Citations are taken from the Sociology of Religion Searchable Bibliographic Database, created and updated by Anthony J. Blasi (Ph.D. in Sociology, University of Notre Dame; University of Texas at San Antonio). The ARDA is not responsible for content or typographical errors.
  • Health differences between religious and secular subgroups in the United States:Evidence from the General Social Survey.
    Walker, Mark H., Leah Drakeford, Samuel Stroope, Joseph O. Baker, and Alexander L. Smith (2021)
    Review of Religious Research 63:1: 67-81.
    Analyzes 1988-2018 General Social Survey (U.S.A.) data. When compared to conservative Protestants, theistic nones & atheists had higher levels of self-rated health, agnostics & low-certainty nones did not differ from conservative Protestants.
    Associated Search Terms: Atheist; Belief; Health; United States
  • Making meaning without a maker: Secular consciousness through narrative and cultural practice.
    Smith, Jesse M., and Caitlin L. Halligan (2021)
    Sociology of Religion 82:1: 85-110
    Based on field work in Sunday Assembly (secular) congregations in the U.S.A. & U.K. A sense of otherness, appeals to normative values, & reframing of existential questions in secular terms play a role in the lives of this nonreligious community.
    Associated Search Terms: Atheist; Participant observation; Sunday Assembly
  • One conception of secularism for all? A comparison of conceptions of laïcité among nonbelievers, Catholics, and Muslims in France.
    Cohu, Medhi, Christelle Maisonneuve, and Benoit Testé (2021)
    Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 60:1: 103-112.
    Confirms 2 distinct lay concepts of laïcité differently emphasizing public expressions of religion, state religious neutrality, & equal treatment of religions. Net of religiosity, a restrictive concept was more prevalent among nonbelievers, an inclusive one among Muslims, & both equally prevalent among Catholics.
    Associated Search Terms: France; Catholic, France; Atheist, France; Islam, France; Laïcité
  • A Qualitative Study of Black Atheists: "Don't Tell Me You're One of Those."
    Swann, Daniel (2020)
    Lanham, Maryland: Lexington Books.
    Reviews the literature o Black atheism & points to issues that Black atheists face.
    Associated Search Terms: African Americans; Atheist, U.S.A.
  • The politics of religious nones.
    Schwadel, Philip (2020)
    Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 59:1: 180-189.
    Analyzes 2016 Pew Research center American Trends Panel representative internet survey data. Those with no religion in particular do not differ from the religiously affiliated. Atheists tend to be liberal & in political conflict with their families. Agnostics are likely to vote & feel politically isolated from their families.
    Associated Search Terms: Politics, U.S.A.; Family; Conflict; Atheist, U.S.A.
  • Non-religious identities and life satisfaction: Questioning the universality of a linear link between religiosity and well-being.
    Pöhls, Katharina, Thomas Schlösser, and Detlef Fetchenhauser (2020)
    Journal of Happiness Studies 21: 2327–2353.
    Analyzes World Values Survey data. Only in religious societies, identifying as non-religious predicts lower life satisfaction. When controlling for the context, a curvilinear relation between (non-)religiosity & life satisfaction emerged. Atheists differed in sensitivity towards the social norm of religiosity from indistinct non-religious individuals—their well-being varied dependent on living in a country with many other secular individuals or not.
    Associated Search Terms: Life satisfaction; Norm; Contextual effects; Atheist
  • None of the Above. Nonreligious Identity in the US and Canada.
    Thiessen, Joel, and Sarah Wilkins-LaFlamme (2020)
    New York: New York University Press.
    Associated Search Terms: Canada; Atheist, Canada; Atheist, U.S.A.; United States
  • How many "nones" are there? Explaining the discrepancies in survey estimates.
    Burge, Ryan P. (2020)
    Review of Religious Research 62:1: 173-190.
    Explains why the General Social Survey (USA) and the Cooperative Congressional Election Study show different percentages of "nones" in the US population.
    Associated Search Terms: Atheist; Methods; Survey
  • Explaining the rise of ‘nonreligion studies’: Subfield formation and institutionalization within the sociology of religion
    Bullivant, Stephen (2020)
    Social Compass 67:1: 86-102.
    Proposes reasons for the growth of the study of atheism & other forms of non-religion by sociologists of religion.
    Associated Search Terms: Sociology of non-religion; Atheist
  • Quo Vadis, Polonia? On religious loyalty, exit, and voice.
    Zubrzycki, Geneviève (2020)
    Social Compass 67:2: 267-281.
    The Catholic Church openly supports a populist right-wing government while retaining the loyalty of a significant portion on the Polish population; resistance to that political alliance takes the form of Catholic factions demanding a depoliticization of the Church, people leaving the Church & embracing atheism, & a notable Jewish revival.
    Associated Search Terms: Politics, Poland; Jewish, Poland; Catholic, Poland; Atheist, Poland
  • Discussing God: The effect of (ir)religious identities on topic-sentiment polarization in online debates.
    Grigoropoulou, Nikolitsa (2020)
    Review of Religious Research 62:4: 533-561.
    Analyzes online debate discourse texts from Christian/Muslin & Christian/atheist debates. Identities were more at issue than doctrines.
    Associated Search Terms: Topic Sentiment Analysis; Internet; Latent semantic analysis; Identity; Discourse
  • What do religion scholars really want? Scholarly Values in the scitnific Study of Religion.
    Shults, F. LeRon, Wesley J. Wildman, Ann Taves, and Raymond F. Paloutzian (2020)
    Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 59:1: 18-38.
    Survey data from scholars in the study of religion show that younger members in the Society for the Scientific Study of Religion, compared to others, are more female, liberal, agnostic or atheist, and do not practice a religion.
    Associated Search Terms: Professor; Society for the Scientific Study of Religion
  • The buffered, technological self: Finding associations between Internet use and religiosity
    McClure, Paul K. (2020)
    Social Compass 67:3: 461-478.
    Analyzes Baylor Religion Survey (U.S.A.) data. Finds that with higher levels of Internet use, individuals are less likely to pray, read sacred texts, attend religious services, consider religion personally important, or affiliate with a religious tradition. Greater Internet use is further associated with being an atheist.
    Associated Search Terms: Internet; Religiosity
  • Taking America Back for God: Christian Nationalism in the United States.
    Whitehead, Andrew L., and Samuel L. Perry (2020)
    Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Documents how Christian nationalism shapes what Americans think about who they are as a people, what their future should look like, & how they should get there. Americans' stance toward Christian nationalism provides powerful insight into what they think about immigration, Islam, gun control, police shootings, atheists, gender roles, & many other political issues-very much including who they want in the White House.
    Associated Search Terms: Politics, U.S.A.; United States; Identity, national
  • Atheists on the Santiago Way: Examining motivations to go on pilgrimage.
    Farias, Miguel, Thomas J. Coleman III, James E. Bartlett, Lluis Oviedo, Pedro Soares, Tiago Santos, and Maria del Carmen Bas (2019)
    Sociology of Religion 80:1: 28-44.
    Analyzes questionnaire data from Christian & atheist pilgrims on the Camino Santiago de Compostela. Motives of the 2 groups differ only on community (being with my community, doing something on behalf of another, helping sick people) & religious motives, which were both higher for the Christians.
    Associated Search Terms: Atheist; Pilgrimage
  • Questions you should never ask an atheist: Towards better measures of nonreligion and secularity.
    Cragun, Ryan T. (2019)
    Secularism and Nonreligion 8: 1-6.
    Some measures fail to contrast nonreligiosity with religiosity. Other measures are double-barreled or one-and-a-half barreled, making them impossible for nonreligious individuals to answer. How questions are worded can result in very different estimates of how many nonreligious people & atheists there are in a population.
    Associated Search Terms: Methods; Atheist
  • Unorganized atheism and the secular movement: Reddit as a site for studying "lived atheism."
    Lundmark, Evelina, and Stephen LeDrew (2019)
    Social Compass 66:1: 112-129.
