Citations
Citations are taken from the Sociology of Religion Searchable Bibliographic Database, created and updated by Anthony J. Blasi (Ph.D. in Sociology, University of Notre Dame; University of Texas at San Antonio). The ARDA is not responsible for content or typographical errors.
  • Health differences between religious and secular subgroups in the United States:Evidence from the General Social Survey.
    Walker, Mark H., Leah Drakeford, Samuel Stroope, Joseph O. Baker, and Alexander L. Smith (2021)
    Review of Religious Research 63:1: 67-81.
    Analyzes 1988-2018 General Social Survey (U.S.A.) data. When compared to conservative Protestants, theistic nones & atheists had higher levels of self-rated health, agnostics & low-certainty nones did not differ from conservative Protestants.
    Associated Search Terms: Atheist; Belief; Health; United States
  • Racialized religion and judicial injustice: How whiteness and biblicist Christianity intersect to promote a preference for (unjust) punishment.
    Perry, Samuel L., and Andrew L. Whitehead (2021)
    Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 60:1: 46-63.
    Analyzes 1985, '90, '96, & 2016 General Social Survey (U.S.A.) data; white biblicist literalists preferred the error of convicting the innocent over the error of finding the guilty innocent.
    Associated Search Terms: Literalism; Race; Criminology
  • When Religion Hurts: Structural Sexism and Health in Religious Congregations.
    Homan, Patricia, and Amy Burdette (2021)
    American Sociological Review 86:2: 234-255.
    Links General Social Survey & National Congregations Study (both U.S.A.) data. Among religious participants, women who attend sexist religious institutions report worse self-rated health than do those who attend more inclusive congregations. Only women who attend inclusive religious institutions exhibit a health advantage over non-participants.
    Associated Search Terms: Health; Gender traditionalism; Practice; Women
  • How many "nones" are there? Explaining the discrepancies in survey estimates.
    Burge, Ryan P. (2020)
    Review of Religious Research 62:1: 173-190.
    Explains why the General Social Survey (USA) and the Cooperative Congressional Election Study show different percentages of "nones" in the US population.
    Associated Search Terms: Atheist; Methods; Survey
  • How religion predicts pet ownership in the United States.
    Perry, Samuel L., and Ryan P. Burge (2020)
    Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 59:1: 190-201.
    Analyzes 2018 General Social Survey (U.S.A.) data. Frequent church attenders & the most conservative Evangelicals tend to own pets, though frequent attenders tend not to own cats.
    Associated Search Terms: Evangelical, U.S.A.; Pets; Practice
  • Political identity and confidence in science and religion in the United States.
    O'Brien, Timothy L., and Shiri Noy (2020)
    Sociology of Religion 81:4: 439-461.
    Analyzes 1973-2018 General Social Survey data (U.S.A.); Democrats & Republicans reversed their confidence in science & in religion over time, Democrats now confident in science & Republicans in religion. Political identities predict confidence in religion & science.
    Associated Search Terms: Science; Politics, U.S.A.; Identity
  • What's behind the "nones-sense"? Change over time in factors predicting likelihood of religious nonaffiliation in the United States.
    Strawn, Kelley D. (2019)
    Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 58:3: 707-724.
    Analyzes General Social Survey (USA) data; age & political orientation continue to predict not identifying with a religion, but other variables are declining in strength as predictors.
    Associated Search Terms: Atheist, U.S.A.
  • Beyond "heartless conservative" and "bleeding heart liberal" caricatures: How religiosity shapes the relationship between political orientation and empathy.
    Schieman, Scott, Alex Bierman, and Laura Upenieks (2019)
    Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 58:2: 360-377.
    Analyzes 2004 General Social Survey (USA) data. Conservatives have lower levels of empathy than liberals, but only among those who have low levels of religiosity.
    Associated Search Terms: United States; Politics, U.S.A.; Religiosity; Empathy
  • Education and religious decline: Evidence from the Canadian compulsory schooling laws.
    Dilmaghani, Maryam (2019)
    Education Economics 27:3: 287–307.
    Analyzes 1990-2011 Canadian General Social Survey data; education is found to cause a higher likelihood of unaffiliation & a considerably lower frequency of religious attendance. The fall in the religious attendance rates is found to be stronger among Roman Catholics.
    Associated Search Terms: Secularization; Education; Canada; Catholic, Canada
  • Sectarian religion and political tolerance in the United States.
    Schwadel, Philip, and Christopher R.H. Garneau (2019)
    Sociology of Religion 80:2: 168-193.
    Analyzes 1984-2016 General Social Survey (U.S.A.) data. Evangelicals & literalists are less politically tolerant than other Americans, those these effects declined over time, more so for membership in Evangelical churches than for literalists.
    Associated Search Terms: Evangelical, U.S.A.; United States; Tolerance; Prejudice; Sect; Literalism
  • Christian America in black and white: Racial identity, religious-national group boundaries, and explanations for racial inequality.
    Perry, Samuel L., and Andrew L. Whitehead (2019)
    Sociology of Religion 80:3: 277-298.
    Analyzes 2014 General Social Survey (USA) data. Whites who conflate national & religious identity tend to attribute racial inequality to African Americans' shortcomings; African Americans who conflate national & religious identity tend to attribute inequality to structural issues.
    Associated Search Terms: Identity; Identity, national; African Americans; Race; Prejudice, racial; United States
  • Homegrown foreigners: How Christian nationalism and nativist attitudes impact Muslim civil liberties.
    Dahab, Ramsey, and Marisa Omori (2019)
    Ethnic and Racial Studies 42:10: 1727-1746.
    Analyzes 2014 General Social survey (U.S.A.) data; both Christian nationalism & nativism have significant negative effects on attitudes toward Muslim civil liberties. There were differences between the effects of Christian nationalism & nativism from those on other outgroups.
    Associated Search Terms: Prejudice, anti-Islamic; Islam, U.S.A.; Christian nationalism
  • Scriptural coping: An empirical test of hermeneutic theory.
    DeAngelis, Reed T., John P. Bartkowski, and Xiaohe Xu (2019)
    Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 58:1: 174-191.
    Analyzes 2012 General Social Survey (U.S.A.) data. Poor self-rated health & low SES positively predict reading scripture for insights into health & financial status, respectively. Concerning health, reading scripture seems to exacerbate depressive consequences of poor health.
    Associated Search Terms: Depression; Health; Hermeneutic; Coping; Bible reading; Stratification
  • Are the faithful becoming less fruitful? The decline of conservative Protestant fertility and the growing importance of religious prctice and belief in childbearing in the US.
    Perry, Samuel L., and Cyrus Schleifer (2019)
    Social Science Research 78: 137-155.
    Analyzes 1972-2016 General Social Survey (U.S.A.) data. Affiliation of Conservative Protestants predicts faster than average declines in fertility; monthly church attendance & biblical literalism predict lower. Monthly worship attendance slightly increases the fertility of mainline Protestants & Catholics over time.
    Associated Search Terms: Fertility; Conservative, U.S.A.; Demography; Literalism; Practice
  • Is RELTRAD still the gold standard?
    Shelton, Jason E. (2018)
    Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 57:4: 817-826.
    Examines the usefulness of the RELTRAD items in the General Social Survey (USA), which is shown to have advantages.
    Associated Search Terms: Survey; Methods; Denomination (organizational entity); General Social Survey (U.S.A.)
  • Comparing the RELTRAD and born-again/Evangelical self-identification approaches to measuring American Protestantism.
    Smith, Gregory Allen, Elizabeth Podrebarac Sciupac, Claire Gecewicz, and Conrad Hackett (2018)
    Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 57:4: 817-826.
    Compares the RELTRAD items in the General Social Survey(USA) & self-identification as member of a race & born-again or Evangelical. Comment by Darren E. Sherkat & Derek Lehman pp. 848-853. Reply by Conrad Hackett et al. pp. 854-57.
    Associated Search Terms: General Social Survey (U.S.A.); Denomination (organizational entity); Methods; Survey
  • The surprising predictable decline of religion in the United States.
    Brauer, Simon G. (2018)
    Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 57:4: 654-675.
    Analyzes 2006 European Social Survey & 1998 & 2000 U.S. General Social Survey data. Uses David Voas's model of self-reinforcing religious decline in Europe to interpret USA data, with the latter resembling an early stage.
    Associated Search Terms: Generations; Europe; Comparative; Secularization; United States
  • Sinners in the hands of an angry God: An exploration of religious forces on support for the death penalty.
    Bones, Paul D.C., and Soheil Sabriseilabi (2018)
    Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 57:4: 707-722.
    Analyzes 2008 USA General Social Survey data. Catholic affiliation decreases support for capital punishment; belief in hell increases it. Conservatism independently supports it.
