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God, Existence of

Does the respondent believe in God/believe that God exists?


Below are 40 questions from surveys in the ARDA that attempt to measure this concept. The ARDA staff further categorized these questions into 8 types:

3 Option4 Option5 Option6 Option7 OptionChanged Belief?Doubt?Life Meaning?

3 OptionThis question type asks the respondent about the existence of God using three options.

  • RELGOD from Southern Focus Poll, Non-South Survey, Spring 1998LEARN MORE
    • Which one of these statements comes closest to your belief about God? (RELGOD) EXPAND/COLLAPSE
  • RELGOD from Southern Focus Poll, South Survey, Spring 1998LEARN MORE
    • Which one of these statements comes closest to your belief about God? (RELGOD) EXPAND/COLLAPSE
  • RELGOD from Southern Focus Poll, Combined Sample, Spring 1998LEARN MORE
    • Which one of these statements comes closest to your belief about God? (RELGOD) EXPAND/COLLAPSE
  • BELGOD from Religion and Public Life Survey, 2006LEARN MORE
    • Which of the following statements comes closest to your belief about God - you believe in God; or you dont believe in God, but you do believe in a universal spirit or higher power; or you dont believe in either? (BELGOD) EXPAND/COLLAPSE
  • BELGOD from Religion and Public Life Survey, 2005LEARN MORE
    • On another subject, which of the following statements comes closest to your belief about God: 1. you believe in God; or 2. you dont believe in God, but you do believe in a universal spirit or higher power, or 3. you dont believe in either? (BELGOD) EXPAND/COLLAPSE
  • GOD from Politics of Character Survey, 2000LEARN MORE
    • Which one of these statements comes closest to your belief about God? (GOD) EXPAND/COLLAPSE
  • GOD from State of Disunion Survey, 1996LEARN MORE
    • Which one of these statements comes closest to your belief about God? (GOD) EXPAND/COLLAPSE
  • GOD from Life Choices, 1990LEARN MORE
    • Which one of these statements comes closest to your belief about God? (GOD) EXPAND/COLLAPSE

4 OptionThis question type asks about the existence of God using four options.

  • IDEAS from Dimensions of Religiosity, 1985LEARN MORE
    • The following question deals with religion. Please read the question carefully and select the response which most accurately represents your beliefs. Which of the following statements most clearly describes your ideas about God? (IDEAS) EXPAND/COLLAPSE
  • IDEAS from Dimensions of Religiosity, 1986LEARN MORE
    • The following question deals with religion. Please read the question carefully and select the response which most accurately represents your beliefs. Which of the following statements most clearly describes your ideas about God? (IDEAS) EXPAND/COLLAPSE
  • IDEAS from Dimensions of Religiosity, 1987LEARN MORE
    • The following question deals with religion. Please read the question carefully and select the response which most accurately represents your beliefs. Which of the following statements most clearly describes your ideas about God? (IDEAS) EXPAND/COLLAPSE
  • IDEAS from Dimensions of Religiosity, 1988LEARN MORE
    • The following question deals with religion. Please read the question carefully and select the response which most accurately represents your beliefs. Which of the following statements most clearly describes your ideas about God? (IDEAS) EXPAND/COLLAPSE

5 OptionThis question type ask about the respondent's belief in God using five options.

  • YVIEWGOD from Young Adolescents and Their Parents: A National Study, 1984 - Youth ComponentLEARN MORE
    • Which of the following statements about God comes closest to your view of God? (YVIEWGOD) EXPAND/COLLAPSE
  • GOD from Winthrop University Student Religion Survey, 1996LEARN MORE
    • Do you believe in God? (GOD) EXPAND/COLLAPSE
  • Q21 from Baylor Religion Survey, 2005LEARN MORE
    • Q21 Which one statement comes closest to your personal beliefs about God (Q21) EXPAND/COLLAPSE