    Discourse on an atheist online forum resembles those in formal atheist organizations.
    Associated Search Terms: Discourse; Atheist; Internet
  • Secularity and irreligion in cross-national context: A nonlinear approach.
    Kasselstrand, Isabella (2019)
    Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 58:3: 626-642.
    Analyzes survey data from multiple sources on nations' % non-belief in God, % lacking any trust in religious organizations, & % self-defined atheists.
    Associated Search Terms: Atheist
  • The Varieties of Nonreligious Experience: Atheism in American Culture.
    Baggett, Jerome P. (2019)
    New York: New York University Press.
    Drawing on questionnaires and interviews with more than five hundred American atheists scattered across the country, The bolume uncovers what they think about morality, what gives meaning to their lives, how they feel about religious people, a&what they think and know about religion itself.
    Associated Search Terms: Atheist, U.S.A.
  • Mapping religion's other: A review of the study of nonreligion and secularity.
    Smith, Jesse M., and Ryan T. Cragun (2019)
    Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 58:2: 319-335.
    Review of the literature, focusing on the mid-2000s & after.
    Associated Search Terms: Atheist
  • Digital irreligion: Christian deconversion in an online community.
    Starr, Chelsea, Kristin Waldo, and Matthew Kauffman (2019)
    Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 58:2: 494-512.
    Based on 2014-17 observation of an internet forum of former Christians. The online forum provided interaction space for identity construction & alternative role exploration.
    Associated Search Terms: Internet; Atheist
  • What's behind the "nones-sense"? Change over time in factors predicting likelihood of religious nonaffiliation in the United States.
    Strawn, Kelley D. (2019)
    Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 58:3: 707-724.
    Analyzes General Social Survey (USA) data; age & political orientation continue to predict not identifying with a religion, but other variables are declining in strength as predictors.
    Associated Search Terms: Atheist, U.S.A.
  • Certainty, uncertainty, or indifference? Examining variation in the identity narratives of nonreligious Americans.
    Frost, Jacqui (2019)
    American Sociological Review 84:5: 828-850.
    Drawings on identity narratives from 50 nonreligious Americans. Finds that uncertainty is as often experienced as positive & motivating as isolating or anxiety-inducing. Although certainty-filled beliefs & identities are available for the nonreligious, they are just as often rejected for more uncertain ones.
    Associated Search Terms: Atheist, U.S.A.; Belief; Certainty
  • Religious practice versus subjective religiosity: Catholics and those with "no religion" in the French 2017 presidential election.
    Dargent, Claude (2019)
    Social Compass 66:2: 164-181.
    Analyzes 2017 French survey data. Both attendance & religiosity positively correlated with voting for the right wing political parties, but with slight differences.
    Associated Search Terms: Catholic, France; France; Atheist, France; Religiosity; Politics, France; Practice
  • Mushukyo Identification and the Fragile Existence of Catholic Children in Japan
    LeMay, Alec R. (2019)
    Religions 10, 414; doi: 10.3390/rel10070414
    The public education system in Japan is not religiously neutral but exerts social pressure for children to be non-religious. The example of Catholic children in a Tokyo church illustrates this.
    Associated Search Terms: Education; Atheist, Japan; Catholic, Japan; Japan, Tokyo; Students, primary; Socialization
  • Individuos e institutiones: una mirada desde la religiosidad vivida.
    DaCosta, Néstor, Valentina Pereira Arena, and Camila Brusoni (2019)
    Sociedad y Religión 29/51): 61–92.
    Focuses on lived religion in Uruguay, from the perspective of individual relationship to institutional religion. Based on interviews with Catholics, Evangelicals, adherents of Africanist religion, & atheists.
    Associated Search Terms: Uruguay; Lived religion
  • Secularity, religiosity, and health: Physical and mental health differences between atheists, agnostics, and nonaffiliated theists compared to religiously affiliated individuals.
    Baker, Joseph O., Samuel Stroope, and Mark H. Walker (2018)
    Social Science Research 75: 44-57.
    Using a national sample of U.S.A. adults, compares physical & mental health outcomes for atheists, agnostics, religiously nonaffiliated theists, & theistic members of organized religious traditions. Atheists had better physical health than other secular individuals & members of some religious traditions & reported significantly lower levels of psychiatric symptoms than both other seculars & members of most religious traditions. In contrast, physical & mental health were significantly worse for nonaffiliated theists compared to other seculars & religious affiliates on most outcomes.
    Associated Search Terms: Mental health; Health; Atheist, U.S.A.
  • An introduction to atheism, agnosticism, and nonreligious worldviews.
    Coleman, Thomas J., III; Ralph W. Hood, Jr.; and Heinz Streib (2018)
    Psychology of Religion and Spirituality 10:3: 203-206.
    Introduction to a special journal issue. Reflects on estimated prevalence of atheist & nonreligious individuals, discusses misconceptions associated with nonreligion, notes how investigating secular worldviews is critical for the psychology of religion, & provides a brief overview of the diversity of nonreligion.
    Associated Search Terms: World view; Atheist
  • Religiosity, secularity and fertility in Canada.
    Dilmaghani, Maryam (2018)
    European Journal of Population, DOI: 10.1007/s1680-018-9487-z,
    Based on Canadian General Social Survey data; secularized women are found to have lower fertility rates compared with the actively religious. Among them, the strictly seculars, a proxy identifier for the atheists, have the lowest fertility and the highest likelihood of remaining childless.
    Associated Search Terms: Canada; Fertility; Atheist, Canada; Religiosity
  • Bringing up nones: Intergenerational influences and cohort trends.
    Bengtson, Vern L., R. David Hayward, Phil Zuckerman, and Merril Silverstein (2018)
    Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 57:2: 258-275.
    Analyzes 1970-2005 panel data from 3 generations in a California-based health plan. Socialization as humanists, atheists, & unintended socialization or religious rebels by religious parents explain part of the increase in religious "nones" between 1971 & 2005.
    Associated Search Terms: Family; Atheist, U.S.A.; Socialization; Panel study
  • Rescuing the nones from the reference category: Civic engagement among the nonreligious in America.
    Frost, Jacqui, and Penny Edgell (2018)
    Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly 47:2: 417-438.
    Those who identify as “nothing in particular” (NIP) are much less likely to show interest or engagement in civic life than are atheists, agnostics, & the “spiritual but not religious,” & the image of the nonreligious as uninvolved in civic life is inaccurate & most likely driven by forms of analysis that disproportionately weight the experiences of the “NIPs.”
    Associated Search Terms: Atheist, U.S.A.; Civic engagement
  • Cross-national variation in the social origins and religious consequences of religious non-affiliation.
    Schwadel, Philip (2018)
    Social Science Research 70: 254-270.
    Associated Search Terms: Atheist
  • The inclusion of nonreligion in religion and human rights.
    Beaman, Lori G., Cory Steele, and Keelin Pringnitz (2018)
    Social Compass 65:1: 43-61.
    Explores tensions around the presence of "nones" in societies where there are displays of majoritarian religion.
    Associated Search Terms: Minority; Atheist; Conflict
  • Atheism and religious nones: An introduction to the study of nonreligion in Canada.
    Tomlins, Steven (2018)
    In C. Holtmann (ed.) Exploring Religion and Diversity in Canada. Cham, Switzerland: Springer, pp. 237-254.
    Associated Search Terms: Atheist, Canada; Canada
  • Living without God in a religious country: Polish nonbelievers as a cultural minority.
    Tyrala, Radoslaw (2018)
    Social Compass 65:1: 131-144.
    Polish nonbelievers tend to be converts to nonbelief; they rarely encounter explicit prejudice but feel pressures to conform to some rituals.
    Associated Search Terms: Poland; Minority; Atheist, Poland
  • Nonfirmands: Danish youth who choose not to have a Lutheran confirmation.