    Associated Search Terms: Conservative, U.S.A.; Catholic, U.S.A.; Belief; Capital punishment; Religiosity
  • Patterns of conservative religious belief and religious practice across college majors.
    Schleifer, Cyrus, Simon G. Brauer, and Visha R. Patel (2018)
    Sociology of Religion 79:3: 299-322.
    Analyzes 2006-16 General Social Survey (U.S.A.) data. University degrees in natural science, technology, social science, humanities, & professions predicted less belief in God & less biblical literalism. Other relationships followed complicated patterns.
    Associated Search Terms: Factor analysis; Belief; Education; Practice; Science
  • Local religious subcultures and generalized social trust in the United States.
    Marshall, Joey, and Daniel V.A. Olson (2018)
    Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 57:3: 473-494.
    Analyzes 1984-2010 General Social Survey (U.S.A.) data from 256 metropolitan areas. Individuals' trust in others is lower in highly Evangelical areas & higher in highly mainline Protestant & Catholic areas.
    Associated Search Terms: Trust; Urban; Protestant (mainline), U.S.A..; Ecology; Catholic, U.S.A.; Evangelical, U.S.A.
  • Religiosity, secularity and fertility in Canada.
    Dilmaghani, Maryam (2018)
    European Journal of Population, DOI: 10.1007/s1680-018-9487-z,
    Based on Canadian General Social Survey data; secularized women are found to have lower fertility rates compared with the actively religious. Among them, the strictly seculars, a proxy identifier for the atheists, have the lowest fertility and the highest likelihood of remaining childless.
    Associated Search Terms: Canada; Fertility; Atheist, Canada; Religiosity
  • Are the sanctified becoming the pornified? Religious conservatism, commitment, and pornography use, 1984-2016.
    Perry, Samuel L., and Cyrus Schleifer (2018)
    Social Science Quarterly 99:5: 1614-1626.
    Analyzes 1984–2016 General Social Survey (U.S.A.) data. Those who merely identify with conservative Christianity are increasing in their porn viewership, but the most faithful & theologically conservative are no more likely to report viewing pornography than they were over 30 years ago.
    Associated Search Terms: Pornography; Conservative, U.S.A.
  • Canadian religious trends: Secularization, polarization, or free-rider exclusion?
    Dilmaghani, Maryam (2018)
    Social Compass 65:5: 626-649.
    Analyzes 1985-2011 Canadian General Social Survey data; notes geographical differences in unaffiliation rates and religiosity; proposes a quantitative measure of polarization; suggests free-rider exclusion as an explanation. Those who are religious in low-religiosity regions in the West of Canada tend to be intensely religious.
    Associated Search Terms: Canada; Membership; Regionalism; Religiosity
  • Understanding the rise of born-again Catholics in the United States: The role of educational attainment.
    Perry, Samuel L., and Cyrus Schleifer (2018)
    Review of Religious Research 60:4: 555-574.
    Analyzes 2004-16 U.S. General Social Survey data. Whether Evangelicals who became Catholic, born-again Catholic immigrants, conservatives allied with Evangelicals, or loosely connected to Catholic spirituality, Catholics with a born-again experience have less education than other Catholics.
    Associated Search Terms: Pentecostal, Catholic, U.S.A.; Born again experience; Catholic, U.S.A.; Education; Conservative, U.S.A.
  • Measuring evangelicals: Practical considerations for social scientists.
    Burge, Ryan P., and Andrew R. Lewis (2018)
    Politics and Religion 11:4: 1-15.
    Using several waves of the General Social Survey and the Cooperative Congressional Election Study, we compare them. We find almost no statistical differences between the two measurements in prominent demographic, political, or religious factors. Thus, we suggest that for most a simple question about broad religious affiliation followed by a born-again or evangelical self-identification question will suffice.
    Associated Search Terms: Evangelical; Survey; Methods
  • An intersectional analysis of perspectives on science and religion in the United States.
    Noy, Shiri, and Timothy L. O'Brien (2018)
    Sociological Quarterly 59:1: 40-61.
    Analyzes General Social Survey (U.S.A.) data; while Blacks & Latinos are more likely than whites to be oriented toward religion & away from science, gender differentiates this perspective among Latinos & whites but not among Blacks. Although whites are more likely than Blacks & Latinos to be oriented toward both science & religion, Latino men are more likely than Latina women to be so, but there is no gender difference among Blacks or whites.
    Associated Search Terms: Latino Americans; Science; African Americans; Gender
  • Religion, religiosity, and happiness.
    Sander, William (2017)
    Review of Religious Research 59:2: 251-262.
    Analyzes 1998-2012 General Social Survey (U.S.A.) data; compares happiness of religious tradition categories.
    Associated Search Terms: Protestant, U.S.A.; Jewish, U.S.A.; Islam, U.S.A.; Catholic, U.S.A.; Atheist, U.S.A.; Buddhist, U.S.A.; Happiness
  • Religious ambivalence, liminality, and the increase of no religious preference in the United States, 2006-2014.
    Hout, Michael (2017)
    Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 56:1: 52-63.
    Based on General Social Survey (USA) panel data; focuses on respondents who report no religious identification in one survey but report having one in a subsequent one: "liminal status."
    Associated Search Terms: Panel study; United States; Identification; Atheist, U.S.A.
  • The effects of Protestant theological conservatism and trust on environmental cooperation.
    Irwin, Kyle, and Brandon C. Martinez (2017)
    Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 56:1: 199-212.
    Analyzes 2010 General Social survey (USA) data; conservative Protestantism is characterized by lower levels of trust, which in turn undermine environmental cooperation.
    Associated Search Terms: Trust; Environmentalism; Conservative, U.S.A.
  • Traditional God images and attitudes towards voluntary euthanasia.
    Sharp, Shane (2017)
    Review of Religious Research 59:4: 529-545.
    Analyzes 1985-2008 General Social Survey (U.S.A.) data; imagining god as father or master is associated with opposing voluntary euthanasia.
    Associated Search Terms: Euthanasia; God, image of
  • Seeing is Believing: Religious Media Consumption and Public Opinion toward Same-Sex Relationships.
    Perry, Samuel L., and Landon Schnabel (2017)
    Social Currents 4:5: 462-481.
    Analyzes 1998 General Social Survey, 2005 Baylor Religion Survey, & 2012 Portraits of American Life Study data (all U.S.A.). Religious media consumption independently predicts lower support for same-sex relationships in the 3 surveys.
    Associated Search Terms: Media; Homosexuality
  • Love thy self? How belief in a supportive God shapes self-esteem.
    Schieman, Scott, Alex Bierman, Laura Upenieks, and Chistopher G. Ellison (2017)
    Review of Religious Research 59:3: 293-318.
    Analyzes 2000 General Social Survey (U.S.A.) data; belief in a supportive god helps explain & strengthens the association between religious involvement & self-esteem.
    Associated Search Terms: God, image of; Dimensions of religiosity; Born again experience; Self-esteem; Practice; Prayer; United States
  • The religious and political origins of Evangelical Protestants' opposition to environmental spending.
    Schwadel, Philip, and Erik Johnson (2017)
    Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 56:1: 179-198.
    Analyzes 1984-2012 General Social Survey (USA) data; biblical literalism explains much of the lack of support for government expenditures on environmental problems, with political partisanship playing an increasing role over time.
    Associated Search Terms: Fundamentalist, U.S.A.; Environmentalism; United States; Literalism; Politics, U.S.A.
  • Gendered religiosity.
    Schnabel, Landon (2017)
    Review of Religious Research 59:4: 547-556.
    Analyzes 2014 General Social Survey (U.S.A.) data. Gender pride & salience of gender predict religiosity among men, salience of gender & friends seeing self as a female predict religiosity among women.
    Associated Search Terms: Gender
  • Anti-porngraphy narratives as self-fulfilling prophecies: Religious variation in the effect that pornography viewing has on the marital happiness of husbands.
    Thomas, Jeremy N., Becka A. Alper, and Shane A. Gleason (2017)
    Review of Religious Research 59:4: 471-497.
    The anti-pornography narrative that says pornography-viewing acts negatively on the viewer has acted as a self-fulfilling prophecy. Based on content analysis of magazines & 2014 General Social Survey (USA) data. Effect varies by denominational category.
    Associated Search Terms: Content analysis; Marriage; Pornography; Self-fulfilling prophecy
  • The use of prayer to manage anger: Do characteristics of the emotional experience matter?
    Sharp, Shane, and Deborah Carr (2017)
    Review of Religious Reseach 59:4: 557-574.
    Analyzes 1996 General Social Survey (U.S.A.) data. People turn to prayer when they have negative experiences for a long duration & frequently ruminate over events that occasion negative experiences, especially when family-induced.
    Associated Search Terms: Emotion; Prayer
  • Political tolerance and religion: An age-period-cohort analysis, 1984-2014.
