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Longitudinal Study of the Second Generation in Spain, Waves 1, 2 and Parent Survey




Portes, A., Aparicio, R., & Haller, W. (2021, January 8). Longitudinal Study of the Second Generation in Spain, Waves 1, 2 and Parent Survey.


This data archive provides the first large-scale longitudinal study of children of immigrants (one or both parents born abroad or brought to the host country at or before age five) and immigrant children (the 1.5 generation: older than age five but still in their childhood or adolescence) successfully carried out in Spain, or any Western European country. It was designed to replicate the Children of Immigrants Longitudinal Study carried out in the United States in the 1990s and early 2000s. For Wave 1, almost 7,000 children of immigrants attending basic secondary school in close to 200 educational centers in both cities took part in the study.

The original survey was conducted in 2007-2008; four years later, the same sample was traced and re-interviewed either at school, via telephone, or through contact in the social media (Facebook and Twitter). Through these means, the research team was able to identify and re-interview 73 percent of the original sample for which retrieval information was available. An additional replacement sample of over 1,500 second generation youths of the same average age as the original respondents was interviewed in the same schools in which the original study took place. Finally, and for comparative purposes, a sample of approximately 1,600 native-parentage Spanish youths was interviewed at the same time.

Together the surveys cover all relevant aspects of adaptation and psycho-social development in late childhood and adolescence, including educational achievement and aspirations; labor market participation, occupation, and income; family structure and inter-generational relations; language knowledge, preferences, and use; friends' national origins and educational plans; national self-identification, self-esteem, and other psychological outcomes, and religion. To supplement the information from immigrant children, the study also conducted a person-to-person survey of 25 percent of their parents in 2010. They were interviewed in Spanish or in their native language. The parental survey is representative of the earlier studies sample, including near identical proportions of all foreign nationalities present in the latter.

Data File

Cases: 10454
Variables: 352
Weight Variable: None

Data Collection

Wave 1: 2008 - 2009; Parental Subsample Survey: 2010; Wave 2: 2011 - 2012

Original Survey (Instrument)

ILSEG Questionnaire Phases I & II

Funded By

Spencer Foundation, Spanish National Research Council (Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, CSIC)

Collection Procedures

Survey questionnaires distributed among all available students in the target population (children of immigrants and immigrant children, and there was a native comparison subsample). Other tracking and follow-up methods (phone, email, mailings, etc.) were used to supplement for those who were absent or unavailable.

Sampling Procedures

Schools in the greater metropolitan areas of Madrid and Barcelona were the primary sampling units, and selected randomly. All students meeting the target population criteria in each selected school were recruited for the study.

Principal Investigators

Alejandro Portes, Rosa Aparicio, and William Haller

Related Publications

Medvedeva, Maria and Alejandro Portes. Forthcoming. 'Bilingualism and Self-identity: The Case of Children of Immigrants in Spain.' Spanish Review of Sociological Research

Haller, William J. and Alejandro Portes. 2019. 'Class and Ambition In the Status Attainment Process: A Spanish Replication' British Journal of Sociology.

Portes, Alejandro, Rosa Aparicio, and William J. Haller. 2018. 'Hacerse Adulto en España: La Integración de las Segundas Generaciones' Anuario de las Migraciones 2018. Barcelona: Centre for International Affairs (CIDOB), p. 148-181.

Alejandro Portes, Rosa Aparicio, and William J. Haller. 2018. 'Rejoinder: General trends and exceptions in the incorporation of immigrant youths to host societies' Ethnic and Racial Studies. Vol. 41, No. 3, pp. 517-521.

Medvedeva, Maria and Alejandro Portes. 2017. 'Immigrant Bilingualism in Spain: An Asset or a Liability'. International Migration Review 51:632-661.

Portes, Alejandro, Rosa Aparicio, and William J. Haller. 2016. Spanish Legacies: The Coming of Age of the Second Generation. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Aparicio, Rosa and Alejandro Portes, with the collaboration of William J. Haller, Aaron Puhrman, Andrés Tornos, and Jessica Yiu. 2014. Crecer en España. La integración de los hijos de inmigrantes. Barcelona: La Caixa.
Catalan translation: Créixer a Espanya.La integració dels fills d'immigrants. Barcelona: La Caixa.

Portes, Alejandro and Rosa Aparicio. 2013. Investigación longitudinal sobre la segunda generación en España: reporte de avance. Analyses of the Elcano Royal Institute ARI, 26 August.

Portes, Alejandro, Erik Vickstrom, William J. Haller, and Rosa Aparicio. 2013. 'Dreaming in Spain: Parental Determinants of Immigrant Children's Ambition' Ethnic and Racial Studies. Vol. 36, No. 4, pp. 557-589.

Alarcón, Amado and Sonia Parella Rubio. 2013. "Linguistic Integration of the Descendants of Foreign Immigrants in Catalonia". Migraciones Internacionales 7: 101-130

Yiu, Jessica. 2013. "Calibrated Ambitions: Low Educational Ambition as a Form of Strategic Adaptation among Chinese Youths in Spain". International Migration Review 47: 573-611, online version Sept. 17, 2013.

Alarcón, Amado, Sonia Parella Rubio and Jessica Yiu. 2013. "Educational and Occupational Ambitions among Spanish Second Generation: the Case of Barcelona". Journal of Ethnic And Racial Studies 40: 1614-1636 (online version, 29 Sept. 2013).

Flores , Rene D. 2013. "The Resurgence of Race in Spain: Perceptions of Discrimination Experiences among Immigrants in Spain". Social Forces 94: 237-269

Portes, Alejandro, Adrienne Celaya, Erik Vickstrom, and Rosa Aparicio. 2012. "Who are We? Parental Influences on Self-identities and Self-esteem of Second Generation Youth in Spain". International Review of Sociology. 70:9-37

Portes, Alejandro, Erik Vickstrom and Rosa Aparicio. 2011. "Coming of Age in Spain: Self-identification, Beliefs, and Self-esteem of the Second Generation". British Journal of Sociology. 62:387-417

Portes, Alejandro and Alejandro Rivas. 2011. "The Adaptation of Migrant Children'. The Future of Children. 21:219-246

Portes, Alejandro, Rosa Aparicio, William J. Haller, and Erik Vickstrom. 2010. 'Moving Ahead in Madrid: Aspirations and Expectations in the Spanish Second Generation.' International Migration Review. Vol. 44, No. 4, pp. 767-801.
Spanish translation (Spain): Revista Española de Investigaciones Sociológicas. Vol 134, April/June (2011), pp. 55-86.

Portes, Alejandro, Rosa Aparicio, and William Haller. 2009. La Segunda Generación en Barcelona: Un Estudio Longitudinal.

Portes, Alejandro, Rosa Aparicio, and William Haller. 2009. La Segunda Generación en Madrid: Un Estudio Longitudinal. Madrid: Real Instituto Elcano, Boletín 113.

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