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The Millennial Trends Survey (MTS 2019)




Wilkins-Laflamme, S. (2022, August 30). The Millennial Trends Survey (MTS 2019).


The Millennial Trends Survey (MTS 2019) was administered online between March 4-27, 2019 in both English and French, by Sarah Wilkins-Laflamme at the University of Waterloo. The questionnaire contains a total of 69 questions on the respondent's sociodemographic characteristics, (non)religious and (non)spiritual affiliations, beliefs and practices, friendship networks as well as inclusivity attitudes. This survey was reviewed and received ethics clearance through the University of Waterloo's Research Ethics Committee.

A total of 2,514 respondents aged 18-35 completed the 15-minute web survey (1,508 from Canada and 1,006 from the U.S.). Respondents were recruited through Leger's panel of registered members to complete the survey hosted by the University of Waterloo's Survey Research Centre. Potential respondents were sent an e-mail invitation to complete the web survey, and then received reminders up to two times, if necessary. Age, gender, regional and education level quotas were applied during the initial random selection of respondents, and later monitored as responses came in to adjust further recruitment efforts and completes. Post-stratification weights were then created and applied to the statistical analyses in order to achieve greater young adult population representativeness on the variables of country of birth, household income, and race/ethnicity. The final response rate for the MTS 2019 was 6.5 percent: lower than the 10-15 percent response rates common for online surveys, mainly because of the additional recruitment efforts to fill some of the harder to reach quotas (notably young adult males with no university education). Additional details can be found in the Millennial Trends Survey - Technical Report document (Technical Report is attached to the original survey below - after page 55).

Data File

Cases: 2514
Variables: 187

Post-stratification weights were based on Statistics Canada Census and U.S. Census bureau American Community Survey data with regards to the size of young adult subpopulations. Two weighting variables were generated based on young adult (18-35) population age, gender, Census region of residence, level of education, country of birth, household income and race/ethnicity parameters: one for the Canadian subsample (weightCND_final), and one for the American subsample (weightUSA_final). These weighting variables were generated using a sequential iterative technique.

Data Collection

March 4 - 27, 2019

Original Survey (Instrument)

Millennial Trends Survey 2019 (Codebook and Technical Report)

Funded By

Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council (SSHRC) of Canada Insight Development program

Collection Procedures

Online self-administered survey.

Sampling Procedures

Random selection, with applied socio-demographic quotas, from Leger's larger online panel (opt in and random invitation) of registered members.

Principal Investigators

Sarah Wilkins-Laflamme, University of Waterloo

Related Publications

Wilkins-Laflamme, Sarah. Forthcoming. Religion, Spirituality and Secularity among Millennials: The Generation Shaping American and Canadian Trends. Routledge.

Wilkins-Laflamme, Sarah. 2021. "Digital Religion Among US and Canadian Millennial Adults." Review of Religious Research. 64: 225-248

Wilkins-Laflamme, Sarah. 2020. "Like Parent, Like Millennial: Inherited and Switched (Non)Religion Among Young Adults in the USA and Canada." Journal of Religion and Demography 7 (1): 123-149.

Wilkins-Laflamme, Sarah, and Joel Thiessen. 2020. "Religious Socialization and Millennial Involvement in Organized and Digital Nonbelief Activities." Secularism and Nonreligion 9 (2): 1-15.

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