Citations are taken from the Sociology of Religion Searchable Bibliographic Database, created and updated by Anthony J. Blasi (Ph.D. in Sociology, University of Notre Dame; University of Texas at San Antonio). The ARDA is not responsible for content or typographical errors.
  • Belief in Hell and parenting priorities concerning child independence and obedience: Does economic context matter?
    Jung, Jong Hyun (2020)
    Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 59:4: 629-645.
    Analyzes 2010-14 World Values Survey data. Belief in Hell inversely predicts parental endorsement of child independence more greatly in economically developed nations, more greatly positively predicts endorsement of obedience by children in those nations.
    Associated Search Terms: Family; Belief; Socialization; Obedience
  • To heaven or to hell: Are Muslims' afterlife hope and fear balanced? A cross-cultural study.
    Al-Issa, Riyad Salim, Steven Eric Krauss, Samsilah Roslan, and Haslinda Abdullah (2020)
    Review of Religious Reseach 62:2: 351-368.
    Develops survey measures of Afterlife Hope Expectations and Afterlife Fear Expectations, based on responses of Jordanian and Malaysian university students.
    Associated Search Terms: Afterlife; Methods; Islam; Scale
  • Heaven's Gates and Hell's Flames: A Sociological Study of New Christian Movements in Contemporary Goa.
    Abreu, Savio (2020)
    New Delhi: Oxford University Press.
    Reports 2007-08 field work in 2 Catholic charismatic prayer groups & 2 neo-pentecostal churches.
    Associated Search Terms: India, Goa; Participant observation; Pentecostal, Catholic, India; Pentecostal, neo, India
  • Sinners in the hands of an angry God: An exploration of religious forces on support for the death penalty.
    Bones, Paul D.C., and Soheil Sabriseilabi (2018)
    Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 57:4: 707-722.
    Analyzes 2008 USA General Social Survey data. Catholic affiliation decreases support for capital punishment; belief in hell increases it. Conservatism independently supports it.
    Associated Search Terms: Conservative, U.S.A.; Catholic, U.S.A.; Belief; Capital punishment; Religiosity
  • A period of "wild and fierce fanaticism": Populism, theo-political militarism, and the crisis of U.S. hegemony.
    Hell, Julia, and George Steinmetz (2017)
    American Journal of Cultural Sociology. doi: 10.1057/s41290-017-0041-y
    A key characteristic of the new American populism is its orientation toward global military confrontation with “Islam.” New authoritarian movements & regimes combine coherent ideological projects with deliberately chaotic, even incoherent statements & interventions.
    Associated Search Terms: Politics, U.S.A.; Peace/war
  • Hell to pay: Religion and punitive ideology among the American public.
    Baker, Joseph O., and Alexis L. Booth (2016)
    Punishment & Society 18:2: 151-176.
    We examine whether & how different aspects of religiosity shape punitive attitudes, using a national sample of Americans. For both general punitiveness & views of capital punishment, belief in the existence & power of transcendent religious evil (e.g. Satan & hell) is strongly associated with greater punitiveness, while higher levels of religious practice (service attendance, prayer, & reading sacred scriptures) reduces punitiveness.
    Associated Search Terms: Punitiveness; Penology
  • Divergent effects of beliefs in heaven and hell on national crime rates.
    Shariff, Azim F., and Mijke Rhemtulla (2012)
    PLoS ONE.
    The proportion of people who believe in hell negatively predicts national crime rates whereas belief in heaven predicts higher crime rates. These effects remain after accounting for a host of covariates, & ultimately prove stronger predictors of national crime rates than economic variables such as GDP & income inequality.
    Associated Search Terms: Criminology; Afterlife
  • Trust in a "fallen world": The case of Protestant theological conservatism.
    Hempel, Lynn M., Todd Matthews, and John Bartkowski. (2012)
    Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 51:3: 522-541.
    Analyzes 2008 General Social Survey (U.S.A.) dta; conservative beliefs (authoritative Bible, human depravity, born again, hell) predicted generalized trust inversely, canceling out the effects of religious involvement, which positively predicts trust.
    Associated Search Terms: Belief; Conservative, U.S.A.; Trust; United States
  • "Abomination"--life as a Bible Belt gay.
    Barton, Bernadette (2010)
    Journal of Homosexuality 57;4:465-484.
    Of the 46 lesbians & gay men interviewed for this study, most describe living through spirit-crushing experiences of isolation, abuse, & self-loathing. Informants explained that negative social attitudes about homosexuality caused a range of harmful consequences in their lives including the fear of going to hell, depression, low self-esteem, & feelings of worthlessness.
    Associated Search Terms: United States, South; Evangelical, U.S.A.; Homosexuality
  • Religious beliefs, sociopolitical ideology, and attitudes toward corporal punishment.
    Ellison, Christopher G., and Matt Bradshaw (2009)
    Journal of Family Issues 30:3: 320-340.
    Analyzes 1998 General Social Survey (U.S.A.) data; findings underscore the importance of conservative Protestant beliefs, especially hierarchical images of God & belief in Hell, but not denominational affiliation.
    Associated Search Terms: Corporal punishment; God, image of; Belief
  • Round Trip to Hell in a Flying Saucer: The Relationship between Conventional Christian and Paranormal Beliefs in the United States.
