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Minorities, Government Programs

Attitudes about how the government handles issues related to racial minorities


Below are 37 questions from surveys in the ARDA that attempt to measure this concept. The ARDA staff further categorized these questions into 4 types:

ApprovalNeed HelpPolitical PartiesResponsibility

ApprovalThis question type asks if the respondent approves of government programs to help minorities.

  • DTPRFBL from Trends in Political Values and Core Attitudes, 1987-2009LEARN MORE
    • We should make every possible effort to improve the position of blacks and other minorities, even if it means giving them preferential treatment. (Q10L) (DTPRFBL) EXPAND/COLLAPSE
  • PREFBLCK from December 2006 Values Update SurveyLEARN MORE
    • For each statement, please tell me if you completely agree with it, mostly agree with it, mostly disagree with it, or completely disagree with it. We should make every possible effort to improve the position of blacks and other minorities, even if it means giving them preferential treatment. (PREFBLCK) EXPAND/COLLAPSE
  • AMA_6 from Portraits of American Life Study, 1st Wave, 2006LEARN MORE
    • Government should do more to help minorities increase their standard of living. (AMA_6) EXPAND/COLLAPSE
  • IMPROVE from Baylor Religion Survey, Wave II (2007)LEARN MORE
    • Q37k. To what extent do you agree or disagree that the federal government should improve the standard of living for ethnic minorities? (IMPROVE) EXPAND/COLLAPSE
  • RGHTSMIN from General Social Survey, 2004LEARN MORE
    • There are different opinions about peoples rights in a democracy. On a scale of 1 to 7, where 1 is not at all important and 7 is very important, how important is it--That government authorities respect and protect the rights of minorities. (RGHTSMIN) EXPAND/COLLAPSE
  • MINORITY from Southern Focus Poll, Non-South Survey, Fall 1996LEARN MORE
    • In general, when you think about the current laws and regulations to protect the following, do they go too far, strike about the right balance, or not go far enough? The rights of minorities. (MINORITY) EXPAND/COLLAPSE

Need HelpThis question type asks respondents if minorities need help to achieve equality.

  • MINOR_C from ELCA-Episcopal Church Clergy Study, 1998LEARN MORE
    • Please indicate how strongly a majority of your church agrees or disagrees with the following statement: Blacks and other minorities need special government help to achieve an equal place in America. (Q16LCHURCH) (MINOR_C) EXPAND/COLLAPSE
  • MINOR_U from ELCA-Episcopal Church Clergy Study, 1998LEARN MORE
    • Please indicate how strongly you agree or disagree with the following statement: Blacks and other minorities need special government help to achieve an equal place in America. (Q16LYOU) (MINOR_U) EXPAND/COLLAPSE
  • V19LGOVH from ELCA-Episcopal Church Study, 1999-2000LEARN MORE
    • Please indicate how strongly you agree or disagree with the following statements. L. Blacks and other minorities may need special government help to achieve an equal place in America. (V19LGOVH) EXPAND/COLLAPSE

Political PartiesThis question type asks the respondents their opinion regarding how particular political parties or candidates handle minority issues.

  • REPS BAF from American National Election Studies, 2000LEARN MORE
    • Where would you place THE REPUBLICAN PARTY on this issue? [R PLACEMENT OF REPUBLICAN PARTY ON AID TO BLACKS SCALE: FTF INTERVIEW] (REPS BAF) EXPAND/COLLAPSE
  • DEMS BAP from American National Election Studies, 2000LEARN MORE
    • What about THE DEMOCRATIC PARTY? (Do you think THEY feel that government should make every effort to improve the social and economic position of blacks, or that government should not make any special effort to help blacks because they should help themselves?) [R PLACEMENT OF DEMOCRATIC PARTY ON AID TO BLACKS SCALE: TELEPHONE INTERVIEW] (DEMS BAP) EXPAND/COLLAPSE
  • JOBMINOR from Campaign 2000 Typology SurveyLEARN MORE
    • Regardless of who you support, which one of the Presidential candidates - Al Gore or George W. Bush - do you think would do the best job of improving conditions of minority groups? (JOBMINOR) EXPAND/COLLAPSE
  • DEMMINOR from ABC News Church Scandal Poll, 2002LEARN MORE
    • Do you think the Democratic Party is or is not committed to equal opportunity for minorities? [INTERVIEWER NOTE: Rotate order with REPMINOR]. (DEMMINOR) EXPAND/COLLAPSE
  • REPMINOR from ABC News Church Scandal Poll, 2002LEARN MORE
    • Do you think the Republican Party is or is not committed to equal opportunity for minorities? [INTERVIEWER NOTE: Rotate order with DEMMINOR]. (REPMINOR) EXPAND/COLLAPSE
  • DEMTRAD from July 2003 Values Update SurveyLEARN MORE
    • [ASK ONLY IF PARTY= 2 DEMOCRAT OR PARTYLEAN= 2 DEMOCRAT]How good a job is the Democratic Party doing these days in standing up for its traditional positions on such things as protecting the interests of minorities, helping the poor and needy, and representing working people - would you say the Party is doing an excellent job, a good job, only a fair job or a poor job? (DEMTRAD) EXPAND/COLLAPSE

ResponsibilityDoes the government have a responsibility to help minorities?

