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Religious Self-Identification, Adjective Used (e.g. Charismatic, Evangelical, etc.)

Assessment of the religious labels that individuals apply to themselves


Below are 136 questions from surveys in the ARDA that attempt to measure this concept. The ARDA staff further categorized these questions into 6 types:

Born Again/Evangelical?CharismaticConservative IdentitiesEvangelicalMainline/LiberalReligious Tradition

Born Again/Evangelical?Does the respondent agree that "born again" or Evangelical Christian describes his/her religious identity?


CharismaticDoes the respondent agree that "charismatic" describes his/her religious identity?


Conservative IdentitiesThis question type asks the respondent if certain conservative religious identities apply to him/her.


EvangelicalThis question type asks the respondent if "Evangelical" describes his/her religious identity

  • INDNEVNG from U.S. Congregational Life Survey, 2001, Random AttendersLEARN MORE
    • Do you identify with any of the following approaches to faith? (Mark up to two options.) - Evangelical (INDNEVNG) EXPAND/COLLAPSE
  • Q3E from Baylor Religion Survey, 2005LEARN MORE
    • Q3 Which, if any, of the following terms describe your religious identity Evangelical (Q3E) EXPAND/COLLAPSE
  • FUNDEVAN from State of the First Amendment Survey, 2005LEARN MORE
    • Would you describe yourself as either a Fundamentalist or Evangelical Christian, or would you not describe yourself that way? (FUNDEVAN) EXPAND/COLLAPSE
  • TYPCHRST from State of the First Amendment, 2000LEARN MORE
    • Would you describe yourself as either a fundamentalist or evangelical Christian, or would you not describe yourself that way? (TYPCHRST) EXPAND/COLLAPSE
  • Q5_A from Spirit and Power: Survey of Pentecostals in BrazilLEARN MORE
    • [Ask if Christian] As I read from a list, please tell me which, if any, of the following descriptions apply to you. Does this apply to you or not: Evangelical Christian [If respondent is Catholic, replace with Evangelical Catholic]? (Q5_A) EXPAND/COLLAPSE
  • TYPCHRS from State of the First Amendment Survey, 2002LEARN MORE
    • Would you describe yourself as either a Fundamentalist or Evangelical Christian, or would you not describe yourself that way? (TYPCHRS) EXPAND/COLLAPSE
  • TYPCHRS1 from State of the First Amendment Survey, 2003LEARN MORE
    • Would you describe yourself as either a fundamentalist or evangelical Christian, or would you not describe yourself that way? (Recode) (TYPCHRS1) EXPAND/COLLAPSE
  • TYPCHRS from State of the First Amendment Survey, 2004LEARN MORE
    • Would you describe yourself as either a Fundamentalist or Evangelical Christian, or would you not describe yourself that way? (TYPCHRS) EXPAND/COLLAPSE
  • Q5_A from Spirit and Power: Survey of Pentecostals in ChileLEARN MORE
    • [Ask if Christian] As I read from a list, please tell me which, if any, of the following descriptions apply to you. Does this apply to you or not: Evangelical Christian [If respondent is Catholic, replace with Evangelical Catholic]? (Q5_A) EXPAND/COLLAPSE
  • Q5_A from Spirit and Power: Survey of Pentecostals in KenyaLEARN MORE
