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Party Variation in Religiosity and Womens Leadership, Non-Arab Muslim Majority Countries Dataset




Kassem, F. S. (2021, September 22). Party Variation in Religiosity and Womens Leadership, Non-Arab Muslim Majority Countries Dataset.


These data were collected for a study of how the characteristics of political parties influence women's chances in assuming leadership positions within the parties' inner structures. Data were compiled by Fatima Sbaity Kassem for a case-study of Lebanon and by national and local researchers for 25 other countries in Asia, Africa and Europe. The researchers collected raw data on women in politics from party administrators and government officials. Researchers gathered information about parties' year of origin, number of seats in parliament, political platform, and all gender-disaggregated party data (in percentages) on overall party membership, shares in executive and decision-making bodies, and nominations on electoral lists. A key variable measures party religiosity, which refers to the religious components on their political platforms or the extent to which religion penetrates their political agendas.

Only parties that have at least one seat in any of the last three parliaments were included. These are referred to as 'relevant' parties. The four data sets combined cover 330 political parties in Lebanon plus 12 other Arab countries (Algeria, Bahrain, Comoros, Djibouti, Egypt, Jordan, Kuwait, Mauritania, Morocco, Palestine, Tunisia, and Yemen), seven non-Arab Muslim-majority countries (Albania, Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Indonesia, Senegal, and Turkey), five European countries with dominant Christian democratic parties (Austria, Belgium, Italy, Germany, and the Netherlands), and Israel.

Data File

Cases: 98
Variables: 19
Weight Variable: None

Data Collection

January 2008 through December 2010

Funded By

Fatima Sbaity Kassem

Collection Procedures

Data were collected in person and via one-on-one interviews with party administrators, officials, and elites.

Sampling Procedures

This study covered 26 countries in Asia, Africa and Europe which: (1) have comparable ranking on democracy in Polity IV; (2) hold periodic elections; and (3) allow parties to form and compete. Countries in the Arab and non-Arab Muslim-majority data sets are those with more than 50 percent Muslim populations. The five European countries are the Kalyvas set that have dominant Christian democratic parties. Israel is the only country with Jewish political parties. Only the countries that hold periodic elections and allow parties to form in the Arab and non-Arab Muslim-majority (more than 50 percent of population) are covered in the datasets. Within these countries and guided by Sartori, only "relevant" political parties are covered; i.e., those that occupy at least one seat in any of the last three parliaments in the countries in question.

Principal Investigators

Fatima Sbaity Kassem

Research assistants: Mona Fadhel (Bahrain), Fatouma Hadji Djaffar (Comoros), Amina Said Chire (Djibouti), Nahed Nassr (Egypt), Raedah Farahat (Jordan), Lubna Al-Kazi (Kuwait), Ely Cheikh Ould Aghailass (Mauritania), Idriss Lagrini (Morocco), Mohamed Saadi (Morocco), Mohamed El-Ghali (Morocco), Sabah Ikhmayees (Palestine), Boutheina Gribaa (Tunisia), Rashida Hamadani (Yemen), Jeta Katro (Albania), Hamid Awaludin (Indonesia), Ihsan Ali Fauzi (Indonesia), Selly Ba (Senegal), Penda Mbow (Senegal), Serpil Cakir (Turkey), Alten Ayken (Turkey), Zakir Hossain (Bangladesh), Mirjana Penava (Bosnia-Herzegovina), Palwasha Hassan (Afghanistan), Ulrike Felber (Austria), Olaf Boehnke (Germany), Marina Adrianopoli (Italy), Michele Pecora (Italy), Christian DeClercq (Belgium), Mirte Postma (Netherlands), Hanna Lerner (Israel), Noa On (Israel)

Party identification


ALB01 Socialist Party
ALB02 Democratic Party
ALB03 Social Democratic Party
ALB04 Social Movement for Integration
ALB05 Republican Party


