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Cross-National Socio-Economic and Religion Data, 2011




Harris, J., Martin, R. R., Montminy, S., & Finke, R. (2019, February 10). Cross-National Socio-Economic and Religion Data, 2011.


This file assembles data from the 2010 United Nations Human Development Report (HDR), the 2011 edition of the Central Intelligence Agency's (CIA) World Factbook and ARDA researchers' coding of the 2008 US Department of State International Religious Freedom (IRF) report. It includes data on economic, social and demographic variables for 252 countries and nations around the world. This is an attempt to draw together numerous variables employed in cross-national research.

The ARDA has added five additional variables to the original data set to enhance the users' experience on our site.

Data File

Cases: 253
Variables: 239
Weight Variable: None

Data Collection

May 2011 - June 2011 (UN and CIA data); September 2009 - February 2010 (IRF data)

Funded By

Data collection was funded by the John Templeton Foundation.

Collection Procedures

The World Factbook is prepared by the Central Intelligence Agency for the use of US Government officials, and the style, format, coverage, and content are designed to meet their specific requirements. Information is provided by Antarctic Information Program (National Science Foundation), Armed Forces Medical Intelligence Center (Department of Defense), Bureau of the Census (Department of Commerce), Bureau of Labor Statistics (Department of Labor), Central Intelligence Agency, Council of Managers of National Antarctic Programs, Defense Intelligence Agency (Department of Defense), Department of Energy, Department of State, Fish and Wildlife Service (Department of the Interior), Maritime Administration (Department of Transportation), National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (Department of Defense), Naval Facilities Engineering Command (Department of Defense), Office of Insular Affairs (Department of the Interior), Office of Naval Intelligence (Department of Defense), US Board on Geographic Names (Department of the Interior), US Transportation Command (Department of Defense), Oil & Gas Journal, and other public and private sources.

For information on collection and coding of the 2008 International Religious Freedom reports, please see the following link:

Sampling Procedures

Summary data for each nation was collected from the online resources provided by the CIA World Factbook, the United Nations Human Development Report and the U.S. Department of State's International Religious Freedom Reports. The data includes 236 summary statistics for nations and countries around the world are provided.

Variables with names beginning with the prefix "UN" are derived from the United Nations Human Development Report, and variables with names beginning with the prefix "CIA" are derived from the CIA's World Factbook.

Principal Investigators

The Association of Religion Data Archives
Jaime Harris, Project Manager for International Data
Robert R. Martin, Research Associate
Sarah Montminy, Research Assistant
Roger Finke, Director

Note 1: CIA Measurement Years

Measures in the CIA's World Factbook were not all collected in the same year. This means that there is variation by country on when a particular variable was measured. The list of the variables derived from World Factbook data shown below identifies the range of years that a particular variable was measured across countries. For instance, the entry for CIAPOP11 (Total population) identifies that the earliest year that population was measured and reported for a country in the 2011 World Factbook was 2009 and that the most recent year population was measured for a country was 2011. If a variable is noted as having been measured in "2011-2011," all countries in the World Factbook were measured in the year 2011 on that variable.