    Kasselstrand, Isabella, Phil Zuckerman, Robert Little, and Donald A. Westbrook (2018)
    Journal of Contemporary Religion 33:1: 87-105.
    Analyzes 2011 survey data from Danish students. Broadly speaking, the findings highlight secular socialization & individual beliefs about God as key elements in understanding the nonfirmand & his or her reasons for opting out of confirmation.
    Associated Search Terms: Atheist, Denmark; Denmark; Students, secondary; Lutheran, Denmark
  • The political implications of religious non-affiliation in emerging adulthood.
    Schwadel, Philip (2018)
    Journal of Religion & Society Supplement 17: 149-166.
    Non-religiously affiliated young adults are relatively a-political.
    Associated Search Terms: Politics, U.S.A.; Young adults; Atheist, U.S.A.
  • Are the politics of the Christian right linked to state rates of the nonreligious? The importance of salient controversy.
    Djupe, Paul A., Jacob R. Neiheisel, and Kimberly H. Conger (2018)
    Political Research Quarterly 71:4: 910-922.
    Rising "none" rates are more common in Republican states in this period. Moreover, when the Christian Right comes into more public conflict, such as over same-sex marriage bans, the rate of religious nones climbs.
    Associated Search Terms: Conflict; Conservative, U.S.A.; Atheist, U.S.A.; Politics, U.S.A.
  • Christianity and the Limits of Minority Acceptance in America: God Loves (Almost) Everyone.
    Sumerau, J. Edward, and Ryan T. Cragun (2018)
    Lanham, Maryland: Lexington.
    Explores the ways Christian women in college make sense of bisexual, transgender, polyamorous, & atheist others. Specifically, it explores the ways they express tolerance for some sexual groups, such as lesbian & gay people, while maintaining condemnation of other sexual, gendered, or religious groups.
    Associated Search Terms: Students, undergraduate; Tolerance; Gender
  • The rise of "no religion': Towards an explanation.
    Woodhead, Linda (2017)
    Sociology of Religion 78:3: 247-262.
    Descriptive data on atheists, mostly UK data. "No religion" has become the largest category in Great Britain.
    Associated Search Terms: Atheist, Great Britain
  • Christian fundamentalists or atheists: Who do progressive Christians like or hate more?
    Yancey, George (2017)
    Journal of Religion and Society 19 (online).
    Associated Search Terms: Prejudice, anti-atheist; Prejudice, anti-fundamentalist
  • Atheism plus what? Social justice and lifestyle politics among Edmonton atheists.
    Simmons, Jonathan (2017)
    Canadian Journal of Sociology 42:4: 425-446.
    Associated Search Terms: Politics, Canada; Justice; Atheist, Canada; Canada, Alberta, Edmonton
  • Looking beyond the church tax: Families and the disaffiliation of Austrian Roman Catholics.
    Berghammer, Caroline, Ulrike Zartler, and Desiree Krivanek (2017)
    Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 56:3: 514-535.
    Uses mixed methods including 2008-12 panel data. The church tax was cited as responsible by disaffiliating believers, ideological reasons by agnostics & atheists. Family transitions were important for both groups.
    Associated Search Terms: Catholic, Austria; Family; Atheist, Austria; Austria; Disaffiliation; Panel study
  • Catholics and atheists: A cross-cultural qualitative analysis of religious identities among gay men.
    Izienicki, Hubert (2017)
    Sociology of Religion 78:3: 263-288.
    The monolithic Catholicism of Poland is hostile toward homosexual men & drives them into atheism or agnosticism. The pluralist situation of the USA allows them to retain their religious tradition.
    Associated Search Terms: Atheist, Poland; Homosexuality; Comparative; Catholic, U.S.A.; Catholic, Poland; Pluralism; Poland, Warsaw; United States, Illinois, Chicago
  • New atheism, open-mindedness, and critical thinking.
    Cotter, Christopher R. (2017)
    In Christopher R. Cotter, Philip Andrew Quadrio, and Jonathan Tuckett (eds.) New Atheism: Critical Perspectives and Contemporary Debates. Dordrecht: Springer, pp. 33-50.
    Associated Search Terms: Atheist
  • Sociologie de l'athéisme et d l'indifférence religieuse.
    Bréchon, Pierre (2017)
    In P. Bréchon, L. Obadia, and A.-L. Zwilling (eds.) Indifférence religieuse et athéisme militant. Penser l'irréligion aujourd'hui. Rennes: presses Universitaires de Rennes.
    Associated Search Terms: Atheist
  • Rejecting rejection identities: Negotiating positive non-religiosity at the Sunday assembly.
    Frost, Jacqui (2017)
    In Ryan T. Cragun, Christel Manning, and Lori L. Fazzino (eds) Organized secularism in the United States: New directions in research. New York: De Gruyter, pp. 171–190.
    Associated Search Terms: Atheist
  • Childhood, youth and non-religion: Towards a social research agenda.
    Hemming, Peter J. (2017)
    Social Compass 64:1: 113-129.
    Overview of literature and identification of research topics.
    Associated Search Terms: Children; Atheist
  • Prosocial skeptics: Skepticism and generalized trust.
    Loveland, Matthew, Alexander G. Capella, and India Maisonet (2017)
    Critical Research on Religion 5:3: 251-265.
    Those who believe the bible to be a book of fables are more trusting than those with other beliefs about the text. Nontheists report a greater willingness to trust.
    Associated Search Terms: Trust; Atheist
  • Expanding on the experiences of transgender nonreligious people: An exploratory analysis.
    Mathers, Lain A.B. (2017)
    Secularism and Nonreligion 6:1-10.
    Based on interviews with 11 formerly religious, not religious at present, transgendered people. Scholars of nonreligion should begin analyzing transgender nonreligious people’s experiences in religious settings, with family, & with organizations & networks outside of religion.
    Associated Search Terms: Gender; Atheist; Transgender
  • Good for all? Hardly! Attending church does not benefit religiosly unaffiliated.
    Speed, David, and Ken Fowler (2017)
    Journal of Religion and Health 56:3: 986-1002.
    Associated Search Terms: Practice; Atheist; Health
  • From existential to social understandings of risk: Examining gender differences in non-religion.
    Edgell, Penny, Jacqui Frost, and Evan Stewart (2017)
    Social Currents, published online January 10, Doi: 10.1177/2329496516686619.
    The idea of risk is relevant to understanding the relationship between gender & religiosity if risk is understood not as existential but as social. The research on existential risk focuses on religious identification as solely a matter of belief; the authors develop the concept of social risk to theorize the ways that social location & differential levels of power & privilege influence women’s nonreligious choices.
    Associated Search Terms: Risk preference; Atheist; Gender
  • Creencia e increencia desde las vivencias cotidianas. Una mirada desde Uruguay.
    DaCosta, Néstor (2017)
    Estudos de Religião 3:31: 33-53.
    There are people who define themselves as believers without affiliation to any religious institution, as well as those who define themselves as non-believers. The article focuses on exploring the characteristics of these 2 groups based on qualitative research that focuses on the way in which people live their relationship with transcendence or non-belief in Montevideo.
    Associated Search Terms: Atheist, Uruguay; Uruguay, Montevideo
  • No one expects a transgender Jew: Religious sexual, and gendered intersections in the evaluation of religious and nonreligious others.
    Cragun, Ryan T., and J. Edward Sumerau (2017)
    Secularism and Nonreligion 6:1: 1-16.
    Using a comfortable with thermometer, gender categories rank people more than do religious categories, but within the gender categories religious ranking occurs.
    Associated Search Terms: Transgender; Intersectionality; Gender; Atheist
  • The Sociology of the Sunday Assembly: "Belonging Without Believing" in a Post-Christian Context
    Bullock, Josh (2017)
    Unpublished Ph.D. Thesis, Kingston University (UK)
    Associated Search Terms: Atheist, Great Britain; Congregation
  • Organizational variation in the American nonreligious community.