    • [Ask if Christian] As I read from a list, please tell me which, if any, of the following descriptions apply to you. Does this apply to you or not: Evangelical Christian [If respondent is Catholic, replace with Evangelical Catholic]? (Q5_A) EXPAND/COLLAPSE
  • Q5_A from Spirit and Power: Survey of Pentecostals in NigeriaLEARN MORE
    • [Ask if Christian] As I read from a list, please tell me which, if any, of the following descriptions apply to you. Does this apply to you or not: Evangelical Christian [If respondent is Catholic, replace with Evangelical Catholic]? (Q5_A) EXPAND/COLLAPSE
  • Q5_A from Spirit and Power: Survey of Pentecostals in GuatemalaLEARN MORE
    • [Ask if Christian] As I read from a list, please tell me which, if any, of the following descriptions apply to you. Does this apply to you or not: Evangelical Christian [If respondent is Catholic, replace with Evangelical Catholic]? (Q5_A) EXPAND/COLLAPSE
  • Q5_A from Spirit and Power: Survey of Pentecostals in the PhilippinesLEARN MORE
    • [Ask if Christian] As I read from a list, please tell me which, if any, of the following descriptions apply to you. Does this apply to you or not: Evangelical Christian [If respondent is Catholic, replace with Evangelical Catholic]? (Q5_A) EXPAND/COLLAPSE
  • Q5_A from Spirit and Power: Survey of Pentecostals in South AfricaLEARN MORE
    • [Ask if Christian] As I read from a list, please tell me which, if any, of the following descriptions apply to you. Does this apply to you or not: Evangelical Christian [If respondent is Catholic, replace with Evangelical Catholic]? (Q5_A) EXPAND/COLLAPSE
  • Q5_A from Spirit and Power: Survey of Pentecostals in the United StatesLEARN MORE
    • [Ask if Christian] As I read from a list, please tell me which, if any, of the following descriptions apply to you. Does this apply to you or not: Evangelical Christian [If respondent is Catholic, replace with Evangelical Catholic]? (Q5_A) EXPAND/COLLAPSE
  • CHRSTYP from State of the First Amendment Survey, 2001LEARN MORE
    • Would you describe yourself as either a fundamentalist or evangelical Christian or would you not describe yourself that way? (CHRSTYP) EXPAND/COLLAPSE
  • Q5_A from Spirit and Power: Survey of Pentecostals in South KoreaLEARN MORE
    • [Ask if Christian] As I read from a list, please tell me which, if any, of the following descriptions apply to you. Does this apply to you or not: Evangelical Christian [If respondent is Catholic, replace with Evangelical Catholic]? (Q5_A) EXPAND/COLLAPSE
  • EVANG from Politics of Character Survey, 2000LEARN MORE
    • [IF PROTESTANT OR CATHOLIC] Would you describe yourself as an evangelical Christian? [FOLLOW-UP: I just want to know if evangelical is a word you might use to describe your religious beliefs.] (EVANG) EXPAND/COLLAPSE
  • Q36B from Sub-Saharan Africa Religion Survey, 2010LEARN MORE
    • Q36B [ASK IF CHRISTIAN] Would you describe yourself as an evangelical Christian, or not? (Q36B) EXPAND/COLLAPSE
  • EVANGEL from Baylor Religion Survey, Wave II (2007)LEARN MORE
    • Q15e. How well do the following terms describe your religious identity? Evangelical (EVANGEL) EXPAND/COLLAPSE