6 OptionThis question type ask about belief in God using six options.

  • GOD from General Social Survey, 1998LEARN MORE
    • Which statement comes closest to expressing what you believe about God: dont believe in God; dont know and no way to find out; believe in higher power; believe in God sometimes; some doubts, but believe in God; no doubts about Gods existence. (GOD) EXPAND/COLLAPSE
  • GOD from General Social Survey, 1988LEARN MORE
    • Which statement comes closest to expressing what you believe about God: dont believe in God; dont know and no way to find out; believe in higher power; believe in God sometimes; some doubts, but believe in God; no doubts about Gods existence. (GOD) EXPAND/COLLAPSE
  • GOD from General Social Survey, 2000LEARN MORE
    • Which statement comes closest to expressing what you believe about God: dont believe in God; dont know and no way to find out; believe in higher power; believe in God sometimes; some doubts, but believe in God; no doubts about Gods existence. (GOD) EXPAND/COLLAPSE
  • GOD from General Social Survey, 1991LEARN MORE
    • Please look at this card and tell me which statement comes closest to expressing what you believe about God. (1) I dont believe in God (2) I dont know whether there is a God and I dont believe there is any way to find out (3) I dont believe in a personal God, but I do believe in a Higher Power of some kind (4) I find myself believing in God some of the time, but not at others (5) While I have doubts, I feel that I do believe in God (6) I know God really exists and I have no doubts about it. (GOD) EXPAND/COLLAPSE
  • GOD from General Social Survey 2008 Cross-Section and Panel CombinedLEARN MORE
    • Which statement comes closest to expressing what you believe about God? (GOD) EXPAND/COLLAPSE
  • GOD from General Social Survey, 2006LEARN MORE
    • Which statement comes closest to expressing what you believe about God: dont believe in God; dont know and no way to find out; believe in higher power; believe in God sometimes; some doubts, but believe in God; no doubts about Gods existence. (GOD) EXPAND/COLLAPSE
  • GOD from General Social Survey, 1993LEARN MORE
    • Please look at this card and tell me which statement comes closest to expressing what you believe about God. I dont believe in God; I dont know whether there is a God and I dont believe there is any way to find out; I dont believe in a personal God, but I do believe in a Higher Power of some kind; I find myself believing in God some of the time, but not at others; While I have doubts, I feel that I do believe in God; I know God really exists and I have no doubts about it. (GOD) EXPAND/COLLAPSE
  • GOD from General Social Survey, 1994LEARN MORE
    • Which statement comes closest to expressing what you believe about God: Dont believe in God; dont know and no way to find out; believe in higher power; believe in God sometimes; some doubts, but believe in God; no doubts about Gods existence. (GOD) EXPAND/COLLAPSE
  • GOD from Baylor Religion Survey, Wave II (2007)LEARN MORE
    • Q19. Which one statement comes closest to your personal beliefs about God? (Please mark only one box.) (GOD) EXPAND/COLLAPSE
  • GOD from General Social Survey 2010 Cross-Section and Panel CombinedLEARN MORE
    • Which statement comes closest to expressing what you believe about God? (GOD) EXPAND/COLLAPSE

7 OptionThis question type asks about the respondent's belief in God using seven options.

  • BELVGOD from Survey of Northern California Church Bodies, 1963LEARN MORE
    • Which of the following statements comes closest to expressing what you believe about God? (Please check only one answer.) (BELVGOD) EXPAND/COLLAPSE
  • RELGC1 from Dimensions of Religious Commitment, 1986LEARN MORE
    • Which of the following statements comes closest to expressing what you believe about God? (Choose one answer) (RELGC1) EXPAND/COLLAPSE
  • RELGC1 from Dimensions of Religious Commitment, 1987LEARN MORE
    • Which of the following statements comes closest to expressing what you believe about God? (Choose one answer) (RELGC1) EXPAND/COLLAPSE

Changed Belief?This question type asks the respondent if his/her beliefs about God have changed over time.

  • GODCHNGE from General Social Survey, 1998LEARN MORE
    • Which best describes your beliefs about God: 1) I dont believe..., and I never have; 2) I dont believe..., but I used to; 3) I believe..., but I didnt used to; 4) I believe..., and I always have. (GODCHNGE) EXPAND/COLLAPSE
  • GODCHNGE from General Social Survey, 2004LEARN MORE
    • Which best describes your beliefs about God: 1) I dont believe..., and I never have; 2) I dont believe..., but I used to; 3) I believe..., but I didnt used to; 4) I believe..., and I always have. (GODCHNGE) EXPAND/COLLAPSE
  • GODCHNGE from General Social Survey, 1991LEARN MORE
    • Which best describes your beliefs about God? (GODCHNGE) EXPAND/COLLAPSE
  • GODCHNGE from General Social Survey 2008 Cross-Section and Panel CombinedLEARN MORE
    • Which best describes your beliefs about God? (GODCHNGE) EXPAND/COLLAPSE

Doubt?This question type asks the respondent if he/she ever doubts the existence of God.


Life Meaning?This question type asks the respondent if life is only meaningful because God exists.

  • GODMEANS from General Social Survey, 1998LEARN MORE
    • To me, life is meaningful only because God exists--do you agree or disagree? (GODMEANS) EXPAND/COLLAPSE
  • GODMEANS from General Social Survey, 1991LEARN MORE
    • Do you agree or disagree with the following. . . C. To me, life is meaningful only because God exists. (GODMEANS) EXPAND/COLLAPSE
  • GODMEANS from General Social Survey 2008 Cross-Section and Panel CombinedLEARN MORE
    • To me, life is meaningful only because God exists. (GODMEANS) EXPAND/COLLAPSE
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