    Schutz, Amanda (2017)
    In Ryan T. Cragun, Christel J. Manning, and Lori L. Fazzino (eds.) Organized Secularism in the United States: New Directions in Research, Religion and its Others. Berlin: DeGruyter, pp. 113-134.
    Associated Search Terms: Congregation; Atheist, U.S.A.
  • Doing death without deity: Constructing nonreligious tools at the end of life.
    MacMurray, Nicholas J., and Lori L. Fazzino (2017)
    In Ryan T. Cragun, Christel Manning, an Lori L. Fazzino (eds.) Organized Secularism in the United States. Berlin, Germany: DeGruyter, pp. 279-300.
    Associated Search Terms: Atheist, U.S.A.; Death
  • Living well togeher in a (non)religious future: Contributions from the sociology of religion.
    Beaman, Lori G. (2017)
    Sociology of Religion 78:1: 9-32.
    Focuses on people who rescue endangered sea turtles.
    Associated Search Terms: Environmentalism; Atheist; Spirituality; Lived religion
  • Becoming a religious none: Irreligious socialization and disaffiliation.
    Thiessen, Joel, and Sarah Wilkins-LaFlamme (2017)
    Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 56:1: 64-82.
    Examines Alberta, Canada, & other survey data. Over time religious "nones" become increasingly so by childhood socialization rather than through disaffiliation.
    Associated Search Terms: Atheist, Canada; Canada, Alberta; Disaffiliation; Socialization
  • Explorando los "sin religión de pertenencia" en Córdoba, Argentina.
    Rabbia, Hugo H. (2017)
    Estudos de Religião 31(3): 131–155.
    Explores the heterogeneity that encompasses the “nonreligious," from autobiographical narratives & object’s elicitation interviews to 18 people from Córdoba, Argentina.
    Associated Search Terms: Life histories; Argentina, Cordoba; Atheist, Argentina
  • Christian identification and self-reported depression: Evidence from China.
    Hu, Anning, Xiaozhao Yousef Yang, and Weixiang Luo (2017)
    Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 56:4: 765-780.
    Christians report more depression than others in China.
    Associated Search Terms: Atheist, China; Buddhist, China; Depression; China; Christian, China
  • Religious ambivalence, liminality, and the increase of no religious preference in the United States, 2006-2014.
    Hout, Michael (2017)
    Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 56:1: 52-63.
    Based on General Social Survey (USA) panel data; focuses on respondents who report no religious identification in one survey but report having one in a subsequent one: "liminal status."
    Associated Search Terms: Panel study; United States; Identification; Atheist, U.S.A.
  • Religion and sexuality in France from the 1970s to the 2000s: Changes in practices and attachment to the heterosexual family.
    Maudet, Marion (2017)
    Population 72: 671–696.
    Differences in sexual attitudes & activities among Catholics, Muslims, & non-religious affiliates in France.
    Associated Search Terms: Islam, France; Sexual activity; Sexual attitudes; Atheist, France; France; Catholic, France
  • Religion, religiosity, and happiness.
    Sander, William (2017)
    Review of Religious Research 59:2: 251-262.
    Analyzes 1998-2012 General Social Survey (U.S.A.) data; compares happiness of religious tradition categories.
    Associated Search Terms: Protestant, U.S.A.; Jewish, U.S.A.; Islam, U.S.A.; Catholic, U.S.A.; Atheist, U.S.A.; Buddhist, U.S.A.; Happiness
  • Christian theology and attitudes toward political and religious ideological groups.
    Yancey, George, Marie A. Einstein, and Ryan P. Burge (2017)
    Interdisciplinary Journal of Research on Religion 13: 1-22.
    Based on favorability ratings toward political liberals, political conservatives, Muslims, and atheists. Religious liberals report negativity toward those with differing political views; religious conservatives report negativity toward those with differing religious views.
    Associated Search Terms: Belief; Politics, U.S.A.
  • Muslims as outsiders, enemies, and others: The 2016 presidential election and the politics of religious exclusion.
    Braunstein, Ruth (2017)
    American Journal of Cultual Sociology. doi: 10.1057/s41290-017-0042-x
    Draws parallels between contemporary anti-Muslim rhetoric & the historic treatment of Catholics, Jews, Mormons, & atheists. In each case, these religious groups have troubled a vision of American belonging that is tightly linked to white Protestant identity, & more subtly, to individualist & voluntaristic notions of the good religious (& democratic) subject.
    Associated Search Terms: Politics, U.S.A.; Prejudice, anti-Islamic; Islam, U.S.A.
  • Atheists and other cultural outsiders: Moral boundaries and the non-religious in the United States.
    Edgell, Penny, Douglas Hartmann, Evan Stewart, and Joseph Gerteis (2016)
    Annual Review of Sociology 38: 247-265.
    Analyzes anti-atheist sentiment in the U.S.A in 2014, replicating analyses from a decade earlier & extending them to consider the factors that foster negative sentiment toward other non-religious persons. We find that anti-atheist sentiment is strong, persistent, & driven in part by moral concerns about atheists & in part by agreement with cultural values that affirm religiosity as a constitutive moral grounding of citizenship & national identity
    Associated Search Terms: Marginality; Atheist, U.S.A.
  • Trust me, I believe inGod: Candidate religiousness as a signal of trustworthiness.
    Clifford, Scott, and Ben Gaskins (2016)
    American Politics Research 44:6: 1066-1097.
    Drawing on psychological theories of prejudice toward atheists, argues that candidates emphasize their religiousness in order to enhance perceptions of their trustworthiness & morality. Survey data show that voters are quite unlikely to support an atheist candidate, an effect that is strongly driven by the perception of atheists’ morality.
    Associated Search Terms: Politics, U.S.A.; Prejudice, anti-atheist; Atheist, U.S.A.
  • The Nonreligious. Understanding Secular People and Societies.
    Zuckerman, Phil, Luke W. Galen, and Frank L. Pasquale (2016)
    New York: Oxford University Press.
    Associated Search Terms: Atheist
  • Defining that which is other to religion.
    Cragun, Ryan T. (2016)
    In Phil Zuckerman (ed.) Religion: Beyond Religion. New York: Macmillan, pp. 1-16.
    Associated Search Terms: Atheist
  • Expressive nontheism: Moral communities and promoting the social good.
    Smith, Jesse M. (2016)
    In Franco Garelli and Roberto Cipriani (eds.) Annual Review of the Sociology of Religion. Leiden: Brill, pp. 98-117.
    Associated Search Terms: Atheist; Congregation
  • Lived secularity: Atheism, indifference, and the social significance of religion.
    Kasselstrand, Isabella (2016)
    In Phil Zuckerman (ed.) Religion: Beyond Religion. New York: Macmillan, pp. 37-52.
    Associated Search Terms: Atheist; Indifference
  • From "Atheism" to "Religious indifference". Suggestions for future research on secularization.
    Franzmann, Manuel (2016)
    In Roberto Cipriani and Franco Garelli (eds.) Sociology of Atheism. Leiden: Brill, pp. 1–16.
    Associated Search Terms: Atheist; Secularization
  • Kids, you make the choice: Religious and secular socializations among marginal affiliates and nonreligious individuals.
    Thiessen, Joel (2016)
    Secularism and Nonreligion 5:6: 1-16.
    Associated Search Terms: Atheist; Marginality; Socialization
  • The rise of ‘no religion’ in Britain: The emergence of a new cultural majority.
    Woodhead, Linda (2016)
    Journal of the British Academy 4: 245–261.
    Associated Search Terms: Atheist, Great Britain
  • You make the choice: Religious and secular socialization among marginal affiliated and nonreligious individuals.
    Thiessen, Joel. (2016)
    Secularism and Nonreligion 5:6: 1-16.
    Canadian interviews. Shows that marginal affiliates generally had or planned to expose their children to religious belief & practice, while nonreligious individuals were inclined to defer to their children regarding religious or secular perspectives. Marginal affiliates & nonreligious individuals jointly maintained that children should have choice in this matter; as a result, parents did not impose religious or secular views on children.