  • L2FAIR from State of Disunion Survey, 1996LEARN MORE
    • Since our founding, different levels of our government have had different responsibilities. For each of the following, I want you to tell me whether you think it should be mainly the responsibility of the federal government in Washington, the state government in [respondents state], your local government, or private organizations. Or do you think it should be mainly left up to individuals? B. Ensuring fair treatment of women and minorities (L2FAIR) EXPAND/COLLAPSE
  • GOVBLACK from American National Election Studies, 2004LEARN MORE
    • Some people feel that the government in Washington should make every effort to improve the social and economic position of blacks. (Suppose these people are at one end of a scale, at point 1.) Others feel that the government should not make any special effort to help blacks because they should help themselves. (Suppose these people are at the other end, at point 7.) And, of course, some other people have opinions somewhere in between, at points 2, 3, 4, 5, or 6. Where would you place YOURSELF on this scale, or havent you thought much about this? (GOVBLACK) EXPAND/COLLAPSE
  • HELPBLK from General Social Survey 2008 Cross-Section and Panel CombinedLEARN MORE
    • Some people think that African Americans have been discriminated against for so long that the government has a special obligation to help improve their living standards; they are at point 1. Others believe that the government should not be giving special treatment to Blacks/Negroes/African-Americans; they are at point 5. Where would you place yourself on this scale, or havent you made up your mind on this? (HELPBLK) EXPAND/COLLAPSE
  • HELPBLK from General Social Survey 2010 Cross-Section and Panel CombinedLEARN MORE
    • Some people think that African Americans have been discriminated against for so long that the government has a special obligation to help improve their living standards; they are at point 1. Others believe that the government should not be giving special treatment to Blacks/Negroes/African-Americans; they are at point 5. Where would you place yourself on this scale, or havent you made up your mind on this? (HELPBLK) EXPAND/COLLAPSE
  • HELPBLK from General Social Survey 2010 Cross-Section and Panel Combined, (Inapplicable Responses Coded as Missing)LEARN MORE
    • Some people think that African Americans have been discriminated against for so long that the government has a special obligation to help improve their living standards; they are at point 1. Others believe that the government should not be giving special treatment to Blacks/Negroes/African-Americans; they are at point 5. Where would you place yourself on this scale, or havent you made up your mind on this? (HELPBLK) EXPAND/COLLAPSE
  • HELPBLK from General Social Survey 2012 Cross-Section and Panel CombinedLEARN MORE
    • Some people think that African Americans have been discriminated against for so long that the government has a special obligation to help improve their living standards; they are at point 1. Others believe that the government should not be giving special treatment to blacks/negroes/African-Americans; they are at point 5. Where would you place yourself on this scale or havent you made up your mind on this? (HELPBLK) EXPAND/COLLAPSE
  • HELPBLK from General Social Survey 2012 Cross-Section and Panel Combined - Instructional DatasetLEARN MORE
    • Some people think that African Americans have been discriminated against for so long that the government has a special obligation to help improve their living standards; they are at point 1. Others believe that the government should not be giving special treatment to blacks/negroes/African-Americans; they are at point 5. Where would you place yourself on this scale or havent you made up your mind on this? (HELPBLK) EXPAND/COLLAPSE
  • HELPBLK from General Social Survey 2012 Cross-Section and Panel Combined, (Inapplicable Responses Coded as Missing)LEARN MORE
    • Some people think that African Americans have been discriminated against for so long that the government has a special obligation to help improve their living standards; they are at point 1. Others believe that the government should not be giving special treatment to blacks/negroes/African-Americans; they are at point 5. Where would you place yourself on this scale or havent you made up your mind on this? (HELPBLK) EXPAND/COLLAPSE
  • HLPBLK_1 from General Social Survey Panel Data (2006 Sample)LEARN MORE
    • Some people think that African Americans have been discriminated against for so long that the government has a special obligation to help improve their living standards. Others believe that the government should not be giving special treatment to African Americans. Where would you place yourself on this scale, or havent you made up your mind on this? (HELPBLK_1) (HLPBLK_1) EXPAND/COLLAPSE