    Eisenstein, Marie A., April K. Clark, and Ted G. Jelen (2017)
    Review of Religious Research 59:3: 395-418.
    Analyzes 1984-2014 General Social Survey (U.S.A.) data. Changes in political tolerance among various religious categories are mostly explained by period effects, not cohort replacement. Tolerance items refer to Communists, anti-religionists, homosexuals, racists, & militarists.
    Associated Search Terms: Politics, U.S.A.; Tolerance; United States; Change; Generations
  • Does ideological education in China suppress trust in religion and foster trust in government?
    Xie, Ying; Yunping Tong, and Fenggang Yang (2017)
    Religions 8:5: 94. https://doi.org/10.3390/rel8050094
    Examines the relationship between education & trust in government & trust in religion using data from the 2010 Chinese General Social Survey. Education is negatively associated with trust in government, while positively related to trust in religion, which suggests that policies aimed at displacing religion in favor of the Communist ideology have largely failed.
    Associated Search Terms: Trust; China; Education
  • Religiosity and labour earnings in Canadian provinces.
    Dilmaghani, Maryam (2017)
    Journal of Labor Researach 38:1: 82-99.
    Based on Canadian General Social Survey data. Males belonging to the least religious group earn significantly below otherwise identical individuals in the high affiliation province of Newfoundland, while they enjoy a ceteris paribus wage premium in the low religiosity provinces of British Columbia & Québec. Females of the most religious group, on the other hand, are found at a disadvantage in the Canadian west, where affiliation with Conservative Protestantism is more prevalent.
    Associated Search Terms: Religiosity; Stratification; Canada
  • Gendered God imagery and attitudes toward mothers' labor force participation: Examining the transposable character of religious schemas.
    Shah, Sarah, John P. Bartkowsk, and Xiaohe Xu (2016)
    Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 55:3: 540-557.
    Analyzes 1972-2011 General Social Survey (U.S.A.) data; gendered God imagery affects attitudes about women's labor force participation.
    Associated Search Terms: United States; Labor; Work; God, image of; Gender role
  • Awash in a sea of faith and firearms: Rediscovering the connection between religion and gun ownership in America.
    Yamane, David (2016)
    Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 55:3: 622-636.
    Analyzes 2006-14 General Social Survey (U.S.A.) data; theological conservatism positively predicts personal hand gun ownership while attendance frequency negatively predicts it.
    Associated Search Terms: Belief; Conservative, U.S.A.; Gun ownership; Practice; United States
  • Leaving my religion: Understanding the relationship between religious disaffiliation, health, and well-being.
    Fenelon, Andrew, and Sabrina Danielsen (2016)
    Social Science Research 57: 49-62.
    Based on General Social Survey (U.S.A.) pooled data, 1973-2012. Religious disaffiliates experience poorer health & lower well-being than those consistently affiliated & those who are consistently unaffiliated.
    Associated Search Terms: Well-being; Apostate; Health
  • Sexuality and religious commitment revisited: Exploring the religious commitments of sexual minorities, 1991-2014.
    Sherkat, Darren E. (2016)
    Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 55:4: 756-769.
    Analyzes 1991-2014 General Social Survey (U.S.A.) data. Shows rates of sexual minorities turning away from religion; gays & lesbians are not leaving religion at rates moe tan in the past, in contrast to heterosexuals.
    Associated Search Terms: Disaffiliation; Homosexuality; United States
  • Not a lonely crowd? Social connectedness, religious service attendance, and the spiritual but not religious.
    Hastings, Orestes P. (2016)
    Social Science Research 57: 63-79.
    Uses 2006–14 General Social Survey (U.S.A.) & 2006–12 Portraits of American Life Study; on 3 dimensions of social connectedness (social interaction frequency, core discussion network size, & number of close ties religious service attenders are more connected than religious non-attenders & the spiritual & the not religious, but there are few differences between attenders & the spiritual but not religious.
    Associated Search Terms: Practice; Spirituality; United States; Social support
  • A nation divided: Science, religion, and public opinion in the United States.
    Noy, Shiri, and Timothy L. O'Brien (2016)
    Socius 2:1-15.
    Uses General Social Survey (U.S.A.) data to show that while opinions of people who are oriented to religion differ from those of people oriented to science, opinions of people oriented to both form a third, unique sector of public opinion.
    Associated Search Terms: United States; Science; Public opinion
  • Reltrad Coding Problems and a New Repository.
    Stetzer, Ed, and Ryan P. Burge (2015)
    Politics and Religion 9:1: 187-190.
    A popular approach to classifying denominations is the religious tradition classification scheme, which was most carefully systematized by Steensland et al. (2000). The implementation of this typology has never been fully and accurately operationalized.
    Associated Search Terms: Methods; Identification; General Social Survey (U.S.A.)
  • How religious are American women and men? Gender differences and similarities.
    Schnabel, Landon (2015)
    Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 54:3: 616-622.
    Uses General Social Survey (U.S.A.) data; wome3's greater religiosity is found only in the Christian tradition & hence is not universal.
    Associated Search Terms: Women; Proselytizing; United States; Practice; Prayer; Belief; Gender
  • Religiosity, spirituality, and attitudes toward same-sex marriage: A cross-sectional cohort comparison.
    Gay, David A., John P. Lynxwiler, and Patrick Smith (2015)
    SAGE Open 5: 1-14.
    Analyzes 2012 & '14 General Social Survey data (U.S.A.); examines the relationship between cohort, religiosity, spirituality, & attitudes toward same-sex marriage.
    Associated Search Terms: Homosexuality; Marriage
  • Intergenerational religious mobility in contemporary China.
    Hu, Anning, and Reid J. Leamaster (2015)
    Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 54:1: 79-99.
    Analyzes 2010 China General Social Survey data. Intergenerational religious mobility shows a growth of Islam, Christianity, & nones relative to traditional Chinese religions for father-child mobility, & advantage of nones for mother-child mobility.
    Associated Search Terms: Islam, China; China; Christian, China; Conversion; Generations; Atheist, China
  • United by faith? Race/ethnicity, congregational diversity, and explanations of racial inequality.
    Cobb, Ryon J., Samuel L. Perry, and Kevin D. Dougherty (2015)
    Sociology of Religion 76:2: 177-198.
    Analyzes 1998 & 2006 General Social Survey(U.S.A.) data & '98 & '06 National Congregations Study data. Multi-racial congregations do not make whites' explanations of minority disadvantage more structural, & these congregations attract minorities who have non-structural explanations.
    Associated Search Terms: Stratification; Racial attitudes; United States; Parish; Congregation
  • Non-affiliation, non-denominationalism, religious switching, and denominational switching: Longitudinal analysis of the effects on religiosity.
    Suh, Daniel, and Raymond Russell (2015)
    Review of Religious Research 57:1: 25-41.
    Analyzes 2006-2010 General Social Survey (U.S.A.) panel data. Conversion from one religion to another increases religiosity, from one Protestant denomination to another affects practice modestly but not belief. Non-affiliates become less religious. Protestants with no denomination resemble other Protestants.
    Associated Search Terms: Atheist, U.S.A.; Belief; Conversion; Denomination (organizational entity); Panel study; Practice
  • Traditional, modern, and post-secular perspectives on science and religion in the Untied States.
    O'Brien, Timothy L., and Shiri Noy (2015)
    American Sociological Review 80:1: 92-115.
    Analyzes General Social Survey (U.S.A.) data. Perspectives on science & religion do not simply mirror other denominational or ideological differences. Furthermore, religio-scientific perspectives shape attitudes about political issues where scientific & some religious communities diverge, including on abortion rights & stem cell research. Most individuals favor either scientific or religious ways of understanding, but many scientifically inclined individuals prefer certain religious accounts.
    Associated Search Terms: United States; Science; Post-secular
  • Toward religious polarization? Time effects on religious commitment in U.S., UK, and Canadian regions.
    Wilkins-Laflamme, Sarah (2014)
    Sociology of Religion 75:2: 284-308.
    Presents 1985-2010 General Social Survey (U.S.A. & Canada), Scottish, British, & Northern Ireland Social Attitudes Survey, & Northern Ireland Life and Times Survey data.
    Associated Search Terms: Canada, regions; Great Britain, England; Great Britain, Northern Ireland; Great Britain, Scotland; Great Britain, Wales; Membership; United States, regions
  • Attendance matters: Religion and ethical affirmation of gay and lesbian sexuality.
    Wright, Nathan (2014)
    Review of Religious Research 56:2: 245-273.
    Analyzes 1974-2000 General Social Survey (U.S.A.) data. Weekly attenders are more likely to be isolated from general perspectives such as ethical affirmation of gay & lesbian sexuality.