Mainline/LiberalThis question type asks the respondent if Mainline or liberal describes his/her religious identity.


Religious TraditionThis question type present the respondent with a list of religious traditions/identities

  • PROTTYPE from Religion and Politics Survey, 1996LEARN MORE
    • ASKED ONLY OF THOSE RESPONDENTS WHO ARE PROTESTANT: As I read from a list, please tell me which, if any, of the following descriptions apply to you. (PROTTYPE) EXPAND/COLLAPSE
  • RELID97 from Southern Focus Poll, Non-South Survey, Spring 1997LEARN MORE
    • ASKED ONLY OF PROTESTANT RESPONDENTS: When it comes to your religious identity, would you say you are a Pentecostal, fundamentalist, evangelical, mainline Protestant, or liberal Protestant? (RELID97) EXPAND/COLLAPSE
  • RELID97 from Southern Focus Poll, Non-South Survey, Spring 1998LEARN MORE
    • ASKED ONLY OF PROTESTANT RESPONDENTS AND THOSE WHO SAID THEY ARE CHRISTIAN OR JUST CHRISTIAN: When it comes to your religious identity, would you say you are a Pentecostal, fundamentalist, evangelical, mainline Protestant, or liberal Protestant? (RELID97) EXPAND/COLLAPSE
  • RELID97 from Southern Focus Poll, South Survey, Spring 1997LEARN MORE
    • ASKED ONLY OF PROTESTANT RESPONDENTS: When it comes to your religious identity, would you say you are a Pentecostal, fundamentalist, evangelical, mainline Protestant, or liberal Protestant? (RELID97) EXPAND/COLLAPSE
  • RELID97 from Southern Focus Poll, South Survey, Spring 1998LEARN MORE
    • ASKED ONLY OF PROTESTANT RESPONDENTS AND THOSE WHO SAID THEY ARE CHRISTIAN OR JUST CHRISTIAN: When it comes to your religious identity, would you say you are a Pentecostal, fundamentalist, evangelical, mainline Protestant, or liberal Protestant? (RELID97) EXPAND/COLLAPSE
  • RELIGID from General Social Survey, 1998LEARN MORE
    • If Protestant: When it comes to your religious identity, would you say you are a fundamentalist, evangelical, mainline, or liberal Protestant or do none of these describe you? (RELIGID) EXPAND/COLLAPSE
  • RELID1 from General Social Survey, 2000LEARN MORE
    • If Protestant: When it comes to your religious identity, would you say you are Pentecostal, Fundamentalist, Evangelical, Mainline, or Liberal Protestant, or do none of these describe you? Mention 1 (RELID1) EXPAND/COLLAPSE
  • RELID2 from General Social Survey, 2000LEARN MORE
    • If Protestant: Do you consider yourself to be a member of: Mention 2 (RELID2) EXPAND/COLLAPSE
  • RELID3 from General Social Survey, 2000LEARN MORE
    • If Protestant: Do you also consider yourself to be a member of: Mention 3 (RELID3) EXPAND/COLLAPSE
  • RELIDBST from General Social Survey, 2000LEARN MORE
    • If Protestant and more than one group mentioned: Which of these best describes what you are? (RELIDBST) EXPAND/COLLAPSE
  • RLGSID from Religion and Politics Survey, 2000LEARN MORE
    • ASKED ONLY OF THOSE RESPONDENTS WHO HAVE A PROTESTANT OR OTHER CHRISTIAN RELIGIOUS PREFERENCE. When it comes to your religious identity, would you say you are a fundamentalist, evangelical, mainline, or liberal Protestant, or do none of these describe you? (RLGSID) EXPAND/COLLAPSE
  • LABEL from Religion and Politics Survey, 2000LEARN MORE
    • ASKED ONLY OF THOSE RESPONDENTS WHO ANSWERED NONE OR OTHER FOR THEIR RELIGIOUS IDENTITY. If you were to pick a label that came closest, would you say fundamentalist, evangelical, mainline, or liberal? (LABEL) EXPAND/COLLAPSE
  • PROT_ID from Arts and Religion Survey, 1999LEARN MORE
    • [IF PROTESTANT FOR VARIABLE REL_PREF] When it comes to your religious identity, would you say you are a fundamentalist, evangelical, mainline, or liberal Protestant, or do none of these describe you? (PROT_ID) EXPAND/COLLAPSE
  • RELGSID from Americas EvangelicalsLEARN MORE
