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Party Variation in Religiosity and Womens Leadership, Europe and Israel Dataset




Kassem, F. S. (2020, April 16). Party Variation in Religiosity and Womens Leadership, Europe and Israel Dataset


These data were collected for a study of how the characteristics of political parties influence women's chances in assuming leadership positions within the parties' inner structures. Data were compiled by Fatima Sbaity Kassem for a case-study of Lebanon and by national and local researchers for 25 other countries in Asia, Africa and Europe. The researchers collected raw data on women in politics from party administrators and government officials. Researchers gathered information about parties' year of origin, number of seats in parliament, political platform, and all gender-disaggregated party data (in percentages) on overall party membership, shares in executive and decision-making bodies, and nominations on electoral lists. A key variable measures party religiosity, which refers to the religious components on their political platforms or the extent to which religion penetrates their political agendas.

Only parties that have at least one seat in any of the last three parliaments were included. These are referred to as 'relevant' parties. The four data sets combined cover 330 political parties in Lebanon plus 12 other Arab countries (Algeria, Bahrain, Comoros, Djibouti, Egypt, Jordan, Kuwait, Mauritania, Morocco, Palestine, Tunisia, and Yemen), seven non-Arab Muslim-majority countries (Albania, Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Indonesia, Senegal, and Turkey), five European countries with dominant Christian democratic parties (Austria, Belgium, Italy, Germany, and the Netherlands), and Israel.

Data File

Cases: 68
Variables: 19
Weight Variable: None

Data Collection

January 2008 through December 2010

Funded By

Fatima Sbaity Kassem

Collection Procedures

Data were collected in person and via one-on-one interviews with party administrators, officials, and elites.

Sampling Procedures

This study covered 26 countries in Asia, Africa and Europe which: (1) have comparable ranking on democracy in Polity IV; (2) hold periodic elections; and (3) allow parties to form and compete. Countries in the Arab and non-Arab Muslim-majority data sets are those with more than 50 percent Muslim populations. The five European countries are the Kalyvas set that have dominant Christian democratic parties. Israel is the only country with Jewish political parties. Only the countries that hold periodic elections and allow parties to form in the Arab and non-Arab Muslim-majority (more than 50 percent of population) are covered in the datasets. Within these countries and guided by Sartori, only "relevant" political parties are covered; i.e. those that occupy at least one seat in any of the last three parliaments in the countries in question.

Principal Investigators

Fatima Sbaity Kassem

Research assistants: Mona Fadhel (Bahrain), Fatouma Hadji Djaffar (Comoros), Amina Said Chire (Djibouti), Nahed Nassr (Egypt), Raedah Farahat (Jordan), Lubna Al-Kazi (Kuwait), Ely Cheikh Ould Aghailass (Mauritania), Idriss Lagrini (Morocco), Mohamed Saadi (Morocco), Mohamed El-Ghali (Morocco), Sabah Ikhmayees (Palestine), Boutheina Gribaa (Tunisia), Rashida Hamadani (Yemen), Jeta Katro (Albania), Hamid Awaludin (Indonesia), Ihsan Ali Fauzi (Indonesia), Selly Ba (Senegal), Penda Mbow (Senegal), Serpil Cakir (Turkey), Alten Ayken (Turkey), Zakir Hossain (Bangladesh), Mirjana Penava (Bosnia-Herzegovina), Palwasha Hassan (Afghanistan), Ulrike Felber (Austria), Olaf Boehnke (Germany), Marina Adrianopoli (Italy), Michele Pecora (Italy), Christian DeClercq (Belgium), Mirte Postma (Netherlands), Hanna Lerner (Israel), Noa On (Israel)

Party identification


AUS01 Social Democrats (SPO)
AUS02 Austrian People's Party (OVP)
AUS03 Green Alternative (GRUNE)
AUS04 Freedom Party (FPO)
AUS05 Alliance for Future (BZO)


BEL01 Socialist Party French (PS)
BEL02 Green Party (Ecolo)
BEL03 Reformist Movement (MR)
BEL04 Flemish Liberals (Open Vld)
BEL05 Flemish Christian Democratic (CD&V)
BEL06 Humanist Democratic Centre, French, (CdH)
BEL07 Flemish Interest (Vlaams Belang) (VB)
BEL08 Lijst Dedecker (LDD)
BEL09 National Front French (FN)
BEL10 Flemish Liberals Spirit and SPA


GER01 Liberal Democratic (FDP)
GER02 Christian Social Union (CSU)
GER03 Christian Democratic Union (CDU)
GER04 Social Democratic Party (SPD)
GER05 Communist Party (Die Linke)
GER06 The Green Party (Die Grunen)


ITA01 People of Freedom
ITA02 Democratic (PD/DLULV)
ITA03 Forward Italy (Forza)
ITA04 National Alliance (Alleanza)
ITA05 Communist Refoundation (PRC)
ITA06 Union of Christian and Centre Democrats (UDC)
ITA07 Christian Democrat Auto. (DCA/PSI)
ITA08 North League (Lega Nord)
ITA09 Democratic Left (SD)
ITA10 Italy of Values (Italia dei Valori)
ITA11 Socialist and Radical (RN)
ITA12 Communist (PdCI)
ITA13 Federation of Greens (Verdi)
ITA14 Popolari Udeur (PPI)
ITA15 Misto-M-Linguistiche
ITA16 Movement Autonomies (MPA)
ITA17 Misto Republ. Liberals (M-RLR)
ITA18 Misto (La Destra)
ITA19 Socialist for Constitution (SDI)
ITA20 Republican (PRI)


NTH01 Christian Dem. Appeal (CDA)
NTH02 Labor Party (PvdA)
NTH03 Socialist Party (SP)
NTH04 Freedom & Democracy (VVD)
NTH05 Party for Freedom (PVV)
NTH06 Green Left (GL)
NTH07 Christian Union (CU)
NTH08 Democrats (D66)
NTH09 Animal Welfare Party (PvdD)
NTH10 Reformed Political Party (SGP)
NTH11 Trots of Netherlands (TON)


ISR01 Kadima
ISR02 Labor
ISR03 Likud
ISR04 Shas
ISR05 Israel Beytenu
ISR06 National Union Mafdal
ISR07 Gimla'ey Israel (GIL)
ISR08 Torah & Shabbat Judaism
ISR09 Meretz
ISR10 Shinui
ISR11 United Arab List Raam-Tal
ISR12 Democratic Peace & Equality Hadash
ISR13 National Democratic Alliance Balad
ISR14 National Religious Habeit
ISR16 Echad
ISR17 Israel Ba'alia

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