    Associated Search Terms: Practice; Sexual attitudes; Social capital; United States; Homosexuality
  • Church Attendnce, Problems of Measurement, and Interpreting Indicators: A Study of Religious Practice in the United States, 1975-2010.
    Rossi, Maurizio, and Ettore Scappini (2014)
    Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 53:2: 249-267.
    Compares General Social Survey (U.S.A.) data and data from time use surveys collected between 1975 and 2010. The GSS data tend to be erratic, while the time use survey data are more reliable.
    Associated Search Terms: Practice; United States; Survey; Time use survey; Methods
  • Shifts along the American religious-secular spectrum.
    Keysar, Ariela (2014)
    Secularity and Nonreligion 3:1: 1-16.
    Creates a "scale" (actually an index) with 3 items from both the American Religious Identification Survey & the General Social survey (U.S.A.). The index predicts stances on issues--e.g., belief in evolution--& indicates a secularization trend.
    Associated Search Terms: United States; Secularization; Evolution
  • An examination of the "greening of Christianity" thesis among Americans, 1993-2010.
    Clements, John M., Aaron M. McCright, and Chenyang Xiao (2014)
    Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 53:2: 373-391.
    Examines 1993-2010 General social Survey (U.S.A.) data. Self-identified Christians remained less environmentalist than others. there had been some "greening" of Evangelicals.
    Associated Search Terms: Environmentalism; United States
  • Changing Faith: The Dynamics and Consequences of Americans' Shifting Religious Identities.
    Sherkat, Darren E. (2014)
    New York: New York University Press.
    Describes U.S.A. religion with General Social Survey data; presents models predicting religious switching & apostasy. Secularization, supply-side rational choice theories, & other grand theories fail to explain changes of religion in the U.S.
    Associated Search Terms: Homosexuality; Identification; Disaffiliation; Education; Ethnic; Change; Belief; Fundamentalist, U.S.A.; Conversion; Secularization; Sexual activity; Sexual attitudes; Stratification; Marriage; Membership; Politics, U.S.A.; Polity; Practice; Rational choice theory; Migration; Mobility (vertical); United States
  • Do people who believe in God report more meaning in their lives? The existential effects of belief.
    Cranney, Stephen (2013)
    Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 52:3: 638-646.
    Analyzes 1998 & 2008 General Social Survey data (U.S.A.); belief in God is related statistically to a sense of purpose in life.
    Associated Search Terms: United States; Meaning; Belief
  • The growing social and moral conflict between consevative Protestantism and science.
    Evans, John H. (2013)
    Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 52:2:368-385.
    Analyzes 1984-2010 General Social Survey (U.S.A.) data; an increase in opposition to science has occurred among biblical literalists.
    Associated Search Terms: Science; Literalism; Conservative, U.S.A.; Fundamentalist, U.S.A.
  • How does religion promote forgiveness? Linking beliefs, orientations, and practices.
    Escher, Daniel (2013)
    Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 52:1: 100-119.
    Analyzes 1998 General Social Survey (U.S.A.) data; orientations toward God & belief that religious imperatives should pervade life help explain the association between religion & forgiveness.
    Associated Search Terms: United States; God, image of; Belief; Forgiveness
  • Changes in Americans' strength of religious affiliation, 1974-2010.
    Schwadel, Philip (2013)
    Sociology of Religion 74:1: 107-128.
    Based on 1974-2010 General Social Survey (U.S.A.) data; traces % respondents reporting strong affiiation for 4 categories: Evangelical, Black protestant, Mainline Protestant, Catholic. Notes 1980s period effects.
    Associated Search Terms: Evangelical, U.S.A.; Catholic, U.S.A.; African Americans; Protestant, U.S.A.; Membership; United States
  • Religion and medicalization: The case of ADHD.
    Li, Kati (2013)
    Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 52:2:309-327.
    Analyzes 2002 General Social Survey (U.S.A.) data. Evangelicals were less likely to see Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder as a disease, while frequent church attendance was related to being more likely to see it as such.
    Associated Search Terms: United States; Medical; Medicalization; Practice; Evangelical, U.S.A.
  • Declining religious authority? Confidence in the leaders of religious organizations, 1973-2010.
    Hoffmann, John P. (2013)
    Review of Religious Research 55:1: 1-25.
    Analyzes 1973-2010 General Social Survey (U.S.A.) data; confidence in clergy declined among those born 1945-70, rebounding among later cohorts among those who attend religious services.
    Associated Search Terms: Secularization; United States; Generations; Clergy image
  • Gender, religiosity, spirituality, and attitudes toward homosexuality.
    Barringer, Mandi Nicole, David A. Gay, and John P. Lynxwiler (2013)
    Sociological Spectrum 33:3: 240-257.
    Examines the effects of religious affiliation, religiosity, & spirituality on attitudes toward homosexuality separately for men & women using the 2008 & 2010 General Social Surveys (U.S.A.). Results indicate significant gender differences in attitudes toward homosexuality for 2 variables.
    Associated Search Terms: Spirituality; Religiosity; Homosexuality
  • Conservative Protestantism and skepticism of scienists studying climate change.
    Evans, John H., and Justin Feng (2013)
    Climate Change 121: 595-608.
    Analyzes 2006 & 2'10 General Social Survey data (U.S.A.). Finds no evidence conservative Protestants believe less in the conclusiveness of climate scientists’ claims. However, a 2nd type of skepticism is an unwillingness to follow scientists’ public policy recommendations.
    Associated Search Terms: Science; Belief; Conservative, U.S.A.; Environmentalism
  • Religious attendance, stress, and happiness in South Korea: Do gender and religious affiliation matter?
    Jung, Jong Hyun (2013)
    Social Indicators Research 118:3: 1125-1145.
    Analyzes 2009 Korean General Social Survey data. Ordinal least square regression analyses reveal that although the effect size is relatively small, religious attendance is associated with a higher level of happiness in South Korea. However, this positive effect holds only for women a&only for Protestants.
    Associated Search Terms: Korea (South); Stress; Practice; Happiness
  • Identity as a determinant of the overreporting of church attendance in Canada.
    Brenner, Philip S. (2012)
    Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 51:2: 377-385.
    Analyzes over-reporting of church attendance in the 2005 Canadian General Social Survey; it is related to identification strength. the survey question was compared to time diary data.
    Associated Search Terms: Diaries; Canada; Identity; Practice; Interview; Methods
  • Trust in a "fallen world": The case of Protestant theological conservatism.
    Hempel, Lynn M., Todd Matthews, and John Bartkowski. (2012)
    Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 51:3: 522-541.
    Analyzes 2008 General Social Survey (U.S.A.) dta; conservative beliefs (authoritative Bible, human depravity, born again, hell) predicted generalized trust inversely, canceling out the effects of religious involvement, which positively predicts trust.
    Associated Search Terms: Belief; Conservative, U.S.A.; Trust; United States
  • Religion and education: Recent evidence from the United States.
    Kortt, Michael A., Brian Dollery, and Simon Pervan (2012)
    Applied Economics Letters 19: 1175–1178.
    Analyzes cumulative General Social Survey (U.S.A.) data. While the atuhors observe a positive correlation between education & attendance at religious services, they find no evidence to support a causal inference.
    Associated Search Terms: United States; Education
  • Pornography, Religion, and the Happiness Gap: Does Pornography Impact the Actively Religious Differently.
    Patterson, Richard, and Joseph Price (2012)
    Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 51:1: 79-89.
    Analyzes 1973-2006 General Social Survey (U.S.A.) data; church attendance is related to less watch of X-rated movies. Watching the movies is related to less general happiness, especially among attenders in denominations where members have strong opinions critical of pornography.
    Associated Search Terms: Media; Pornography; Practice; United States
  • Religion and the Sense of Control among U.S. Adults.
    Ellison, Christopher G., and Amy M. Burdette (2012)
    Sociology of Religion 73:1: 1-22.
    Analyzes 1996 General Social Survey (U.S.A.) data; conservative Protestant adherence, belief in an afterlife, & attendance predict a greater sense of control while biblical literalism & belief in original sin predict a lesser sense of control.
    Associated Search Terms: Literalism; United States; Practice; Conservative, U.S.A.; Control, sense of; Afterlife; Belief
  • Parental divorce, parental religious characteristics, and religious outcomes in adulthood.
    Uecker, Jeremy E., and Christopher G. Ellison (2012)
    Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 51:4: 777-794.
    Analyzes 1991, '98, & 2008 General Social Survey (U.S.A.) data; growing up in a single-parent family is positively associated with religious disaffiliation & switching; it has a negative relationship with attendance when 2 religiously-involved parents divorce.
    Associated Search Terms: Socialization; Practice; United States; Disaffiliation; Divorce; Conversion; Family; Generations
  • Religiosity and deviance: An examination of the moral community and antiasceticism hypotheses among U.S. adults.
    Sturgis, Paul W., and Robert D. Baller (2012)
    Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 51:4: 809-820.
