other11.8
TOTAL1315100.0
Respondents race - White (RE_WHW1) -- Wave 1 (2006)
TOTAL%
0) No40430.7
1) Yes91069.3
TOTAL1314100.0
What race or ethnic group do you consider yourself? (That is, are you white, black, Hispanic, Asian American, Pacific Islander, American Indian or of mixed race?) Answer: White/Caucasian/Anglo (RE_1A_1) -- Wave 2 (2012)
TOTAL%
0) No40630.9
1) Yes90869.1
TOTAL1314100.0
What race or ethnic group do you consider yourself? (That is, are you white, black, Hispanic, Asian American, Pacific Islander, American Indian or of mixed race?) Answer: Black/African American (RE_1A_2) -- Wave 2 (2012)
TOTAL%
0) No116488.6
1) Yes15011.4
TOTAL1314100.0
What race or ethnic group do you consider yourself? (That is, are you white, black, Hispanic, Asian American, Pacific Islander, American Indian or of mixed race?) Answer: Hispanic/Latino(a) (RE_1A_3) -- Wave 2 (2012)
TOTAL%
0) No114387
1) Yes17113
TOTAL1314100.0
What race or ethnic group do you consider yourself? (That is, are you white, black, Hispanic, Asian American, Pacific Islander, American Indian or of mixed race?) Answer: Asian/Asian American (RE_1A_4) -- Wave 2 (2012)
TOTAL%
0) No125595.5
1) Yes594.5
TOTAL1314100.0
What race or ethnic group do you consider yourself? (That is, are you white, black, Hispanic, Asian American, Pacific Islander, American Indian or of mixed race?) Answer: American Indian/Native American (RE_1A_6) -- Wave 2 (2012)
TOTAL%
0) No131299.8
1) Yes2.2
TOTAL1314100.0
What race or ethnic group do you consider yourself? (That is, are you white, black, Hispanic, Asian American, Pacific Islander, American Indian or of mixed race?) Answer: Mixed race (RE_1A_7) -- Wave 2 (2012)
TOTAL%
0) No130299.1
1) Yes12.9
TOTAL1314100.0
What race or ethnic group do you consider yourself? (That is, are you white, black, Hispanic, Asian American, Pacific Islander, American Indian or of mixed race?) Answer: Other (RE_1A_9) -- Wave 2 (2012)
TOTAL%
0) No130399.2
1) Yes11.8
TOTAL1314100.0
If you feel you have been treated unfairly, do you usually accept it as a fact of life, or try to do something about it? (RE_12Z5) -- Wave 2 (2012)
TOTAL%
1) Accept it as a fact of life41032.2
2) Try to do something about it86467.8
Missing40 
TOTAL1274100.0
If you have been treated unfairly, do you usually: (RE_12Z6) -- Wave 2 (2012)
TOTAL%
1) Talk to other people about it102980.5
2) Keep it to yourself24919.5
Missing36 
TOTAL1278100.0
Which of the following locations, if any, were you treated unfairly because of your race: at a store? (RE14_1) -- Wave 2 (2012)
TOTAL%
0) No15155.5
1) Yes12144.5
Missing1041 
TOTAL272100.0
Which of the following locations, if any, were you treated unfairly because of your race: with police or in the courts? (RE14_6) -- Wave 2 (2012)
TOTAL%
0) No22883.8
1) Yes4416.2
Missing1041 
TOTAL272100.0
Which of the following locations, if any, were you treated unfairly because of your race: in a bank or applying for credit? (RE14_7) -- Wave 2 (2012)
TOTAL%
0) No24991.2
1) Yes248.8
Missing1041 
TOTAL273100.0
Have you ever filed a formal complaint because of racial discrimination? (RE14Z5) -- Wave 2 (2012)
TOTAL%
1) Yes262
2) No126198
Missing27 
TOTAL1287100.0
What race or ethnic group is your [spouse/partner]? White/Caucasian/Anglo (RE_18_1) -- Wave 2 (2012)
TOTAL%
0) No22827.7
1) Yes59672.3
Missing490 
TOTAL824100.0
What race or ethnic group is your [spouse/partner]? Black/African American (RE_18_2) -- Wave 2 (2012)
TOTAL%
0) No76292.5
1) Yes627.5
Missing490 
TOTAL824100.0
What race or ethnic group is your [spouse/partner]? Hispanic/Latino/a (RE_18_3) -- Wave 2 (2012)
TOTAL%
0) No71787.1
1) Yes10612.9
Missing490 
TOTAL823100.0
What race or ethnic group is your [spouse/partner]? Asian/Asian American (RE_18_4) -- Wave 2 (2012)
TOTAL%
0) No78295
1) Yes415
Missing490 
TOTAL823100.0
What race or ethnic group is your [spouse/partner]? Pacific Islander (RE_18_5) -- Wave 2 (2012)
TOTAL%
0) No82399.9
1) Yes1.1
Missing490 
TOTAL824100.0
What race or ethnic group is your [spouse/partner]? American Indian/Native American (RE_18_6) -- Wave 2 (2012)
TOTAL%
0) No80397.6
1) Yes202.4
Missing490 
TOTAL823100.0
What race or ethnic group is your [spouse/partner]? Mixed race (RE_18_7) -- Wave 2 (2012)
TOTAL%
0) No81598.9
1) Yes91.1
Missing490 
TOTAL824100.0
What race or ethnic group is your [spouse/partner]? Other (RE_18_9) -- Wave 2 (2012)
TOTAL%
0) No81198.5
1) Yes121.5
Missing490 
TOTAL823100.0
Does your [spouse/partner] identify with one of these more than others? (RE_20) -- Wave 2 (2012)
TOTAL%
1) Yes731.8
2) No1568.2
Missing1291 
TOTAL22100.0
[Now back to you.] Of the following groups: Whites, Blacks, Hispanics, Asians, or American Indians. Which one do you feel you have the least in common with? (ARE6) -- Wave 2 (2012)
TOTAL%
1) Whites524.3
2) Blacks22919.1
3) Hispanics14712.3
4) Asians43736.5
5) American Indians33227.7
Missing116 
TOTAL1197100.0
Would you say you never did this, did it once, a few times, about once a month on average, twice a month, about once a week on average, or more often than that? (ARE8) -- Wave 2 (2012)
TOTAL%
1) Never150
4) About once a month on average150
Missing1311 
TOTAL2100.0


Instructions
View each question on our survey and how our respondents answered to the left.

To perform an auto-analysis of how an item relates to key demographics such as gender, education, religion and more, click on the "Analyze results" link below a variable.
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