CIATAREA: 2011-2011
CIALAREA: 2011-2011
CIAWAREA: 2011-2011
CIABORD: 2011-2011
CIACSTL: 2011-2011
CIAPOP11: 2008-2011
CIAPSTR1: 2009-2011
CIAPSTR2: 2009-2011
CIAPSTR3: 2009-2011
CIAPOPGR: 2009-2011
CIABIRTH: 2011-2011
CIAMORT: 2009-2011
CIAMIGR: 2008-2011
CIAURB_P: 2008-2010
CIAURB_R: 2005/10-2010/15 (this indicates that the rate of urbanization was measured in some countries from 2005 to 2010 and in other countries was estimated from 2010 to 2015)
CIAINF_T: 2011-2011
CIAINF_M: 2011-2011
CIAINF_F: 2011-2011
CIALIFEX: 2009-2011
CIALIF_M: 2009-2011
CIALIF_F: 2009-2011
CIA_TFR: 2009-2011
CIA_HIVR: 2001-2009
CIA_HIVP: 1997-2009
CIALIT_T: 1969-2008
CIALIT_M: 1969-2008
CIALIT_F: 1969-2008
CIAEDEX: 2003-2009
CIAGDPPP: 1993-2010
CIAGDPOF: 2000-2010
CIAGDPAG: 1994-2010
CIAGDPIN: 1994-2010
CIAGDPSV: 1994-2010
CIALABOR: 1990-2010
CIAUNEMP: 1992-2010
CIAPOVL: 1989-2010
CIAINVST: 2006-2010
CIA_REV: 1987-2010
CIA_EXPN: 1987-2010
CIAPDEBT: 2004-2010
CIAINFLA: 1995-2010
CIAINGRO: 2000-2010
CIAELPRO: 2002-2010
CIAELCON: 2002-2010
CIAELEX: 2002-2010
CIAELIMS: 2002-2010
CIAOIL_P: 2007-2010
CIAOIL_C: 2009-2010
CIAOIL_E: 2005-2010
CIAOIL_I: 2005-2010
CIAOIL_R: 2008-2011
CIANG_P: 2007-2010
CIANG_C: 2007-2010
CIANG_E: 2008-2010
CIANG_I: 2008-2010
CIANG_R: 2006-2011
CIA_ACC: 1999-2010
CIAEXPRT: 2000-2010
CIAIMPRT: 2000-2010
CIA_RSRV: 2003-2010
CIADEBTX: 1996-2010
CIATELE1: 1992-2010
CIATELE2: 1999-2010
CIANET1: 2010-2010
CIANET2: 2001-2010
CIA_AIR1: 2010-2010
CIA_AIR2: 2010-2010
CIA_AIR3: 2010-2010
CIA_HELI: 2010-2010
CIA_RAIL: 2007-2011
CIA_ROAD: 1999-2011
CIA_WW: 2003-2011
CIA_MILX: 2005-2010

Additional Information on Selected Variables - International Religious Freedom Reports

Government Regulation of Religion Index (Grim and Finke, 2006): Scale 0-10, lower score indicates less regulation

Government Favoritism of Religion Index (Grim and Finke, 2006): Scale 0-10, lower score indicates less favoritism

Modified Social Regulation of Religion Index: Scale 0-10, lower score indicates less regulation. The Social Regulation of Religion Index (SRI) has been altered in this wave of coding. The Modified Social Regulation of Religion Index (MSRI) is calculated by (a) transforming a country's value on each of the five variables listed below so that they have ranges from zero to one, (b) taking the sum of the five transformed values and (c) multiplying the sum by two. Countries may have MSRI values between zero and ten.

Variables from the coding of 2008 International Religious Freedom Reports that comprise the Modified Social Regulation of Religion Index (MSRI):
OTHREL08: Societal attitudes toward other or nontraditional religions are reported to be...
PROSE208: According to the Report, do traditional attitudes and/or edits of the clerical establishment strongly discourage proselytizing, that is, trying to win converts?
ESTAB08: According to the Report, do established or existing religions try to shut out new religions in any way?
INTOLE08: According to the Report, are citizens intolerant of "nontraditional" faiths, that is, groups they perceive as new religions?
NONTRA08: According to the Report, how does the Report characterize citizens' receptivity to proselytizing by nontraditional faiths or faiths other than their own?

Country-level values on each of the variables that make up the MSRI are available for download from the ARDA in the International Religious Freedom Data, 2008 file (see See Grim and Finke, 2006 for a detailed description of the original Social Regulation of Religion Index (SRI).

Additional Information on Selected Variables - United Nations Human Development Report

Much of the information below is reproduced from the Notes and Bibliography and Technical Notes sections of the 2010 UN Human Development Report.

These variables report the UN Human Development Index (HDI), compare a country's score on the HDI to other countries' scores and describe change in scores on the HDI. The HDI is a composite index measuring average achievement in three basic dimensions of human development: a long and healthy life (measured by life expectancy at birth), knowledge (measured by both mean and expected years of schooling) and a decent standard of living (measured by per capita Gross National Income, PPP US$).

Inequality-adjusted Human Development Index. This measure adjusts a country's HDI score based on its scores on three additional indexes: the inequality-adjusted life expectancy index, the inequality-adjusted education index and the inequality-adjusted income index.

Income Gini coefficient. This is a measure of the deviation of the distribution of income (or consumption) among individuals or households within a country from a perfectly equal distribution. A Lorenz curve plots the cumulative percentages of total income received against the cumulative number of recipients, starting with the poorest individual or household. The Gini index measures the area between the Lorenz curve and a hypothetical line of absolute equality, expressed as a percentage of the maximum area under the line. A value of zero represents absolute equality, a value of 100 absolute inequality.