    Uses 2000 & '02 General Social Survey (U.S.A.) data in one analysis & 1998 in another; attendance is inversely related to minor & major deviance, controlling for regions (which vary by attendance rates). Interaction of mean region attendance & individual attendance produced no effects.
    Associated Search Terms: Practice; Regionalism; United States; Sexual activity; Moral community; Deviance/social control; Drug; Contextual effects; Criminology; Asceticism
  • Support for homosexuals' civil liberties: The influence of familial gender role attitudes across religious denominations.
    Kenneavy, Kristin (2012)
    Social Forces 90:4:1347-1375.
    Analyzes 1996 & 2006 General Social Survey (U.S.A.) data. Traditional gender role attitudes & support for homosexuals' civil liberties negatively co-vary over time. Denominational differences in attitudes are evident in 1996, but in 2006 are noticeably absent, suggesting a decline in the explanatory power of denominational affiliation.
    Associated Search Terms: Gender traditionalism; Denomination (organizational entity); Homosexuality
  • Religious affiliation, college degree attainment, and religious switching.
    Scheitle, Christopher P., and Buster G. Smith (2012)
    Research in the Sociology of Work 23: 205-226.
    Utilizes the cumulative 1972–2008 General Social Surveys (U.S.A.) to examine the relationships between childhood religious affiliation, college degree attainment, & religious switching across 3 birth cohorts. In early cohorts traditions such as Conservative Protestantism & Catholicism negatively predict college degree attainment; switching out of those traditions is positively associated. In later cohorts, these effects disappear.
    Associated Search Terms: Disaffiliation; Education; Apostate; Catholic, U.S.A.; Conservative, U.S.A.
  • Parental Divorce and Adult Religiosity: Evidence from the General Social Survey.
    Lau, Hsien-Hsien, and Nicholas H. Wolfinger (2011)
    Review of Religious Research 53:1: 85-103.
    Analyzes 1991, '98, & 2008 General Social Survey (U.S.A.) data; growing up with a single divorced parent increases the likelihood of adult attendance & odds of changing affiliation.
    Associated Search Terms: Practice; United States; Religiosity; Divorce; Conversion
  • Identity Importance and the Overreporting of Religious Service Attendance: Multiple Imputation of Religious Attendance Using the American Time Use Study and the General Social Survey.
    Brenner, Philip S. (2011)
    Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 50:1: 103-115.
    Since importance of religious identity predicts overreporting of attendance, the attendance reported on surveys is a good measure of religiosity.
    Associated Search Terms: Identity; Practice; Religiosity; Salience
  • Go Forth and Multiply: Revisiting Religion and Fertility in the United States, 1984-2008.
    Borch, Casey, Matthew West, and Gordon Gauchat (2011)
    Religions 2:4: 469-484. www.mdpi.com/journal/religions
    General Social Survey data show Catholic and conservative Protestant fertility rates higher than that of liberal Protestant population.
    Associated Search Terms: Fertility; Conservative/liberal; Catholic; United States; Protestant, U.S.A.
  • The Effects of Education on Americans' Religious Practices, Beliefs, and Affiliations.
    Schwadel, Philip (2011)
    Review of Religious Research 53:2: 161-182.
    Analyzes 1998 General Social Survey (U.S.A.) data; the relationship between education & different aspects of religiosity varies.
    Associated Search Terms: Belief; Education; Conversion; United States; Literalism; Practice; Salience
  • Educational Attainment and Religiosity: Exploring Variations by Religious Tradition.
    McFarland, Michael J., Bradley R.E. Wright, and David L. Weakliem (2011)
    Sociology of Religion 72:2: 166-188.
    Analyzes 1972-2006 General Social Survey (U.S.A.) data; effects of educational attainment on religiosity vary by denomination.
    Associated Search Terms: Education; Denomination (organizational entity); United States
  • Neighbors Like Me? Religious Affiliation and Neighborhood Racial Preferences among non-Hispanic Whites.
    Merino, Stephen M. (2011)
    Religions 2:2: 165-183. www.mdpi.com/journal/religions
    Based on 2000 General Social Survey (U.S.A.) data; demographics rather than religious denomination predicts attitudes toward racially integrated neighborhoods, once the controls are introduced.
    Associated Search Terms: Racial attitudes; United States; Segregation, racial; Denomination (organizational entity)
  • Epistemological and Moral Conflict between Religion and Science.
    Evans, John H. (2011)
    Journal for the Scientific STudy of religion 50:4: 707-727.
    Analyzes 2006 General Social Survey (U.S.A.) data; conservative Protestant opposition to scientific influence in public affairs is not based on epistemological views but on opposition to the scientists' moral agenda.
    Associated Search Terms: United States; Science; Moral
  • American Religion. Contemporary Trends.
    Chaves, Mark (2011)
    Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press.
    Uses 1972-2008 General Social Survey (U.S.A.) data & 1998 & 2006-07 National Congregations Study data to trace religious patterns & changes in the U.S.A.
    Associated Search Terms: Politics, U.S.A.; Practice; United States; Seminarians; Sexual attitudes; Women; Literalism; Membership; Abortion; Belief; Clergy image; Homosexuality
  • Education and the Importance of Religion in Decision Making: Do Other Dimensions of Religiousness Matter?
    Schieman, Scott (2011)
    Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 50:3: 570-587.
    Analyzes 1988 General Social Survey (U.S.A.) data & 2002 telephone interview data from Americans. Educational attainment lessens the role of religion in decision making among those less engaged in religion in the first place.
    Associated Search Terms: United States; Education; Decision-making
  • A Friend in Creed: Does the Religious Composition of Geographic Areas Affect the Religious Composition of a Person's Close Friends?
    Olson, Daniel V.A., and Paul Perl (2011)
    Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 50:3: 483-502.
    Based on 1988 & '98 General Social Survey (U.S.A.) data & 1990 & 2000 Religious Congregations and Membership in the United States (Glenmary) data. Geographical areas' proportion of populations in one's own denomination is the chief determinant of having friends in one's own denomination.
    Associated Search Terms: Communality; Ecology; United States
  • Confidence in Religious Leaders in Korea: A Research Note.
    Kim, Jibum, Sang-wook Kim, and Jeong-Han Kang (2010)
    Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 49:2: 320-327.
    Uses 2003-07 Korean General Social Survey data.
    Associated Search Terms: Confidence in religious leaders; Clergy image; Korea (South)
  • The Religious Demography of the United States. Dynamics of Affiliation, Participation, and Belief.
    Sherkat, Darren E. (2010)
    In Christopher G. Ellison and Robert A. Hummer (eds.) Religion, Families, and Health. Population-Based Research in the United States, New Brunswick, New Jersey: Rutgers University Press, pp. 403-430.
    Based on 1973-2002 General Social Survey (U.S.A.) data.
    Associated Search Terms: United States; Membership; Demography
  • America as a 'Christian Nation'? Understanding Religious Boundaries of National Identity in the United States.
    Straughn, Jeremy Brooke (2010)
    Sociology of Religion 71:3: 280-306.
    Analyzes 1996 & 2004 General Social Survey (U.S.A.) data; predicts importance placed on Christianity for American identity.
    Associated Search Terms: United States; Boundary maintenance; Identity, national
  • Religion and Subjective Well-being in Japan.
    Roemer, Michael K. (2010)
    Review of Religious Research 51:4: 411-427.
    Analyzes 2000-03 & '05 Japanese General Social Survey data; religious devotion & affiliation with certain religions correlate with life satisfaction & happiness.
    Associated Search Terms: Well-being, psychological; Japan
  • God Imagery and Opposition to Abortion and Capital Punishment: A Partial Test of Religious Support for the Consistent Life Ethic.
    Unnever, James D., John P. Bartkowski, and Francis T. Cullen (2010)
    Sociology of Religion 71:3: 307-322.
    Analyzes 2004 General Social Survey (U.S.A.) data; close relationship with a loving God predicts opposing both abortion & capital punishment.
    Associated Search Terms: God, image of; Capital punishment; Abortion; United States
  • Period and Cohort Effects on Religious Nonaffiliation and Religious Disaffiliation: A Research Note.
    Schwadel, Philip (2010)
    Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 49:2: 311-319.
    Analyzes 1973-2006 General Social Survey (U.S.A.) data; finds over time increased likelihood of having no religion but lesser likelihood of disaffiliation.
    Associated Search Terms: United States; Cross-classified, random effects model; Disaffiliation; Estimator model; Atheist, U.S.A.; Generations
  • Age, Period, and Cohort Effects on U.S. Religious Service Attendance: The Declining Impact of Sex, Southern Residence, and Catholic Affiliation.
    Schwadel, Philip (2010)
    Sociology of Religion 71:1: 2-24.