    • (ASKED ONLY OF THOSE RESPONDENTS WHO HAVE A PROTESTANT OR OTHER CHRISTIAN RELIGIOUS PREFERENCE IN RELIG1A) When it comes to your religious identity, would you say you are a fundamentalist, evangelical, charismatic, Pentecostal, mainline, or liberal Protestant, or do none of these describe you? (RELGSID) EXPAND/COLLAPSE
  • IDENTI_1 from Religious Influence and Identity Survey, 1996LEARN MORE
    • [ASKED OF GROUP 1] Which of those would you say best describes your religious identity? [READ LIST] (IDENTI_1) EXPAND/COLLAPSE
  • INDENTI_ from Religious Influence and Identity Survey, 1996LEARN MORE
    • [ASKED OF GROUP 1] If you had to choose, would any of these describe you at all? [READ LIST] (INDENTI_) EXPAND/COLLAPSE
  • REL_FAM from Religious Influence and Identity Survey, 1996LEARN MORE
    • Which of these terms best describes the religion of the family you were raised in: fundamentalist, evangelical, mainline Protestant, liberal Christian, Catholic, Jewish, not religious, or something else? (REL_FAM) EXPAND/COLLAPSE
  • RELID97 from Southern Focus Poll, Combined Sample, Spring 1998LEARN MORE
    • ASKED ONLY OF PROTESTANT RESPONDENTS AND THOSE WHO SAID THEY ARE CHRISTIAN OR JUST CHRISTIAN: When it comes to your religious identity, would you say you are a Pentecostal, fundamentalist, evangelical, mainline Protestant, or liberal Protestant? (RELID97) EXPAND/COLLAPSE
  • Q4 from Baylor Religion Survey, 2005LEARN MORE
    • Q4 Please indicate the one term that best describes your religious identity (Q4) EXPAND/COLLAPSE
  • RELIGID from Southern Focus Poll, Oversample Survey, Spring 1996LEARN MORE
    • [ASKED ONLY OF PROTESTANT RESPONDENTS] When it comes to your religious identity, would you say you are a fundamentalist, evangelical, mainline Protestant, or liberal Protestant? (RELIGID) EXPAND/COLLAPSE
  • RELID97S from Southern Focus Poll, South Survey, Fall 1999LEARN MORE
    • [ASKED ONLY OF RESPONDENT WHO ANSWERED PROTESTANT OR CHRISTIAN OR JUST CHRISTIAN TO RELAFFL] When it comes to your religious faith, would you say you are Pentecostal, Fundamentalist, Evangelical, mainline Protestant, or theologically liberal? (RELID97S) EXPAND/COLLAPSE
  • RELIGID from Southern Focus Poll, South Survey, Spring 1996LEARN MORE
    • [ASKED ONLY OF PROTESTANT RESPONDENTS] When it comes to your religious identity, would you say you are a fundamentalist, evangelical, mainline Protestant, or liberal Protestant? (RELIGID) EXPAND/COLLAPSE
  • RELID from Southern Focus Poll, Non-South Survey, Fall 1996LEARN MORE
    • Thinking about your religious faith, would you describe yourself as a fundamentalist, evangelical, mainline Protestant, or theologically liberal Protestant? (RELID) EXPAND/COLLAPSE
  • RELID97S from Southern Focus Poll, South Survey, Spring 2000LEARN MORE
    • [NOTE: Asked only of respondents who answered Protestant or Christian or just Christian to RELAFFL AND did not answer Christian Science, Catholic, Roman Catholic, or Not Religious to DENOM.] When it comes to your religious faith, would you say you are Pentecostal, fundamentalist, evangelical, mainline Protestant, or theologically liberal? (RELID97S) EXPAND/COLLAPSE
  • RELID97S from Southern Focus Poll, Non-South Survey, 1999LEARN MORE
    • When it comes to your religious faith, would you say you are Pentecostal, fundamentalist, evangelical, mainline Protestant, or theologically liberal? [ASKED ONLY OF RESPONDENTS WHO ANSWERED PROTESTANT OR CHRISTIAN OR JUST CHRISTIAN TO RELAFFL AND DID NOT ANSWER CHRISTIAN SCIENCE, CATHOLIC, ROMAN CATHOLIC, OR NOT RELIGIOUS TO RELAFCHK] (RELID97S) EXPAND/COLLAPSE
  • FUNDAM from National Survey of Family Growth - Wave 6 (2002) Female Respondent FileLEARN MORE
    • Please look at Card 80. Which of these do you consider yourself to be, if any? (FUNDAM) EXPAND/COLLAPSE
  • RELIGID from Lilly Survey of Attitudes and Social NetworksLEARN MORE