    Associated Search Terms: Socialization; Family; Atheist, Canada
  • American Secularism. Cultural Contours of Nonreligious Belief Systems.
    Baker, Joseph O., and Buster G. Smith (2016)
    New York: New York University Press.
    Analysis of the demographic and statistical trends collected from a number of national surveys, all of which unequivocally point to a growth in secularism. They also combine this sociological analysis with historical vignettes highlighting important moments & figures in American history that “echo” these contemporary changes in the religious landscape.
    Associated Search Terms: Atheist, U.S.A.; Secularism
  • "I think some people need religion": The social construction of nonreligious moral identities.
    Sumerau, J. Edward, and Ryan T. Cragun (2016)
    Sociology of Religion 77:4: 386-407.
    Based on 30 semi-structured interviews with self-identified non-religious Americans. Experiencing childhood religion as focused on obedience & conformity, noting religious people's prejudices about non-religious people, & interactions with religious people that led to seeking meaning elsewhere served as pathways to irreligion.
    Associated Search Terms: Socialization; Atheist, U.S.A.
  • Religion, secular humanism, and atheism: Multi-institutional politics and the USAFA cadets' freethinkers group.
    Konieczny, Mary Ellen, and Megan C. Rogers (2016)
    Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 55:4: 821-838.
    Examines the opportunity structure of the Cadet Freethinkers Group at the U.S. Air Force Academy.
    Associated Search Terms: Atheist, U.S.A.; Military
  • Piccoli atei crescono. Davvero una generazione senza Dio?
    Garelli, Franco (2016)
    Bologna: Il Mulino.
    For many, religious sentiment is expressed in their personal interiority, passing from a vertical dimension (the gaze to transcendence) to a horizontal one (the search for personal harmony). Keeping this profound change in mind, the volume highlights the "new advancing" on a religious level.
    Associated Search Terms: Italy; Meaning; Atheist, Italy; Belief
  • "No religion" in Britain: The rise of a new cultural majority.
    Woodhead, Linda (2016)
    Journal of the British Academy 4: 245-261.
    Associated Search Terms: Great Britain; Atheist, Great Britain
  • Secularization and the wider gap in values and personal religiosity between the religious and nonreligious.
    Wilkins-Laflamme, Sarah (2016)
    Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 55:4: 717-736.
    Analyzes 2008 International Social Survey Program data; in regions where the unaffiliated form a greater proportion of the population, differences in sexual attitudes & stances toward abortion & gender roles between the affiliated & unaffiliated are greater.
    Associated Search Terms: Gender role; Abortion; Atheist; Sexual attitudes
  • Young British religious "nones": Findings from the Youth on Religion study.
    Madge, Nicola, and Peter J. Hemming (2016)
    Journal of Youth Studies ?
    Compared to the study population as a whole, the young religious ‘nones’ were particularly likely to be white & born in Britain. There was considerable diversity among this group in beliefs & practices: almost half the survey members mentioned some level of belief in God & most of the interview participants pointed to some presence of religion in their lives.
    Associated Search Terms: Adolescents; Atheist, Great Britain; Great Britain
  • The social context of organized nonbelief: County-level predictors of nonbeliever organizations in the United States
    García, Alfredo, and Joseph Blankholm (2016)
    Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 55:1: 70-90.
    County-level data show the percentage of the populations that is Evangelical correlates positively with the existence & number of nonbeliever organizations.
    Associated Search Terms: Dialectic; Ecology; Atheist, U.S.A.; United States
  • The religion of the educated classes revisited: New religions, the nonreligious, and educational levels.
    Lewis, James R., Sean E. Currie, and Michael P. Oman-Reagan (2016)
    Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 55:1: 91-104.
    Uses data from censuses. Members of most, but not all, new religions have higher than national averages of bachelor's degrees.
    Associated Search Terms: New Zealand; New religions; Atheist; Australia; Great Britain, England; Great Britain, Wales; Education; Canada
  • Exodus: Why Americans are leaving religion--and why they're unlikely to come back.
    Jones, Robert P., Daniel Cox, Betsy Cooper, and Rachel Lienesch (2016)
    Public Religion Research Institute:
    Statistical account.
    Associated Search Terms: Apostate
  • Who are the "new atheists"?
    Cragun, Ryan T. (2015)
    In Lori G. Beaman and Steven Tomlins (eds.) Atheist Identities: Spaces and Social Contexts. New York: Springer, pp. 195-211.
    Associated Search Terms: Atheist, U.S.A.; Demography
  • Freedom of and freedom from religion: Atheist involvement in legal cases.
    Beaman, Lori G. (2015)
    In Lori G. Beaman and Steven Tomlins (eds.) Atheist Identities: Spaces and Social Contexts. New York: Springer, pp. 39-52.
    Associated Search Terms: Atheist; Law
  • Ambivalent atheist identities: Power and non-religious culture in contemporary Britain.
    Lee, Lois (2015)
    Social Analysis 59:2: 20-39.
    Based on exploratory fieldwork conducted in southeast England, it draws attention to a set of indistinct non-religious forms: "authentic" & "inauthentic" ambivalent atheist & non-religious self-understandings & self-representations.
    Associated Search Terms: Self concept; Participant observation; Atheist, Great Britain; Great Britain, England
  • A common godlessness: A snapshot of a Canadian university atheist club, why its members joined, and what that community means to them.
    Tomlins, Steven (2015)
    In Lori G. Beaman and Steven Tomlins (eds.) Atheist Identities: Spaces and Social Contexts. New York: Springer, pp. 117-136.
    Associated Search Terms: Atheist, Canada; Students, undergraduate
  • From atheist to spiritual but not religious: A punctuated continuum of identities among the second generation of post-1970 immigrants in Canada.
    Beyer, Peter F. (2015)
    In Lori G. Beaman and Steven Tomlins (eds.) Atheist Identities: Spaces and Social Contexts. New York: Springer, pp. 137-151.
    Associated Search Terms: Spirituality; Atheist, Canada; Canada; Identification; Generations
  • Familial relationship outcomes of coming out as an atheist.
    Zimmerman, Kevin, Jesse Smith, Kevin Simonson, and Benjamin W. Myers (2015)
    Secularism and Nonreligion 4:1: 1-13.
    Associated Search Terms: Family; Atheist
  • The Evolution of Atheism: The Politics of a Modern Movement.
    LeDrew, Stephen (2015)
    New York: Oxford University Press.
    Argues that the New Atheism has parallels with religious fundamentalism. Shows that divisions among atheists threaten to fracture the movement. Rejects the widely accepted understanding of contemporary atheism as grounded in liberalism, instead arguing for the existence of an "Atheist Right" that mirrors the Christian Right.
    Associated Search Terms: Atheist
  • The Regime of Religious Pluralism: Uncovering the Cultural Dimensions of American Religious Belonging.
    Nabors, Bradly (2015)
    Unpublished Ph.D dissertation, University of Southern California.
    Based on interviews with U.S. atheists & Muslims.
    Associated Search Terms: Individualism; Islam, U.S.A.; United States; Minority; Pluralism; Atheist, U.S.A.
  • What's God got to do with it? How religiosity pedicts atheists' health.
    Speed, David, and Ken Fowler (2015)
    Journal of Religion and Health 55:1: 296-308.
    Associated Search Terms: Health; Atheist; Religiosity
  • Atheism versus humanism: Ideological tensions and identity dynamics.
    LeDrew, Stephen (2015)
    In Lori G. Beaman and Steven Tomlins (eds.) Atheist Identities: Spaces and Social Contexts. New York: Springer, pp. 53-68.
    Associated Search Terms: Atheist; Humanist
  • The church on the margins: The religious context of the new atheism.
    Stahl, William A. (2015)
    In Lori G. Beaman and Steven Tomlins (eds.) Atheist Identities: Spaces and Social Contexts. New York: Springer, pp. 19-37.