    Mencken, F. Carson, Christopher D. Bader, and Ye Jung Kim (2009)
    Sociology of Religion 70:1: 65-85.
    2005 U.S.A. survey data show paranormal & conventional Christian belief to be distinct but correlated.
    Associated Search Terms: United States; Paranormal; Belief; Factor analysis
  • Who Believes in Religious Evil? An Investigation of Sociological Patterns of Belief in Satan, Hell, and Demons.
    Baker, Joseph O. (2008)
    Review of Religious Research 50:2: 206-220.
    Analyzes 2005 Baylor Religion Survey (U.S.A.) data.
    Associated Search Terms: United States; Evil
  • Notions of Evil, the Devil and Sin among Chilean Businessmen.
    Thumala Olave, María Angélica (2007)
    Social Compass 54:4: 613-632.
    Based on interviews with Chilean business executives, whose discourse on evil is not traditional (hell, devil) but whose beliefs are nevertheless theistic.
    Associated Search Terms: Secularization; Business people; Belief; Evil; Devil; Chile
  • Going to Hell in Asia: The Relationship between Risk and Religion in a Cross Cultural Setting.
    Miller, Alan S. (2000)
    Review of Religious Research 42:1: 5-18.
    Analyzes 1990-93 World Values Survey data; religion seems related inversely with risk everywhere but Japan.
    Associated Search Terms: Religiosity; Risk preference; United States; India; Italy; Japan; Turkey
  • Les Hindous Croient-ils en la Réincarnation?
    Deliège, Robert (2000)
    L'Année sociologique 50:1: 217-234.
    Far from the religious system on which Hindu social organization may have been described by Western studies, India is marked by a certain skepticism with regard to reincarnation. For many, this notion is confused with others, such as those of hell & heaven.
    Associated Search Terms: Belief; Hindu; Reincarnation
  • Why Our Teenagers Leave the Church: Personal Stories from a 10-year Study.
    Dudley, Roger L. (2000)
    Hagerstown, Maryland: Review Herald Publishing Association.
    Heart-wrenching testimony of desperately lonely people surrounded by uncaring members. They want to belong, to be needed, to be heard, to be loved. They made some mistakes. We share their pain & their dreams, & feel the dissonant cadences of their troubled hearts. Some who never left explain what kept them in the church. Many who left want to return. "Without God, life is hell," wrote one.
    Associated Search Terms: Adolescents; Apostate; Seventh-day Adventist
  • Religion, punitive justice, and support for the death penalty.
    Grasmick, Harold G., John K. Cochran, Robert J. Bursik, and M'Lou Kimpel (1993)
    Justice Quarterly 10:2: 289-314.
    Despite the opposition of many U.S. religious organizations, the majority of Americans favor the use of the death penalty. Results from robust Poisson regression show that religiosity decreases support for the death penalty, but a belief in Hell strongly increases support for punitive forms of corporeal justice.
    Associated Search Terms: Punishment; Death penalty: See Capital punishment; Capital punishment
  • Carl Mayer's Sociology of Religion and its Impact on the Rise of Modern Sociology of Knowledge.
    Gugolz, Alfred (1991)
    In Horst J. Helle (ed.), Verstehen and Pragmatism. Essays in Interpretive Sociology. Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang, pp. 125-144.
    Associated Search Terms: Luckmann, Thomas; Mayer, Carl; Sociology of knowledge; Berger, Peter L.
  • Symboltheorie und Religiöse Praxis.
    Helle, Horst Jürgen (1972)
    In Jakobus Wössner (ed.), Religion im Umbruch. Soziologische Beiträge zur Situation von Religion und Kirche in der gegenwärtigen Gesellschaft. Stuttgart: Ferdinand Enke, pp. 200-214.
    Associated Search Terms: Symbol; Practice
  • Middletown: A Study in Modern American Culture
    Lynd, Robert, and Helen Lynd (1929)
    New York: Harcourt & Brace.
    Church membership is more middle class than upper; attendance is more white collar than blue collar. Social conventions are stronger among upper than lower classes, heaven & hell more lower than upper. Lower classes believe more ardently & emotionally.
    Associated Search Terms: Community study; Stratification; United States, Indiana, Muncie
  • Die Religion./Georg Simmel: Sociology of Religion, tr. Curt Rosenthal; tr. Horst Jürgen Helle and Ludwig Nieder.
    Simmel, Georg (1906)
    Frankfurt: Rutten & Loening./New York: Wisdom Library, 1959; in Georg Simmel, Essays on Religion. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1997, pp. 137-214.
    Associated Search Terms: Origins of religion
  • Zur Soziologie der Religion./A Contribution to the Sociology of Religion.
    Simmel, Georg (1898)
    Neue deutsche Rundschau 9: 111-123./American Journal of Sociology 11 (1905): 359-376; tr. By Horst Jürgen Helle and Ludwig Nieder, in Georg Simmel, Essays on Religion. New Haven, Connecticut: Yale University Press, 1997, pp. 101-120.
    A group member is related to the others with some exaltation, devotion & fervency. An ideal content develops, gods who protect those sustaining the group (e.g., class) & personifying virtues demanded from people. This is one source of religion.
    Associated Search Terms: Origins of religion; Class; God, concept of
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