    • [If RELIG=1 or 3] When it comes to your religious identity, would you say you are a fundamentalist, evangelical, mainline, or theologically liberal Christian, or do none of these describe you? (RELIGID) EXPAND/COLLAPSE
  • FUNDAM from National Survey of Family Growth - Wave 6 (2002) Male Respondent FileLEARN MORE
    • Please look at card 80. Which of these do you consider yourself to be, if any? (FUNDAM) EXPAND/COLLAPSE
  • IDENT06 from National Congregations Study, Panel Dataset (1998 and 2006-2007)LEARN MORE
    • (identity_06) When it comes to the overall religious identity or culture of your congregation, would you say that your congregation tends to be fundamentalist, evangelical, mainline, liberal, or do none of those terms describe your congregation well? (Asked only of Protestant congregations) (IDENT06) EXPAND/COLLAPSE
  • PRPROT1 from National Study of Youth and Religion, Wave 3 (2007-2008)LEARN MORE
    • (prprot1_w3) [IF REPORTS PROTESTANT (NOT BUDDHIST, CATHOLIC, CHRISTIAN SCHIENCE, HINDU, MUSLIM OR ISLAMIC, JEWISH, LATTER DAY SAINT(S) OR MORMON, NATIVE AMERICAN, ORTHODOX OR ROMAN CATHOLIC, PAGAN, UNITY CHURCH, OR WICCAN] F:25. Thinking about your own religious faith, would you describe yourself as a . . . (PRPROT1) EXPAND/COLLAPSE
  • RELGSID from Faith and Family in America, 2005LEARN MORE
    • (IF PROTESTANT OR OTHER CHRISTIAN) When it comes to your religious identity, would you say you are fundamentalist, evangelical, charismatic, Pentecostal, mainline, liberal Protestant, or do none of these describe you? (RELGSID) EXPAND/COLLAPSE
  • RELID97S from Southern Focus Poll, South Survey, Spring 2001LEARN MORE
    • [ASK ONLY IF RELAFFL= 1 PROTESTANT OR 6 CHRISTIAN OR JUST CHRISTIAN AND DENOM= 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 16, 17, 18, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, OR 52]When it comes to your religious faith, would you say you are Pentecostal, fundamentalist, evangelical, mainline Protestant, or theologically liberal? (RELID97S) EXPAND/COLLAPSE
  • PROTTYPE from Religion and Diversity Survey, 2002-2003LEARN MORE
    • [IF RELIGION= 1 PROTESTANT OR DENOMINA= 1-36]: When it comes to your religious identity, would you say you are a fundamentalist, evangelical, mainline, or liberal Protestant, or do none of these describe you? (PROTTYPE) EXPAND/COLLAPSE
  • PROTTYP2 from Religion and Diversity Survey, 2002-2003LEARN MORE
    • [IF PROTTYPE= 5 NONE or 6 OTHER] If you were to pick a label that came closest, would you say fundamentalist, evangelical, mainline, or liberal? (PROTTYP2) EXPAND/COLLAPSE
  • RELID97S from Southern Focus Poll, Non-South Survey, Fall 1999LEARN MORE
    • [ASKED ONLY OF RESPONDENTS WHO ANSWERED PROTESTANT OR CHRISTIAN OR JUST A CHRISTIAN TO RELAFFL AND DID NOT ANSWER CHRISTIAN SCIENCE, CATHOLIC, ROMAN CATHOLIC, OR NOT RELIGIOUS TO DENOM. OPEN-ENDED RESPONSES FROM THOSE WHO ANSWERED OTHER ARE CODED IN THE DATASET AS OTHRELID.] When it comes to your religious faith, would you say you are Pentecostal, Fundamentalist, Evangelical, Mainline Protestant, or theologically liberal? (RELID97S) EXPAND/COLLAPSE
  • RELID97S from Southern Focus Poll, Non-South Survey, Spring 2000LEARN MORE
    • [ASK ONLY IF RELAFFL= 1 PROTESTANT OR 6 CHRISTIAN OR JUST CHRISTIAN AND DENOM= 11, 12, 13, 14, 17, 18, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 27, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 42, 45, 46, 48, 49, 50, OR 52] When it comes to your religious faith, would you say you are Pentecostal, fundamentalist, evangelical, mainline Protestant, or theologically liberal? (RELID97S) EXPAND/COLLAPSE
  • RELID97S from Southern Focus Poll, Combined Sample, Spring 1999LEARN MORE
    • When it comes to your religious faith, would you say you are Pentecostal, fundamentalist, evangelical, mainline Protestant, or theologically liberal? NOTE: Asked only of respondents who answered Protestant or Christian or just Christian to RELAFFL AND did not answer Christian Science, Catholic, Roman Catholic, or Not Religious to RELAFCHK. Open-ended responses from those who answered Other are coded in the dataset as OTHRELID. (RELID97S) EXPAND/COLLAPSE