    Associated Search Terms: Atheist, Canada; Canada
  • The new moral entrepreneurs: Atheist activism as scripted and performed political deviance.
    Fazzino, Lori L., Michael Ian Borer, and Mohammed Abdel Haq (2015)
    In M. Dellwing, J.A. Kotarba, an N.W. Pino (eds.) The Death and Resurrection of Deviance: Current Ideas and Research.
    Associated Search Terms: Politics; Moral entrepreneur; Atheist; Deviance/social control
  • The NonReligious-NonSpiritual Scale (NRNSS): Measuring everyone from atheists to Zionists.
    Cragun, Ryan T., Joeph H. Hammer, and Michael Nielsen (2015)
    Science, Religion and Culture 2:3: 36–53.
    Presents the development and initial validation of a 17-item Nonreligious-Nonspiritual Scale (NRNSS).
    Associated Search Terms: Atheist; Scale; Methods
  • Living non-religious identity in London.
    Mumford, Lorna (2015)
    In Lori G. Beaman and Steven Tomlins (eds.) Atheist Identities: Spaces and Social Contexts. New York: Springer, pp. 153-170.
    Associated Search Terms: Atheist, Great Britain; Great Britain, London
  • Nonreligious tolerance: American attitudes toward atheists, America's most unpopular religious group.
    Cox, Daniel, Robert P. Jones, and Juhem Navarro-Rivera (2015)
    In Paul A. Djupe (ed.) Religion and Political Tolerance in America. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, pp. 133-150.
    Associated Search Terms: Atheist, U.S.A.; Tolerance
  • Secularist rituals in the US: Solidarity and legitimization.
    Cimino, Richard, and Christopher Smith (2015)
    In Lori G. Beaman and Steven Tomlins (eds.) Atheist Identities: Spaces and Social Contexts. New York: Springer, pp. 87-100.
    Associated Search Terms: Legitimation; Ritual; Solidarity; Atheist, U.S.A.
  • Without God yet not without nuance: A qualitative study of atheism and non-religion among Scottish university students.
    Cotter, Christopher R. (2015)
    In Lori G. Beaman and Steven Tomlins (eds.) Atheist Identities: Spaces and Social Contexts. New York: Springer, pp. 171-193.
    Associated Search Terms: Great Britain, Scotland; Atheist, Great Britain; Students, undergraduate
  • Atheism looking in: On the goals and strategies of organized nonbelief.
    Langston, Joseph A, Joseph H. Hammer, and Ryan T. Cragun (2015)
    Science, Religion, and Culture 2:3: 70-85.
    Exploratory survey study of nonbelievers, their communities, and the atheist movement in general. Neither maximum accommodation nor confrontation with religion was desired by a majority of nonbelievers, though more respondents opted for accommodation (60%) than confrontation (25%).
    Associated Search Terms: Atheist, U.S.A.
  • The cultural, the nominal, and the secular: The social reality of religious identity among Sri Lankan Tamil youth in Canada.
    Amarasingam , Amarnath (2015)
    In Lori G. Beaman and Steven Tomlins (eds.) Atheist Identities: Spaces and Social Contexts. New York: Springer, pp. 69-85.
    Associated Search Terms: Canada; Cultural religion; Atheist, Canada; Sri Linkan Canadians; Tamil, Canada; Youth; Nominal religion
  • Losing Our Religion: How Unaffiliated Parents Are Raising Their Children.
    Manning, Christel J. (2015)
    New York: New York University Press.
    Demonstrates that Nones hold a wide variety of worldviews, ranging from deeply religious to highly secular, & transmit them in diverse ways. What ties them all together is a commitment to a belief in the moral equivalence of religions & secular worldviews & in the individual’s right to choose; it is that choice they seek to pass on to their children.
    Associated Search Terms: Socialization; Family; Atheist
  • Education, irreligion, and non-religion: Evidence from select anglophone census data.
    Lewis, James R. (2015)
    Journal of Contemporary Religion 30:2: 265-272.
    A number of different studies carried out in the 20th century demonstrated a correlation between higher education & loss of religious belief. However, recent research indicates that social changes have undermined this previously solid connection: the irreligious, especially the non-religious who do not self-identify as members of any religion, are no longer substantially more educated than the religious.
    Associated Search Terms: Change; Atheist; Education
  • How unreligious are the religious "nones"? Religious dynamics of the unaffiliated in Canada.
    Wilkins-Laflamme, Sarah (2015)
    Canadian Journal of Sociology 40:4: 477-500.
    Associated Search Terms: Atheist, Canada; Canada
  • Social affiliation from religious disaffiliation: Evidence of selective mixing among youth with no religious preference durign the transition to college.
    Sepulvado, Brandon, Michael Penta, David Hachen, and Omar Lizardo (2015)
    Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 54:4: 833-841.
    Analyzes cell phone connection data from a cohort of University of Notre Dame first year students. Finds religious non-affiliates & non-Catholic affiliates in their own networks.
    Associated Search Terms: Homophily; Atheist; Minority; Network; Students, undergraduate
  • Recognizing the Nonreligious: Reimagining the Secular.
    Lee, Lois (2015)
    Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Drawing on ethnographic fieldwork in southeast England, develops a vocabulary, theory, & methodology for studying the secular. Distinguishes between separate & incommensurable aspects of "secularity" as insubstantial (the mere absence of religion) & substantial (beliefs, ritual practice, & identities that are alternative to religious ones).
    Associated Search Terms: Great Britain, England; Atheist; Participant observation; Secular
  • Stigma management by Midwestern secularists.
    Garneau, Christopher (2015)
    In Paul A. Djupe (ed.) Religion and Political Tolerance in America. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, pp. 211-227.
    Associated Search Terms: Stigma; United States, Midwest; Atheist, U.S.A.
  • Redefining religious nones: Lessons from Chinese and Japanese American Young Adults.
    Jeung, Russell, Brett Esaki, and Alice Liu (2015)
    Religions 6:3: 891-911.
    Rather than focusing on their beliefs & belonging to religious denominations, highlights spiritual practices & ethical relations using an Asian-centric liyi (ritual & righteousness) discourse. Despite being religious nones, these groups have high rates of ancestor veneration & participation in ethnic religious festivals, as well as strong familial & reciprocal obligations.
    Associated Search Terms: Atheist, U.S.A.; Chinese Americans; Japanese Americans
  • Intergenerational religious mobility in contemporary China.
    Hu, Anning, and Reid J. Leamaster (2015)
    Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 54:1: 79-99.
    Analyzes 2010 China General Social Survey data. Intergenerational religious mobility shows a growth of Islam, Christianity, & nones relative to traditional Chinese religions for father-child mobility, & advantage of nones for mother-child mobility.
    Associated Search Terms: Islam, China; China; Christian, China; Conversion; Generations; Atheist, China
  • Religion does matter for climate change attitudes and behavior.
    Morrison, Mark, Roderick Duncan, and Kevin Parton (2015)
    Plos One 10:8: e0134868.
    Uses an online survey of 1,927 Australians; examines links between membership of 4 groupings (Buddhists, Christian literalists; Christian non-literalists, & Secularists) & climate change attitudes & behaviors. Differences were found across religious groups in terms of their belief in a) human induced climate change, b) the level of consensus among scientists, c) their own efficacy, & d) the need for policy responses.
    Associated Search Terms: Buddhist, Australia; Atheist, Australia; Australia; Science; Literalism; Internet survey
  • Are all socialists anti-religious? Anti-religiosity and the socialist left in 21 Western Europea countries (1990-2008).
    Ribberink, Egbert, Peter Achterberg, and Dick Houtman (2015)
    Journal of Contemporary Religion 30:3: 435-452.
    3 waves of the European Values Study (1990–2008) in 21 Western European countries point to an increase in anti-religiosity by socialists in countries marked by Catholic & Orthodox religious identities.