These variables report a country's score on the Gender Inequality Index and their rank among countries on this measure. The Gender Inequality Index is a composite index measuring loss in achievements in three dimensions of human development: reproductive health (measured by the maternal mortality ratio and the adolescent fertility rate), empowerment (measured by the female and male population with at least a secondary education and by the female and male shares of parliamentary seats) and the labor market due to inequality between genders (measured by female and male labor force participation rates).

The maternal mortality ratio. This is a measure of the number of maternal deaths, expressed per 100,000 live births. Maternal death is defined as the death of a woman while pregnant or within 42 days after terminating a pregnancy, regardless of the length and site of the pregnancy, due to any cause related to or aggravated by the pregnancy itself or its care but not due to accidental or incidental causes.

Adolescent fertility rate. This measures the number of births to women age 15 through 19, expressed per 1,000 women of the same age.

Contraceptive prevalence rate, any method. This indicates the percentage of women of reproductive age (ages 15 through 49) who are using, or whose partners are using, any form of contraception, whether modern or traditional.

Multidimensional Poverty Index. This indicates the share of the population that is multidimensionally poor adjusted by the intensity of the deprivations.

Dependency ratio per 100 people ages 15 through 64 in 1990 and 2010. The dependency ratio is the ratio of the population ages 0 through 14 and ages 65 and older to the working-age population (ages 15 through 64) as expressed as the number of dependents per 100 people ages 15 through 64.

Total and projected total fertility rate. The total fertility rate is the number of children that would be born to each woman if she were to live to the end of her child-bearing years and bear children at each age in accordance with prevailing age-specific fertility rates.

Gross and net enrollment ratios. The gross enrollment ratio is the total enrollment in a given level of education, regardless of age, expressed as a percentage of the official school-age population for the same level of education. The net enrollment ratio is the total enrollment in a given level of education of the official age for that level, expressed as a percentage of the total population of the same age group.

Measures of official development assistance. Official development assistance is the disbursements of loans made on concessional terms (net of repayments of principal) and grants by official agencies of the members of the Development Assistance Committee (DAC), by multilateral institutions and by non-DAC countries to promote economic development and welfare in countries and territories in part I of the DAC list of aid recipients, expressed as a percentage of the recipient country's GNI. It includes loans with a grant element of at least 25 percent (calculated at a discount rate of 10 percent).

These variables report, compare or adjust a country's gross domestic product. The gross domestic product is the sum of value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output, calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated capital assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Value added is the net output of an industry after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. When expressed in US dollar terms, it is converted using the average official exchange rate reported by the International Monetary Fund. An alternative conversion factor is applied if the official exchange rate is judged to diverge by an exceptionally large margin from the rate effectively applied to transactions in foreign currencies and traded products. When expressed in purchasing power parity (PPP) US dollar terms, it is converted to international
dollars using PPP rates. The international dollar has the same purchasing power over GDP that the US dollar has in the United States. The gross domestic product per capita is expressed in US dollar terms, divided by mid-year population. When expressed as an average annual growth rate, the least squares annual growth rate is used with constant GDP per capita data in local currency units.

Additional Information on Selected Variables - The World Factbook (CIA)

Much of the information below is reproduced from the Definitions and Notes section of the World Factbook. For more information, see the following link:

Measures of country area in square kilometers. Total area is the sum of all land and water areas delimited by international boundaries and/or coastlines. Land area is the aggregate of all surfaces delimited by international boundaries and/or coastlines, excluding inland water bodies (lakes, reservoirs, rivers). Water area is the sum of the surfaces of all inland water bodies, such as lakes, reservoirs, or rivers, as delimited by international boundaries and/or coastlines.

Net migration rate per 1,000 population. This measure describes the difference between the number of persons entering a country and the number of persons leaving that country during a year per 1,000 people in the mid-year population.

Fall 2012 Update

Note: This file was updated in 2012 to correct an error in the calculation of GRI2008. To view the earlier calculation of GRI2008 for replication purposes, please access the "Data from the ARDA National Profiles, 2011 Update: Religion Indexes, Adherents and Other Data" file.

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