    Analyzes 1971-2006 General Social Survey (U.S.A.) data; cohort changes were minimal. Effects of Catholic affiliaiton, female sex, & Southern residence declined, thus reducing attendance.
    Associated Search Terms: Catholic, U.S.A.; Gender; Generations; United States; United States, South; Practice
  • Religiosity, spirituality and substance abuse.
    Allen, Thomas M., and Celia C. Lo (2010)
    Journal of Drug Issues 40:2: 433-459.
    Analyzed 2004 General Social Survey (U.S.A.) data. Religiosity was negatively associated with substance abuse; social bonding variables mediated this negative relationship between the two. Additionally, as expected, with religiosity controlled, the likelihood of substance abuse increased along with increasing spirituality.
    Associated Search Terms: Spirituality; Religiosity; Drug
  • Religious Attendance and Happiness: Examining Gaps in the Current Literature--A Research Note.
    Childs, Ellen (2010)
    Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 49:3: 550-560.
    Analyzes 1998 General Social Survey (U.S.A.) data; perceived relationship with God is more strongly related to happiness than is social cohesion. Analyzes 1987-88 & 1992-94 interview panel data from U.S. households; attendance affects happiness more than happiness affects attendance.
    Associated Search Terms: Practice; United States; Social support; God, emotions toward; Happiness
  • Spiritual Struggles and Psychological Distress among US Adults: Is there a Dark Side of Religion?
    Ellison, Christopher G., and Jinwoo Lee (2010)
    Social Indicators Research 98: 501-517.
    3 types of spiritual struggle: (a) divine, or troubled relationships with God; (b) interpersonal, or negative social encounters in religious settings; (c) intrapsychic, or chronic religious doubting. Analyzes 1998 General Social Survey Data (U.S.A.). Findings reveal strong & independent associations between each type of spiritual struggle & psychological distress.
    Associated Search Terms: Stress; Doubt
  • Religious background and educational attainment: The effects of Buddhism, Islam, and Judaism.
    Sander, William (2010)
    Economics of Education Review 29:3: 489-493. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.econedurev.2009.08.004
    Analyzes 1998-2008 General Social Survey (U.S.A.) data. Islam & Judaism have similar positive effects on attainment relative to Protestants & Catholics. The effect of Buddhism is specific to respondents who were living in the U.S.A. at age 16 or were born in the U.S.A.
    Associated Search Terms: Islam, U.S.A.; Jewish, U.S.A.; Education; Buddhist, U.S.A.
  • From Generation to Generation. Religious Involvement and Attitudes toward Family and Pro-Family Outcomes among U.S. Catholics.
    Burdette, Amy M., and Teresa A. Sullivan (2010)
    In Christopher G. Ellison and Robert A. Hummer (eds.) Religion, Families, and Health. Population-Based Research in the United States. New Brunswick, New Jersey: Rutgers University Press, pp. 126-147.
    Analyzes 1974-2004 General Social Survey (U.S.A.) data from white non-Latino Catholics. There is a trend toward smaller preferred family size & a liberalization of attitudes about family, except with regard to extra-marital affairs & abortion, but declines in religious involvement counter the trend in abortion attitudes.
    Associated Search Terms: Sexual attitudes; Family; Family size; Generations; Homosexuality; Abortion; Catholic, U.S.A.
  • The Prevalence of Clergy Sexual Advances toward Adults in their Congregations.
    Chaves, Mark, and Diana Garland (2009)
    Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 48:4: 817-824.
    Analyzes 2008 General Social Survey (U.S.A.) data.
    Associated Search Terms: Sexual advances; United States; Clergy
  • Size, Conflict, and Opportunities for Interaction: Congregational Effects on Members' Anticipated support and negative interaction.
    Ellison, Christopher G., Neal M. Krause, Bryan C. Shepherd, and Mark A. Chaves (2009)
    Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 48:1: 1-15.
    Based on 1998 General Social Survey & National Congregational study data; smaller congregations occasion more social support & conflict. Set times for socializing occasioned more social support.
    Associated Search Terms: Conflict; Congregation size; Social support; Parish
  • It Takes Two: The Interplay of Individual and Group Theology on Social Embeddedness.
    Scheitle, Christopher P., and Amy Adamczyk (2009)
    Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 48:1: 16-29.
    Exclusive beliefs promote friendships within congregations. Based on 2000 General Social Survey (U.S.A.) data.
    Associated Search Terms: United States; Belief; Friendship
  • The impact of race on denominational variations in social attitudes: The issue and its dimensions.
    Gay, David A., and John P. Lynxwiler (2009)
    Sociological Spectrum 30:1: 110-127.
    Analyzes General Social Survey data (U.S.A.) to compare the social attitudes of African Americans&d their white counterparts within established designations of religious affiliation.
    Associated Search Terms: Denomination (organizational entity); Abortion; African Americans; Homosexuality; Sexual attitudes; Race
  • Sex and Gender Traditionalism among Conservative Protestants: Does the Difference Make a Difference?
    Bartkowski, John P., and Lynn M. Hempel (2009)
    Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 48:4: 805-816.
    Analyzes 1998 General Social Survey (U.S.A.) data; theological conservatism predicts gender traditionalism among women, strength of denominational affiliation predicts it among men.
    Associated Search Terms: Belief; Gender role; United States; Sex; Sexism
  • A Power-Control Theory of Gender and Religiosity.
    Collett, Jessica L., and Omar Lizardo (2009)
    Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 48:2: 213-231. Comments & reply 232-259.
    Analyzes 1994-2004 General Social Survey (U.S.A.) data; higher mothers' social status decreases daughters' religiosity. Comments by John P. Hoffmann; Matt Bradshaw & Christopher G. Ellison; Marie Cornwall; & a reply.
    Associated Search Terms: Religiosity; United States; Stratification; Socialization; Power; Women; Family
  • Religious beliefs, sociopolitical ideology, and attitudes toward corporal punishment.
    Ellison, Christopher G., and Matt Bradshaw (2009)
    Journal of Family Issues 30:3: 320-340.
    Analyzes 1998 General Social Survey (U.S.A.) data; findings underscore the importance of conservative Protestant beliefs, especially hierarchical images of God & belief in Hell, but not denominational affiliation.
    Associated Search Terms: Corporal punishment; God, image of; Belief
  • Two Approaches to Religion and Politics: Moral Cosmology and Subcultural Identity.
    Starks, Brian, and Robert V. Robinson (2009)
    Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 48:4: 650-669.
    Analyzes 1998 General Social Survey (U.S.A.) data. Subcultural identity morality predicts conservative stands on both cultural & economic issues; moral cosmology predicts conservative cultural & liberal economic stands.
    Associated Search Terms: Politics, U.S.A.; Moral; United States; Identity; Belief; Catholic, U.S.A.; Evangelical, U.S.A.; Fundamentalist, U.S.A.
  • Race, Religion, and Worship: Are Contemporary African-American Worship Practices Distinct?
    Edwards, Korie L. (2009)
    Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 48:1: 30-52.
    1998 General Social Survey /National Congregations Study data (U.S.A.) show ecstatic worship (verbal affirmation & spontaneous physical worship) is no longer uniquely African American nor found only among the uneducated.
    Associated Search Terms: Charismatic, U.S.A.; African Americans; Worship
  • Faith and Happiness.
    Stark, Rodney, and Jared Maier (2008)
    Review of Religious Research 50:1: 120-125.
    Based on 24 years of the General Social Survey (U.S.A.); religion is related to well-being.
    Associated Search Terms: United States; Well-being, psychological
  • Measuring Evangelicalism: Consequences of Different Operationalization Strategies.
    Hackett, Conrad, and D. Michael Lindsay (2008)
    Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 47:3: 499-514.
    Uses 1998 General Social Survey (U.S.A.) data to show different operationalizations of Evangelical identity result in quite different demographic profiles.
    Associated Search Terms: Evangelical, U.S.A.; Methods
  • Political Tolerance and God's Wrath in the United States.
    Froese, Paul, Christopher D. Bader, and Buster Smith (2008)
    Sociology of Religion 69:1: 29-44.
    Analyzes 1991 & '98 General Social Survey (U.S.A.) data; an image of God as wrathful predicts political intolerance. Uses Andrew Greeley's theoretical perspective.
    Associated Search Terms: God, image of; Greeley, Andrew M.; Civil liberties; Tolerance; Politics, U.S.A.; United States
  • Gender, Religious Tradition and Biblical Literalism.
    Hoffmann, John P., and John P. Bartkowski (2008)
    Social Forces 86:3: 1245-1272.
    Analyzes 2000 U.S. survey data and 1984-2002 General Social Survey (U.S.A.) data; women more than men hold literalist theologies in patriarchialist religious organizations more than in liberal ones.
    Associated Search Terms: United States; Sex; Literalism; Conservative, U.S.A.