    Associated Search Terms: Europe, western; Atheist, Europe; Socialism; Politics, Europe; Prejudice, anti-religious
  • Non-affiliation, non-denominationalism, religious switching, and denominational switching: Longitudinal analysis of the effects on religiosity.
    Suh, Daniel, and Raymond Russell (2015)
    Review of Religious Research 57:1: 25-41.
    Analyzes 2006-2010 General Social Survey (U.S.A.) panel data. Conversion from one religion to another increases religiosity, from one Protestant denomination to another affects practice modestly but not belief. Non-affiliates become less religious. Protestants with no denomination resemble other Protestants.
    Associated Search Terms: Atheist, U.S.A.; Belief; Conversion; Denomination (organizational entity); Panel study; Practice
  • Gendering (non)religion: Politics, education, and gender gaps in secularity in the Untied States.
    Baker, Joseph O., and Andrew L. Whitehead (2015)
    Social Forces 94:4: 1623-1645.
    Drawing on theories of intersectionality, we contribute to the cultural & empirical analysis of gender gaps in religiosity by documenting an interactive effect between gender, education, & political views for predicting religious nonaffiliation & infrequent attendance at religious services. For highly educated political liberals, gender gaps effectively disappear.
    Associated Search Terms: Politics, U.S.A.; United States; Education; Gender; Atheist, U.S.A.
  • "Not at all religious": Irreligiosity as deviance in a majority Muslim context.
    González, Alessandra L. (2015)
    Deviant Behavior 37:2: 184-195.
    Uses original Islamic Social Attitudes Survey data collected from 1,139 Kuwaiti college students in 2007 to show that gender, being raised religiously, & religious experience are all significantly correlated to irreligiosity. Neither family attachment nor peer networks predicts self-reported irreligiosity.
    Associated Search Terms: Experience; Family; Gender; Atheist; Deviance/social control; Islam; Students, undergraduate; Kuwait; Socialization
  • Bounded by disbelief: How atheists in the United States differentiate themselves from religious believers.
    Guenther, Katja M. (2014)
    Journal of Contemporary Religion 29:1: 1-16.
    Atheists participate in boundary work to construct difference between religious believers & non-believers. However, atheists see greater social distance between themselves & some groups of religious believers than they do in relation to other groups, constructing religious leaders & devout adherents of particular religions as especially different.
    Associated Search Terms: Atheist, U.S.A.; Boundary maintenance
  • Atheist Awakening: Secular Activism & Community in America.
    Cimino, Richard, and Christopher Smith (2014)
    New York: Oxford University Press
    Based on participant observation in atheist meetings & events, on interviews, surveys, & content analyses of literature & websites. Awakened atheism & religious activism dialectically need each other.
    Associated Search Terms: Internet; Minority; Secular humanism; Social movement; Ritual; Schism; Media; Participant observation; Identity; Content analysis; Dialectic; Atheist, U.S.A.
  • Divided we stand: The politics of the atheist movement in the United States.
    Kettell, Steven (2014)
    Journal of Contemporary Religion 29:3: 377-394.
    Examines the political dimension of the U.S.A. atheist movement, its organisational structure & composition, as well as its goals, strategies, & direction. Uses social movement theory; shows that the development of the movement has been shaped by a number of factors which facilitated growth & also led to a series of internal tensions and schisms that threaten its ability to exert political influence.
    Associated Search Terms: Atheist, U.S.A.; Politics, U.S.A.; Social movement
  • Outline of a relational approach to "Nonreligion."
    Quack, Johannes (2014)
    Method and Theory in the Study of Religion 26:4/5: 439-469.
    “Nonreligion” denotes phenomena that are generally not considered religious but whose significance is more or less dependent on religion (e.g., atheists). The author draws on sociological field-theory to outline how different modes of nonreligiosity result from different configurations of the religious field they relate to, influenced by the cultural & socio-political backgrounds of different societies. Furthermore, modes of nonreligion can be distinguished by different ways of relating to religion.
    Associated Search Terms: Atheist
  • Living the Secular Life: New Answers to Old Questions.
    Zuckerman, Phil (2014)
    New York: Penguin.
    Associated Search Terms: Atheist
  • The six types of nonbelie: A qualitative and quantitative study of type and narrative.
    Silver, Christopher F., Thomas J. Coleman III, Ralph W. Hood Jr., and Jenny M. Holcombe (2014)
    Mental Health, Religion & Culture 17:10: 990-1001.
    Associated Search Terms: Atheist
  • Spiritualità senza Dio?
    Berzano, Luigi (2014)
    Milano: Mimesis.
    Opens the new field of research on the spirituality of both individuals who declare they do not belong to any religion, & of individuals who, although belonging to a religion, have a lifestyle that does not descend from their religion & live part of their lives as if God were not there.
    Associated Search Terms: Atheist; Spirituality
  • Secular or nonreligious? Investigating and interpreting generic "Not religious" categories and populations.
    Lee, Lois (2014)
    Religion 44: 466-482.
    Investigates what "nonreligious" categories measure & whether they indicate non-identification or disaffiliation as assumed, or an alternative form of cultural affiliation. Findings suggest that generic nonreligious categories are sometimes used to express different substantive positions & public identities.
    Associated Search Terms: Atheist; Great Britain, England; Secularism; Methods
  • Religion, motherhood, and the spirit of capialism.
    Reynolds, Jeremy, and Matthew May (2014)
    Social Currents 1:2: 173-188.
    Among new mothers, conservative Protestants are among the most likely to wish they were working fewer hours. Non-religious women, in contrast, are the least likely to want fewer hours. Among women who are not new mothers, the situation is reversed. Conservative Protestants are least likely to wish they were working fewer hours & non-religious women are the most likely to want fewer hours.
    Associated Search Terms: Women; Work; Conservative, U.S.A.; Atheist
  • Explaining why more Americans have no religious preference: Political backlash and generational succession, 1987-2012.
    Hout, Michael, and Claude S. Fischer (2014)
    Sociological Science 1: 423-447.
    Employs new data than earlier & more powerful analytical tools to: 1) update the time series, 2) present further evidence of correlations between political backlash, generational succession, & religious identification, (3) show how valuing per&al autonomy, especially in the sphere of sex & drugs, explain generational differences, and (4) use GSS panel data to show that the causal direction in the rise of the “Nones” likely runs from political identity as a liberal or conservative to religious identity, reversing a long-standing convention in social science research.
    Associated Search Terms: Atheist, U.S.A.; Generations; Panel study; Membership; Politics, U.S.A.
  • Creating a godless community: The collective identity work of contemporary American atheists.
    Smith, Jesse M. (2013)
    Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 52:1: 80-99.
    Based on interviews & participant observation in 7 American atheist organizations.
    Associated Search Terms: Activism; Atheist, U.S.A.; Discourse; Identity; Participant observation; Stigma
  • Discovering atheism: Heterogeneity in trajectories to atheist identity and activism.
    LeDrew, Stephen (2013)
    Sociology of Religion 74:4: 431-453.
    Based on 15 interviews with active atheists. Notes 5 identity trajectories. Comment by Jesse M. Smith, pp. 454-463. Reply by LeDrew, pp. 464-470.
    Associated Search Terms: Identity; Atheist
  • From the outside in: Crossing boundaries to build collective identity in the new atheist movement.
    Guenther, Katja M., Kerry Mulligan, and Cameron Papp. (2013)
    Social Problems 60:4: 457-475.
    This article presents an analysis of collective identity formation within an organization that is part of the new atheist movement to illuminate how a nascent social movement organization successfully builds collective identity through the construction of permeable boundaries.
    Associated Search Terms: Boundary maintenance; Atheist; Identity
  • (Dis)believing and belonging. Investigating the narratives of young British atheists.
    Catto, Rebecca, and Janet Eccles (2013)
    Temenos 49;1: 37-63.
    Presents data gathered with young British people who describe themselves as atheists. Atheism is a multifaceted identity for these young people developed over time & through experience. Disbelief in God & other non-empirical propositions such as in an afterlife, & belief in the efficacy of homeopathy & belief in progress through science, equality & freedom are central to their narratives.