  • HLPBLK_2 from General Social Survey Panel Data (2006 Sample)LEARN MORE
    • Some people think that African Americans have been discriminated against for so long that the government has a special obligation to help improve their living standards. Others believe that the government should not be giving special treatment to African Americans. Where would you place yourself on this scale, or havent you made up your mind on this? (HELPBLK_2) (HLPBLK_2) EXPAND/COLLAPSE
  • HLPBLK_3 from General Social Survey Panel Data (2006 Sample)LEARN MORE
    • Some people think that African Americans have been discriminated against for so long that the government has a special obligation to help improve their living standards. Others believe that the government should not be giving special treatment to African Americans. Where would you place yourself on this scale, or havent you made up your mind on this? (HELPBLK_3) (HLPBLK_3) EXPAND/COLLAPSE
  • HELPBLK from General Social Survey, 1988LEARN MORE
    • Scale on government helping blacks: 1) I strongly agree the government is obligated to help blacks; To 5) I strongly agree that government shouldnt give special treatment. (HELPBLK) EXPAND/COLLAPSE
  • HELPBLK from General Social Survey, 1990LEARN MORE
    • Some people think that (Blacks/Negroes/African-Americans) have been discriminated against for so long that the government has a special obligation to help improve their living standards. Others believe that the government should not be giving special treatment to (Blacks/Negroes/African-Americans). Where would you place yourself on this scale, or havent you made up your mind on this? (HELPBLK) EXPAND/COLLAPSE
  • HELPBLK from General Social Survey, 1991LEARN MORE
    • Some people think that (Blacks/Negroes/African-Americans) have been discriminated against for so long that the government has a special obligation to help improve their living standards. Others believe that the government should not be giving special treatment to (Blacks/Negroes/African-Americans). A. Where would you place yourself on this scale, or havent you made up your mind on this? (HELPBLK) EXPAND/COLLAPSE
  • HELPBLK from General Social Survey, 1993LEARN MORE
    • Now look at CARD BF. Some people think that (Blacks/Negroes/African-Americans) have been discriminated against for so long that the government has a special obligation to help improve their living standards. Others believe that the government should not be giving special treatment to (Blacks/Negroes/African-Americans). Where would you place yourself on this scale, or havent you made up your mind on this? (HELPBLK) EXPAND/COLLAPSE
  • HELPBLK from General Social Survey, 1994LEARN MORE
    • Scale on government helping Blacks: 1) I strongly agree the government is obligated to help Blacks; to 5) I strongly agree that government shouldnt give special treatment. (HELPBLK) EXPAND/COLLAPSE
  • HELPBLK from General Social Survey, 1996LEARN MORE
    • Some people think that (Blacks/Negroes/African-Americans) have been discriminated against for so long that the government has a special obligation to help improve their living standards. Others believe that the government should not be giving special treatment to (Blacks/Negroes/African-Americans). Where would you place yourself on this scale, or havent you made up your mind on this? (HELPBLK) EXPAND/COLLAPSE
  • HELPBLK from General Social Survey, 1998LEARN MORE
    • Scale on government helping blacks: 1) I strongly agree the government is obligated to help blacks; To 5) I strongly agree that government shouldnt give special treatment. (HELPBLK) EXPAND/COLLAPSE
  • HELPBLK from General Social Survey, 2000LEARN MORE
    • Scale on government helping blacks: 1) I strongly agree the government is obligated to help blacks; To 5) I strongly agree that government shouldnt give special treatment. (HELPBLK) EXPAND/COLLAPSE
  • HELPBLK from General Social Survey, 2002LEARN MORE
    • Scale on government helping blacks: 1) I strongly agree the government is obligated to help blacks; To 5) I strongly agree that government shouldnt give special treatment. (HELPBLK) EXPAND/COLLAPSE
  • HELPBLK from General Social Survey, 2004LEARN MORE
    • Scale on government helping blacks: 1) I strongly agree the government is obligated to help blacks; TO 5) I strongly agree that government shouldnt give special treatment. (HELPBLK) EXPAND/COLLAPSE
  • HELPBLK from General Social Survey, 2006LEARN MORE
    • Now look at CARD BF. Some people think that (Blacks/Negroes/African-Americans) have been discriminated against for so long that the government has a special obligation to help improve their living standards. Others believe that the government should not be giving special treatment to (Blacks/Negroes/African-Americans). Where would you place yourself on this scale, or havent you made up your mind on this? (HELPBLK) EXPAND/COLLAPSE
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