  • RELID97S from Southern Focus Poll, Southern Sample, Spring 1999LEARN MORE
    • When it comes to your religious faith, would you say you are Pentecostal, fundamentalist, evangelical, mainline Protestant, or theologically liberal? NOTE: Asked only of respondents who answered Protestant or Christian or just Christian to RELAFFL AND did not answer Christian Science, Catholic, Roman Catholic, or Not Religious to RELAFCHK. Open-ended responses from those who answered Other are coded in the dataset as OTHRELID. (RELID97S) EXPAND/COLLAPSE
  • PRPROT1 from National Study of Youth and Religion, Wave 1 (2003)LEARN MORE
    • P85. [If parent respondent is Protestant (i.e. not Buddhist, Catholic, Christian Science, Hindu, Muslim or Islamic, Jewish, Latter Day Saint(s) or Mormon, Native American, Orthodox or Roman Catholic, Pagan, Unity Church, or Wiccan)] [IF P84=1-8, 11-13, 15-30, 32-34, 36, 38, 40-44, 47, 49, 52-55, 57-59, 61, 62, OR 64-99] Thinking about your own religious faith, would you describe yourself as a: [READ LIST] (PRPROT1) EXPAND/COLLAPSE
  • PRPROT2 from National Study of Youth and Religion, Wave 1 (2003)LEARN MORE
    • P93. [If parent respondent is Protestant (i.e. not Buddhist, Catholic, Christian Science, Hindu, Muslim, or Islamic, Jewish, Latter Day Saint(s) or Mormon, Native American, Orthodox or Roman Catholic, Pagan, Unity Church, or Wiccan)][IF P92=1-8,11-13,15-30,32-34,36,38,40-44,47,49,52-55,57-59,61,62, OR 64-99] Thinking about your own religious faith, would you describe yourself as a: [READ LIST] (PRPROT2) EXPAND/COLLAPSE
  • VCF0128A from American National Election Studies, Cumulative Data File, 1948-2004LEARN MORE
    • Is your religious preference PROTESTANT, ROMAN CATHOLIC, JEWISH, or something else? (IF PROTESTANT OR OTHER:) What church or denomination is that? (see ARDA summary page for previous question wordings) (VCF0128A) EXPAND/COLLAPSE
  • RELID from Southern Focus Poll, South Survey, Fall 1996LEARN MORE
    • Thinking about your religious faith, would you describe yourself as a fundamentalist, evangelical, mainline Protestant, or theologically liberal Protestant? (RELID) EXPAND/COLLAPSE
  • RELIGID from General Social Survey, 1996LEARN MORE
    • IF PROTESTANT: When it comes to your religious identity, would you say you are a fundamentalist, evangelical, mainline, or liberal Protestant or do none of these describe you? (RELIGID) EXPAND/COLLAPSE
  • RELIGSID from Religion and Americas Role in the WorldLEARN MORE
    • (Asked only of those respondents who have Protestant or other Christian religious preference in RELIG1A) When it comes to your religious identity, would you say you are a fundamentalist, evangelical, charismatic, Pentecostal, mainline, liberal Protestant, or do none of these describe you? (RELIGSID) EXPAND/COLLAPSE
  • RI_1 from Portraits of American Life Study, 1st Wave, 2006LEARN MORE
    • [CATHOLICS: IF CI_1=4 OR CI_4=1, ASK RI_1 AND RI_2] Do you consider yourself a traditional Catholic, a progressive or liberal Catholic, a charismatic Catholic, or just Catholic? (RI_1) EXPAND/COLLAPSE
  • RI_3 from Portraits of American Life Study, 1st Wave, 2006LEARN MORE
    • [NON-CATHOLIC CHRISTIANS: IF CI_1=1 AND CI_4=2, DK, RF, ASK RI_3] Which of these best describes your religious faith or spirituality? (RI_3) EXPAND/COLLAPSE
  • RI_4 from Portraits of American Life Study, 1st Wave, 2006LEARN MORE
    • [IF RI_3=1-6, GO TO RI_4; ELSE GO TO RI_5; ADD CHECK TO PREVENT INTERVIEWERS FROM SELECTING SAME RESPONSE IN RI_3] Is there another one that is next best in describing your religious faith or spirituality? (Which?) (RI_4) EXPAND/COLLAPSE
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