    Associated Search Terms: Atheist, Great Britain; Great Britain; Youth
  • Measuring spiritual fitness: Atheist military personnel, veterans, and civilians.
    Hammer, Joseph H., Ryan T. Cragun, and Karen Hwang (2013)
    Military Psychology 25:5: 438-451.
    Investigated the impact of transcendent item phrasing (i.e., phrasing which assumes the respondent believes in certain sacred or supernatural concepts) on the validity of the U.S. Army’s Comprehensive Soldier Fitness (CSF) program’s spiritual fitness scale when administered to atheist military personnel, veterans, & civilians. The inclusion of transcendent phrasing led to reduced concurrent validity.
    Associated Search Terms: Atheist, U.S.A.; Military; Scale
  • There Is No God: Atheists in America.
    Williamson, David A., and George Yancey (2013)
    Lanham, Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield.
    Associated Search Terms: Atheist, U.S.A.
  • Why People Will Not Vote for Atheist Candidates.
    Djupe, Paul A., Brian R. Calfano, and Chelsea Back (2013)
    In Paul A. Djupe and Brian R. Calfano (eds.) God Talk: Experimenting with the Religious Causes of Public Opinion. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, pp. 74-92.
    Associated Search Terms: Politics; Prejudice, religious; Atheist
  • The construction of atheist spirituality: A survey-based study.
    Schnell, Tatjana, and William J.F. Keenan (2013)
    In Herman Westerink (ed.) Constructs of meaning and religious transformation. Vienna: Vienna University Press, pp. 101–118.
    Based on European Values Survey data.
    Associated Search Terms: Spirituality; Atheist
  • Religious non-involvement among African Americans, Black Caribbeans and Non-hispanic Whites: Findings from the National Survey of American Life.
    Brown, R. Khari, Robert Joseph Taylor, and Linda M. Chatters (2013)
    Review of Religious Reseach 55:3:435-457.
    Reports 2001-03 survey data. African Americans & Black Caribbeans were both more religiously involved than non-Hispanic whites. Women, married persons, Southerners, & the highly educated were more involved in religion than others. The religiously uninvolved were not atheists.
    Associated Search Terms: United States, South; Marriage; Religiosity; Women; Education; Caribbean Americans; African Americans; Atheist, U.S.A.
  • Faithless: The politics of new atheism.
    Kettell, Steven (2013)
    Secularism and Nonreligion 2:1: 61-72.
    Examines the politics of new atheism across a variety of themes related to politics. These include the causal factors underpinning its emergence & development, its organizational structure & composition, the political strategies pursued by its proponents, & the various internal tensions & conflicts that these dynamics have produced.
    Associated Search Terms: Atheist; Atheist, U.S.A.
  • Struktur und Identität des Nicht-Religiösen: Relationen und soziale Normirungen.
    Wohlrab-Sahr, Monika, and Tom Kaden (2013)
    Kölner Zeitschrift für Soziologie und Sozialpsychologie 65, 1 Suppl., 183-209.
    Associated Search Terms: Atheist
  • The politics of the new atheism.
    Schulzke, Marcus (2013)
    Politics and Religion 6:4: 778-799.
    Associated Search Terms: Atheist; Politics
  • A world of atheism: Global demographies.
    Keysar, Ariela, and Juhem Navarro-Rivera (2013)
    In Stephen Bullivant and Michael Ruse (eds.) The Oxford Handbook of Atheism. Oxford: University Press, pp. 553-586.
    Associated Search Terms: Demography; Atheist
  • The religious experiences of the non-religious in Taiwan.
    Kao, chen-yang (2013)
    In Yen-zen Tsai (ed.) Religious Experience in Contemporary Taiwan and China. Taipei: National Chengchi University Press, pp. 125-140.
    Associated Search Terms: Taiwan; Experience; Atheist, Taiwan
  • Central and Eastern Europe.
    Borowik, Irena, Branko Ancic, and RadoslawTyrala (2013)
    In Stephan Sebastian Bullivant (ed.) Oxford Handbook of Atheism. New York oxford University Press, pp. 622-637.
    Associated Search Terms: Atheist, Europe; Europe, central; Europe, eastern
  • Deprivatization of disbelief? Non-religiosity and anti-religiosity in 14 Western European countries.
    Ribberink, Egbert, Peter Achterberg, and Dick Houtman (2013)
    Politics and Religion 6: 101-120.
    Analyzes 2008 International Social Survey Program, Religion III, data. Anti-religiosity is strongest among disbelievers & among the higher educated in the most religious countries, & among the older generations in the most secularized countries.
    Associated Search Terms: Prejudice, anti-religious; Atheist, Europe; Europe, western
  • The field of religions in Norwegian pluralist society.
    Reeh, Niels (2013)
    In Giuseppe Giordan and William H. Swatos, Jr. (eds.) Testing Pluralism. Globalizing Belief, Localizing Gods. Leiden: Brill, pp. 175-192.
    Conceptualize organized non-belief as meso-level counters to organized religion. The Norwegian state recognizes life stance organizations. Similarly religions establish their identities in counter-stances toward other religions.
    Associated Search Terms: Spirituality; Norway; Levels of inclusiveness; Pluralism; Atheist, Norway; Humanist, Norway
  • Unaffiliated Parents and the Religious Training of their Children.
    Manning, Christel J. (2013)
    Sociology of Religion 74:2: 149-175.
    Based on 2005-07 interviews with 48 religiously unaffiliated parents in selected U.S. cities.
    Associated Search Terms: Nonreligion; Socialization; Salience; Family; Atheist, U.S.A.; Grounded theory
  • Religious affiliation, religious attendance, and participation in social change organizations.
    Guo, Chao, Natalie J. Webb, Rikki Abzug, and Laura R. Peck (2013)
    Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly 42: 34-58.
    Adherents to the more liberal Christian denominations—mainline Protestant & Catholic—are more likely to volunteer with social change organizations than are Evangelicals. We also find that adherents to other minority religions such as Judaism & Buddhism & individuals with no religious belief are all more likely to volunteer with social change organizations than are Evangelicals.
    Associated Search Terms: Evangelical, U.S.A.; Catholic, U.S.A.; Change; Buddhist, U.S.A.; Atheist, U.S.A.; Volunteering; Protestant (mainline), U.S.A..; Practice
  • A Person-centered Examination of Adolescent Religiosity using Latent Class Analysis.
    Pearce, Lisa D., E. Michael Foster, and Jessica Halliday Hardie (2013)
    Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 52:1: 57-79.
    Latent class analysis of 2002-03 telephone interview data from a representative sample of U.S.A. teenagers. Finds 5 classes: abiders, adapters, assenters, avoiders, atheists.
    Associated Search Terms: Latent class analysis; Religiosity; Methods; Adolescents
  • Forms, frequency, and correlates of perceived anti-atheist discrimination.
    Hamer, Joseph H., Ryan T. Cragun, Karen Hwang, and Jesse Smith (2012)
    Secularism and Nonreligion 1: 43-67.
    The nationally representative 2008 American Religious Identification Survey found that 41% of self-identified atheists reported experiencing discrimination in the last 5 years due to their lack of religious identification. This mixed-method study explored the forms & frequency of discrimination reported by 796 self-identified atheists living in the U.S.A.
    Associated Search Terms: Atheist, U.S.A.; Discrimination
  • Forms, frequency, and correlates of perceived anti-atheist discrimination.
    Hammer, Joseph H., Ryan T. Cragun, Jesse M. Smith, and Karen Hwang (2012)
    Secularism and Nonreligion 1: 43-58.
    The nationally representative 2008 American Religious Identification Survey found that 41% of self-identified atheists reported experiencing discrimination in the last 5 years due to their lack of religious identification.
    Associated Search Terms: Atheist, U.S.A.; Discrimination
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