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PRRI December 2016 Survey




Cox, D., & Jones, R. P. (2021, October 26). PRRI December 2016 Survey.


The Public Religion Research Institute (PRRI) December 2016 Survey explores how the recent presidential election impacted social relationships and holiday celebrations. It asks how family disagreements over politics might impact holiday plans, and if Americans are blocking 'friends' on social media for sharing their political views. The survey also gauges views on which holiday greeting -- 'Happy Holidays' or 'Merry Christmas' -- stores and businesses should use to greet customers. Finally, the survey asks the public whether those celebrating Christmas view it as a religious or secular holiday.

The ARDA has added three additional variables to the original data set to enhance the users' experience on our site.

Data File

Cases: 1004
Variables: 62
Weight Variable: WEIGHT

The weighting is accomplished in two separate stages. The first stage of weighting corrects for different probabilities of selection associated with the number of adults in each household and each respondent's telephone usage patterns. In the second stage, sample demographics are balanced to match target population parameters for gender, age, education, race and Hispanic ethnicity, region (U.S. Census definitions), population density and telephone usage. The population density parameter was derived from Census 2010 data. The telephone usage parameter came from an analysis of the July-December 2015 National Health Interview Survey. All other weighting parameters are derived from an analysis of the U.S. Census Bureau's May 2016 Current Population Survey.

The sample weighting is accomplished using an iterative proportional fitting (IFP) process that simultaneously balances the distributions of all variables. Weights were trimmed to prevent individual interviews from having too much influence on the final results. The use of these weights in statistical analysis ensures that the demographic characteristics of the sample closely approximate the demographic characteristics of the target population.

Data Collection

December 7-11, 2016

Original Survey (Instrument)

PRRI December 2016 Survey

Funded By

The survey was made possible by generous grants from the Nathan Cummings Foundation and the Ford Foundation.

Collection Procedures

Data collection is based on stratified, single-stage, random-digit-dialing (RDD) sample of landline telephone households and randomly generated cell phone numbers. The sample is designed to represent the total U.S. adult population and includes respondents from all 50 states, including Hawaii and Alaska. The landline and cell phone samples are provided by Marketing Systems Group.

Sampling Procedures

The survey was designed and conducted by PRRI. Results of the survey were based on bilingual (Spanish and English) RDD telephone interviews conducted Dec. 7-11, 2016, by professional interviewers under the direction of SSRS. Interviews were conducted among a random sample of 1,004 adults 18 years of age or older living in the United States (615 respondents were interviewed on a cell phone). The selection of respondents within households was accomplished by randomly requesting to speak with the youngest adult male or female currently living in the household.

The margin of error for the survey is +/- 3.6 percentage points at the 95 percent level of confidence. The design effect for the survey is 1.4. In addition to sampling error, surveys may also be subject to error or bias due to question wording, context and order effects.

Principal Investigators

Daniel Cox and Robert P. Jones

Related Publications

'Merry Christmas' vs. 'Happy Holidays': Republicans and Democrats are Polar Opposites

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