AFG01 Islamic Party
AFG02 Islamic Society
AFG03 Social Democratic Party
AFG04 Islamic Unity Wahdat
AFG05 National Solidarity
AFG06 Islamic Unity Mardum
AFG07 Islamic Movement of Afghanistan
AFG08 National Congress Party of Afghanistan (Hizb-e Kongra)
AFG09 Comprehensive Dem & Dev
AFG10 Solidarity (Hambastagi)
AFG11 National Dev. Taraqi Melli


BNG01 Awami League
BNG02 Nationalist Party
BNG03 Jama'at-e-Islami
BNG04 Jatia Party Irshad
BNG05 Communist Party
BNG06 Jatiyo Shomajtantrik Dal (INU)
BNG07 Workers Party
BNG08 Liberal Democratic (LDP)
BNG09 Bangladesh National (BJP-NF)
BNG10 Islamic Unity Front (Oikya)
BNG11 National Party (Manju)
BNG12 Jatiya Samajtantrik (RAB)
BNG13 Krishak Sramik Janata
BNG14 National Awami
BNG16 Gono Forum
BNG17 Bikalpa Dhara
BNG18 National People's Party (NPP)


BiH01 Social Democratic (SDP BiH)
BiH02 Alliance of Independent Social Democrats
BiH03 Democratic Progress (PDP)
BiH04 Democratic People Community
BiH05 Democratic People League
BiH06 Patriotic Party BPS
BiH07 People's Radom
BiH08 Party of Bosnia-Herzegovina
BiH09 Croatian Democratic Union
BiH10 Croatian Democratic (HDZ)
BiH11 Serbian Democratic Party
BiH12 Party of Democratic Action


IND01 United Development Party (PPP)
IND02 Democratic Struggle (PDI-P)
IND03 National Mandate (PAN)
IND04 Crescent Star (PBB)
IND05 Nation Functional (PKPB)
IND06 Nahdatul Ummah (PPNUI)
IND07 Functional Groups (GOLKAR)
IND08 National Awakening (PKB)
IND09 Democratic Party (PD)
IND10 Prosperous Justice (PKS)
IND11 Reform Star (PBR)
IND12 Prosperous Peace (PDS)
IND13 Vanguard (Pelopor)
IND14 Great Indonesia Gerinda
IND15 People's Conscience Hanura
IND16 Peduli Rakyat National (PPRN)


SEN01 Democratic Party (PDS)
SEN02 Alliance Progress Forces (AFP)
SEN03 Socialist Party (PSS)
SEN04 Union Dem. Renewal (URD)
SEN05 Dem League - Labor (LD/MPT)
SEN06 A-Jef Dem. & Socialism (AJ/PADS)
SEN07 National Dem. Rally (RND)
SEN08 Reform Social Dev. (MRDS)
SEN09 Coalition (WAAR-WI)
SEN10 Rally for People (RP)
SEN11 Alliance Progress Justice (JEF JEL)
SEN12 Independence & Work (PIT)
SEN13 Gainde centrist Bloc (BCG)
SEN14 Conv. Dem. & Patriots (CDP/GG)
SEN15 Coalition (Takku)
SEN16 National Patriotic Union (Tekki)
SEN17 Renewal & Citizenship (CRC)
SEN18 Authentic Socialist Party (PSA)
SEN19 Association of Ecologists in Senegal (RES)
SEN20 Socialism & Democratic (Benno Jubel)
SEN21 Patriotic Rally (Jammi/Rewmi)
SEN22 Social Democratic (Jant-Bi)
SEN23 Democratic Union Renovation (UDS-R)


TUR01 Justice & Development (AKP)
TUR02 Republican People's (CHP)
TUR03 Motherland (ANAP)
TUR04 Democratic Left (DSP)
TUR05 True Path (DYP)
TUR06 National Movement (MHP)
TUR07 Democratic Society (DTP)
TUR08 Freedom & Solidarity (ODP)
TUR09 New Turkey (YTP)
TUR10 Grand Unity (BBP)
TUR11 Felicity (SP)
TUR12 Islamic Virtue (FP)
TUR13 Homeland Party (YP)

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