  • Gender, Marital Status, and Alcohol Behavior: The Neglected Role of Religion.
    Ellison, Christopher G., Jennifer B. Barrett, and Benjamin E. Moulton (2008)
    Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 47:4: 660-677.
    Analyzes 1977-94 General Social Survey (U.S.A.) data; conservtive religion rather than marital status itself explains much of the relationship between marital status & less alcohol use.
    Associated Search Terms: Conservative, U.S.A.; Alcohol; United States
  • Educational Attainment and Cohort Change among Conservative Protestants, 1972-2004.
    Massengill, Rebekah Peeples (2008)
    Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 47:4: 545-562.
    Analyzes 1972-2004 General Social Survey (U.S.A.) data; conservative Protestants in the white population are not keeping up educationally with other white Protestants, despite gains made in the cohort born 1940-59.
    Associated Search Terms: Conservative, U.S.A.; Education
  • Examining the "Spill-over" Effect of Religiosity on Civic Involvement and Efficacy.
    Smith, H. Lovell, and Mark Peyrot (2008)
    Research in the Social Scientific Study of Religion 19: 143-162.
    Analyzes 1987 General Social Survey (U.S.A.) data; religiosity is related to faith-based civic activity, but not other kinds. There is, however, a spill-over effect from invovlement in religious organizations to secular ones.
    Associated Search Terms: Cultural capital; United States; Social participation
  • Religiousness and infidelity: Attendance, but not faith and prayer, predict marital fidelity.
    Atkins, David C., and Deborah E. Kessel (2008)
    Journal of Marriage & Family 70: 407-418.
    The study developed 9 religiousness subscales using items from the 1998 General Social Survey to more fully explore the association between religiousness & infidelity. Interestingly, logistic regressions using currently married participants demonstrated that attendance, but not faith, nearness to God, prayer, & other religious attributes, was related, inversely, to infidelity.
    Associated Search Terms: Sexual activity; Practice; Religiosity; Marriage
  • Daily Spiritual Experiences and Psychological well-being among US Adults.
    Ellison, Christopher G., and Daisy Fan (2008)
    Social Indicators Research 88:2: 247-271.
    Analyzes 1998 & 2004 General Social Survey (U.S.A.) data; suggests a robust positive association between Daily Spiritual Experience Scale scores & psychological well-being. By contrast, DSES has little bearing on negative affect. We also found that DSES does not account for the association between religious practices & psychological variables. That is, DSES appears to tap some other aspect of spirituality that is relevant for well-being.
    Associated Search Terms: Experience; United States; Spirituality; Spirituality scale; Well-being, psychological
  • Counting religious nones and other religious measurement issues: A comparison of the Baylor Religion Survey and General Social Survey.
    Smith, Tom W., and Seokho Kim (2007)
    GSS Methodological Report 110:1: 1-15.
    Associated Search Terms: Atheist; Survey; Methods
  • Religion and Survey Non-response Bias: Toward Explaining the Moral Voter Gap between Surveys and Voting.
    Sherkat, Darren E. (2007)
    Sociology of Religion 68:1: 83-95.
    Biblical literalists tend to not respond to survey requests. Based on 1984-2004 General Social Survey (U.S.A.) data.
    Associated Search Terms: Politics, U.S.A.; Methodology; Methods, interview; United States; Conservative, U.S.A.; Fundamentalist, U.S.A.
  • Moral Cosmology, Religion, and Adult Values for Children.
    Starks, Brian, and Robert V. Robinson (2007)
    Journal for the Scientific study of Religion 46:1: 17-35.
    Based on 1998 General Social Survey (U.S.A.) data; socialization into moral individualism & its oppsoite correlates with theological stances.
    Associated Search Terms: Individualism; United States; Socialization; Moral; Conservative/liberal
  • Structuring the Religion-environment Connection; Identifying Religious Influences on Environmental Concern and Activism.
    Sherkat, Darren E., and Christopher G. Ellison (2007)
    Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 46:1: 71-85/
    Analyzes 1993 General Social Survey (U.S.A.) data; religious belief affects environmentalism in diffeent ways, depending how its influence is mediated.
    Associated Search Terms: United States; Environmentalism; Belief
  • Religious Influences on Work-Family Trade-Offs.
    Ammons, Samantha, and Penny Edgell (2007)
    Journal of Family Issues 28:6: 794-826.
    Using 1996 General Social Survey data, the authors analyze how religion affects employment & family trade-offs. Religious involvement & religious subculture shape trade-offs in gender-specific ways; religion affects more of men's trade-offs.
    Associated Search Terms: Economic; Family
  • The tree of science and original sin: Do Christian religious beliefs constrain the supply of scientists?
    Granger, Maury D., and Gregory Price (2007)
    Jouranl of Socio-Economics 36:1: 144-160.
    Analyzes General Social Survey data (U.S.A.); the individual decision to pursue a graduate degree in science is sensitive to beliefs about the literal truth of the Bible & an afterlife. The underrepresentation of black Americans among graduate science degree holders is explained by their overrepresentation in the population of individuals raised in fundamentalist religious denominations.
    Associated Search Terms: Science; African Americans; Afterlife; Belief; Evolution; Fundamentalist, U.S.A.
  • Are there religious variations in marital infidelity?
    Burdette, Amy M., Christopher G. Ellison, Darren E. Sherkat, and Kurt A. Gore (2007)
    Journal of Family Issues 28: 1553-1581.
    Examines 1991-2004 General Social Survey (U.S.A.) data; religious factors are associated with the likelihood of marital infidelity. Both church attendance & biblical beliefs are associated with lower odds of self-reported infidelity. Additionally, the authors find substantial denominational variations in the odds of marital infidelity, particularly among those who strongly affiliate with their religious group.
    Associated Search Terms: Marriage; Sexual activity
  • Gender differences in religious practices, spiritual experiences and health: Results from the U.S. General Social Survey.
    Maselko, Joanna, and Laura D. Kubzansky (2006)
    Social Science and Medicine 62:11: 2848-2860.
    Analyzes 1998 US General Social Survey (U.S.A.) data. Weekly public religious activity predicted better health & well-being, more for men than women, & was influenced by denomination. When public & private religious activity, & spiritual experiences were considered together, public religious activity was the best predictor for men. For women, public religious activity & spiritual experiences independently predicted health & well-being.
    Associated Search Terms: Experience; Gender; Health; Well-being, psychological; United States; Sex; Practice
  • Trends in Religious Stratification: Have Religious Group Socioeconomic Distinctions Declined in Recent Decades?
    Pyle, Ralph E. (2006)
    Sociology of Religion 67:1: 61-79.
    Analyzes 1972-2000 General Social Survey (U.S.A.) data.
    Associated Search Terms: Stratification; United States; Denomination (organizational entity)
  • The National Spiritual Transformation Study.
    Smith, Tom W. (2006)
    Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 45:2: 283-296.
    Based on 1988-2004 General Social Survey (U.S.A.) data on spiritual transformation.
    Associated Search Terms: Experience; United States
  • Religion, Morale Individuelle et Politique Américaine.
    Blasi, Anthony J. (2006)
    Social Compass 53:3: 367-378.
    Analyzes 2002 General Social Survey (U.S.A.) data; focuses on the 2000 presidential election & attitudes toward abortion & homosexuality.
    Associated Search Terms: Moral; United States; Politics, U.S.A.; Abortion; Homosexuality
  • The Truth about Conservative Christians. What They Think and What They Believe.
    Greeley, Andrew M., and Michael Hout (2006)
    Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Analyzes 1972-2004 General Social Survey (U.S.A..) data; shows conservative Protestants less extreme than sometimes assumed.
    Associated Search Terms: Civil liberties; Fundamentalist, U.S.A.; Conservative, U.S.A.; Politics, U.S.A.; Moral; United States
  • Operationalizing the Critical Theory of Religion.
    Gay, David A., Warren S. Goldstein, and Anna Campbell Buck (2006)
    In Warren S. Goldstein (ed.) Marx, Critical Theory, and Religion. A Critique of Rational Choice. Leiden: Brill, pp. 343-357.
    Analyzes 1978, '88, & '98 GeneralSocial Survey (U.S.A.) data; stress, poverty, & depression inversely predict church attendance.
    Associated Search Terms: Depression; Critical theory; Practice; Stratification; Stress
  • Measuring Religious Identites in Surveys.
    Alwin, Duane F., Jacob L. Felson, Edward T. Walker, and Paula A. Tufis (2006)
    Public Opinion Quarterly 70:4: 530-564.
    Finds predictive value in both using denominations & non-denominational categories for respondent self-identification. Uses General Social Survey (U.S.A.) data.
    Associated Search Terms: Methodology; Survey; Identification
  • The Clergy as a Source of Mental Health Assistance: What Americans Believe.
