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PRRI April 2019 Survey




Jones, R. P., Jackson, N., Najle, M. B., Bola, O., & Greenberg, D. L. (2022, September 29). PRRI April 2019 Survey.


The PRRI April 2019 Survey survey was designed and conducted by the Public Religion Research Institute (PRRI) and includes a number of question items on public opinion surrounding LGBTQ rights and the perception and presence of LGBTQ people in respondents' communities. Respondents are asked for their view on many popular issues such as the ability of those in the LGBTQ community to adopt children and serve in the military, the ability of transgender people to use the bathroom of their biological sex or personally identified gender, and the ability of people in public life to refuse services to those in the LGBTQ community for religious or non-religious reasons.

The survey was made possible by generous grants from the Arcus Foundation and the E. Rhodes and Leona B. Carpenter Foundation. Results of the survey were based on bilingual (Spanish and English) RDD telephone interviews conducted between April 9 and April 20, 2019 by professional interviewers under the direction of SSRS. Interviews were conducted among a random sample of 1,100 adults, 18 years of age or older, living in the United States (668 respondents were interviewed on a cell phone). The survey also over-sampled those living in Texas (150). The selection of respondents within households was accomplished by randomly requesting to speak with the youngest adult male or female currently living in the household.

The ARDA has added five additional variables to the original data set to enhance the users' experience on our site.

Data File

Cases: 1100
Variables: 117
Weight Variable: WEIGHT

The SSRS Omnibus insert was weighted to provide nationally representative and projectable estimates of the adult population 18 years of age and older, as well as the adult population in Texas. The weighting process took into account the disproportionate probabilities of household and respondent selection due to the number of separate telephone landlines and cell phones answered by respondents and their households, as well as the probability associated with the random selection of an individual household member. Following application of the above weights, the sample was post- stratified and balanced by key demographics such as age, race, sex, region and education. The sample was also weighted to reflect the distribution of phone usage in the general population, meaning the proportion of those who are cell phone only, landline only and mixed users.

With the base weight applied, the sample underwent the process of iterative proportional fitting (IPF), in which the sample was balanced to match known adult population parameters based on the most recent March Supplement of the U.S. Census Bureau's Current Population Survey (CPS)1. This process of weighting was repeated until the root mean square error for the differences between the sample and the population parameters was 0 or near-zero. Two raking groups were used to account for the national and the oversample of Texas.

The national population parameters used for post-stratification are: age (18-29, 30- 49, 50-64, 65+); gender; census region (Northeast, North-Central, South, West); education (less than high school, high school graduate, some college, four-year college or more); race/ethnicity (white non-Hispanic; Black non-Hispanic; Hispanic and born in the U.S.; Hispanic and born outside of the U.S., other, non-Hispanic); marital status (married/not married); population density (divided into quintiles) and phone usage (cell phone only, landline only, both).

The Texas parameters used for post-stratification are: age (TX 18-29, TX 30-49, TX 50-64, TX 65+); gender (TX male, TX female); education (TX less than high school, TX high school graduate, TX some college, TX four-year college or more); race/ethnicity (TX white non-Hispanic, TX Black non-Hispanic, TX Hispanic and born in the U.S., TX Hispanic and born outside of the U.S., TX Other non-Hispanic); and phone usage (TX cell phone only, TX landline only, TX both). The sample weighting is accomplished using an iterative proportional fitting (IFP) process that simultaneously balances the distributions of all variables. Weights were trimmed to prevent individual interviews from having too much influence on the final results. The use of these weights in statistical analysis ensures that the demographic characteristics of the sample closely approximate the demographic characteristics of the target populations.

The margin of error for the survey is +/- 3.5 percentage points at the 95 percent level of confidence. The design effect for the survey is 1.39. In addition to sampling error, surveys may also be subject to error or bias due to question wording, context and order effects.

Data Collection

April 9-20, 2019

Original Survey (Instrument)

PRRI April 2019 Survey

Funded By

The PRRI April 2019 survey was made possible by generous grants from the Arcus Foundation and the E. Rhodes and Leona B. Carpenter Foundation.

Sampling Procedures

Data collection is based on stratified, single-stage, random-digit-dialing (RDD) sample of landline telephone households and randomly generated cell phone numbers. The sample is designed to represent the total U.S. adult population and includes respondents from all 50 states, including Hawaii and Alaska. The landline and cell phone samples are provided by Marketing Systems Group.

Principal Investigators

Robert P. Jones, Ph.D., Natalie Jackson, Ph.D., Maxine Najle, Ph.D., Oyindamola Bola and Daniel Greenberg

Related Publications

Robert P. Jones, Natalie Jackson, Maxine Najle, Oyindamola Bola, and Daniel Greenberg. "Increasing Support for Religiously Based Service Refusals." PRRI (June 10, 2019).

Robert P. Jones, Natalie Jackson, Maxine Najle, Oyindamola Bola, and Daniel Greenberg. "America's Growing Support for Transgender Rights." PRRI (June 10, 2019).

Susan Risdon. "New Poll Shows Increasing Support for Transgender Rights." Equality Texas (June 12, 2019).

"Broad Support for LGBT Rights Across all 50 States: Findings from the 2019 American Values Atlas." PRRI (April 14, 2020).

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