    Ellison, Christopher G., Margaret L. Vaaler, Kevin J. Flannelly, and Andrew J. Weaver (2006)
    Review of Religious Research 48:2: 190-211.
    Analyzes 1996 General Social Survey (U.S.A..) data; regular church attenders, biblical literalists, & older people see clergy as advisors in mental health matters.
    Associated Search Terms: Practice; Literalism; Mental health; United States; Gerontology; Clergy role
  • Religiosity and Premarital Sex in Adulthood.
    Barkan, Steven E. (2006)
    Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 45:3: 407-417.
    Analyzes 1993-2002 General Social Survey (U.S.A.) data from never-married respondents; religiosity is inversely related to number of sexual partners in the previous 5 years.
    Associated Search Terms: Deviance/social control; Religiosity; United States; Sexual activity
  • Accounting for Spatial Variation in Tolerance: The Effects of Education and Religion.
    Moore, Laura M., and Seth Ovadia (2006)
    Social Forces 84:4: 2205-2221.
    Analyzes 1976-2000 General Social Survey (U.S.A.) and U.S. Census data; college education as a contextual factor is positively correlated with tolerance, Protestant Evangelicalism as a contextual factors is negatively correlated with it.
    Associated Search Terms: Education; Evangelical, U.S.A.; Tolerance; United States
  • The Vanishing Protestant Majority.
    Smith, Tom W., and Seokho Kim (2005)
    Journal for the Scintific Study of Religion 44:2: 211-223.
    1972-2002 General Social Survey (U.S.A.) data.
    Associated Search Terms: Denomination (organizational entity); Catholic, U.S.A.; United States; Jewish, U.S.A.; Protestant, U.S.A.
  • Socioeconomic Inequality in the American Religious System: An Update and Assessment.
    Smith, Christian, and Robert Faris (2005)
    Journal for the Scientific study of Religion 44:1: 95-104.
    Reports 1980s-90s General Social Survey (U.S.A.) data, showing religious inequality persisting.
    Associated Search Terms: Stratification; United States
  • Attitudes toward Abortion among Religious Traditions in the United States: Change or Continuity?
    Hoffmann, John P., and Sherrie Mills Johnson (2005)
    Sociology of Religion 66:2: 161-182.
    Analyzes 1972-2002 General Social Survey (U.S.A..) data; focuses on the relevance of circumstances of abortion to subgroups' attitudes toward abortion.
    Associated Search Terms: Abortion; United States
  • Mainline Evangelical Renewal Movements: A Preliminary Inquiry.
    Everton, Sean F. (2005)
    Research in the Social Scientific Study of Religion 15: 189-208.
    Analyzes 1996-98 General Social Survey (U.S.A..) data; Evangelicals within mainline denominations tend to have been reared in those denominations.
    Associated Search Terms: Socialization; Evangelical, U.S.A.; Family; Human capital
  • Who Values the Obedient Child Now? The Religious Factor in Adult Values for Children, 1986-2002.
    Starks, Brian, and Robert V. Robinson (2005)
    Social Forces 84:1: 343-359.
    Analyzes 1986-2002 General Social Survey (U.S.A.) data; shows church attending Evangelicals value obedience in their children more than do others.
    Associated Search Terms: Evangelical, U.S.A.; Family; Authoritarianism; United States; Socialization
  • Polarization, Secularization, or Differences as Usual? The Denominational Cleavage in U.S. Social Attitudes Since the 1970s.
    Bolzendahl, Catherine, and Clem Brooks (2005)
    Sociological Quarterly 46:1: 47-78.
    Analyzes 1972-2000 General Social Survey (U.S.A.) data; uses the categories: Evangelical Protestant, Catholic, Mainline Protestant; Black Protestant; Jewish, & none.
    Associated Search Terms: Sexual attitudes; United States; Gender; Abortion
  • Religious Switching: Does Parents' Education Matter?
    Adamczyk, Amy (2005)
    Research in the Social Scientific Study of Religion 15: 51-70.
    Analyzes 1998 General Social Survey (U.S.A.) data; educational differences between parents & children do not affect rates of apostasy or conversion to more liberal denominations.
    Associated Search Terms: United States; Conversion; Family; Disaffiliation; Education
  • Religion and Attitudes toward Physician-Assisted Suicide and Terminal Palliative Care.
    Burdette, Amy M., Terrence D. Hill, and Benjamin E. Moulton (2005)
    Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 44:1: 79-93.
    Analyzes 1998 General Social Survey (U.S.A.) data; religious involvement in conservative & moderate churches is inversely associated with acceptance of assisted suicide & palliative terminal care.
    Associated Search Terms: Moral; United States; Suicide; Practice
  • Religion and attitudes toward the enviornment: A comparison of Mormons and the general U.S. population.
    Hunter, Lori M., and Michael B. Toney (2005)
    Social Science Journal 42:1: 25-38.
    Examines variation in environmental concern of Mormons in a local community survey undertaken in Logan, Utah, in contrast to nationally-representative 1993 General Social Survey data. Finds differences between Mormons & the national sample; while Mormons tended to express greater levels of environmental concern, they were less likely to have undertaken specific behaviors reflective of such concern.
    Associated Search Terms: Environmentalism; Mormon, U.S.A.; United States, Utah, Logan
  • Conservative Protestantism and Tolerance toward Homosexuals: An Examination of Potential Mechanisms.
    Burdette, Amy M., Christopher G. Ellison, and Terrence D. Hill (2005)
    Sociological Inquiry 75: 177-196.
    Identifies key aspects of conservative Protestant religious values & worldviews that may contribute to conservative Protestantism rejecting homosexuals. Relevant hypotheses are tested using 1988 General Social Survey (U.S.A.) data. Results highlight the role of biblical literalism, as well as specific beliefs about the public nature of morality & the implications of perceived immoral conduct for collective well-being.
    Associated Search Terms: Homosexuality; Conservative; Tolerance
  • The Denominational Society of the U.S.A.: A Reappraisal.
    Hout, Michael, and Melissa J. Wilde (2004)
    In Alasdair Crockett and Richard O'Leary (eds.) Patterns and Processes of Religious Change in Modern Industrial Societies. Europe and the United States. Lewiston, New York: Edwin Mellen Press, pp. 53-80.
    Uses General Social Survey (U.S.A.) data.
    Associated Search Terms: United States; Membership
  • Don't Call Me Ishmael: Religious Naming among Protestants and Catholics in the United States.
    Perl, Paul, and Jonathon L. Wiggins (2004)
    Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 43:2: 209-228.
    Analyzes 1994 General Social Survey (U.S.A.) data for religious correlates of first names. Denominations made a difference.
    Associated Search Terms: Names; United States; Denomination (organizational entity)
  • Specifying the Impact of Conservative Protestantism on Educational Attainment.
    Beyerlein, Kraig (2004)
    Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 43:4: 505-518.
    Analyzes 2000 General Social Survey (U.S.A.) data; fundamentalists & Pentecostals are less educated than others. Evangelicals are not less educated.
    Associated Search Terms: Pentecostal, U.S.A.; United States; Education; Fundamentalist, U.S.A.; Conservative, U.S.A.
  • Religion and the Paradox of Racial Inequality Attitudes.
    Hinojosa, Victor J., and Jerry Z. Park (2004)
    Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 43:2: 229-238.
    Analyzes 1996 General Social Survey (U.S.A..) data; denomination but not attendance predicts likelihood to agree with various explanations of racial inequality.
    Associated Search Terms: Stratification; United States; Race
  • An Organizational Classification of Protestant Denominations.
    Sullins, D. Paul (2004)
    Review of religious Research 45:3: 278-292.
    Develops a scale of the degree of centralization of 214 Christian denominations. Using 1972-2002 General Social Survey (U.S.A.) data, the scale proves to be related to survey indicators of beliefs & attitudes.
    Associated Search Terms: United States; Polity
  • The Social Effects of Psychism: Spiritual Experience and the Construction of Privatized Religion.
    Laubach, Marty (2004)
    Sociology of Religion 65:3: 239-263.
    Analyzes 1986 General Social Survey (U.S.A..) data; experiences of psychism (esoteric intrusion into the stream of consciousness) have a number of effects, including enhancing private religious practices.
    Associated Search Terms: Experience; Paranormal; United States; Privatism
  • Conservative Protestantism and attitudes toward homosexuality: Does political orientation mediate this relationship?
    Hill, Terrence D., Benjamin E. Moulton, and Amy M. Burdette (2004)
    Sociological Focus 37: 59-70.
    Analyzes 1988 General Social Survey (U.S.A.) data; conservative Protestants are less accepting of homosexuality than non-affiliates, although a significant portion of this association is explained by political orientation.
    Associated Search Terms: Homosexuality; Conservative, U.S.A.; Politics, U.S.A.
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