Citations are taken from the Sociology of Religion Searchable Bibliographic Database, created and updated by Anthony J. Blasi (Ph.D. in Sociology, University of Notre Dame; University of Texas at San Antonio). The ARDA is not responsible for content or typographical errors.
  • Making meaning without a maker: Secular consciousness through narrative and cultural practice.
    Smith, Jesse M., and Caitlin L. Halligan (2021)
    Sociology of Religion 82:1: 85-110
    Based on field work in Sunday Assembly (secular) congregations in the U.S.A. & U.K. A sense of otherness, appeals to normative values, & reframing of existential questions in secular terms play a role in the lives of this nonreligious community.
    Associated Search Terms: Atheist; Participant observation; Sunday Assembly
  • Intersections of feminist identification and hostile sexism.
    Hernandez, Amanda D. (2021)
    Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 60:1: 27-45.
    Analyzes 2016 American National Election Survey data; religious women are no more or less likely to identify as feminist than do nonreligious women; Evangelical & Black protestant men are less likely. Some feminists also express hostile sexist sentiment, suggesting ambivalence.
    Associated Search Terms: Prejudice, sexism; Ambivalence; Feminism
  • How do religion and sexual orientation affect support for U.S. presidential candidates? Evidence from a survey experiment.
    Beyerlein, Kraig, and JasonKlocek (2020)
    Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 59:4: 551-568.
    Formed a questionnaire with gay/straight & religious/nonreligious candidate vignettes. The intersection of gay & religious drew little support.
    Associated Search Terms: Homosexuality; Experiment; Politics, U.S.A.; Intersectionality
  • None of the Above. Nonreligious Identity in the US and Canada.
    Thiessen, Joel, and Sarah Wilkins-LaFlamme (2020)
    New York: New York University Press.
    Associated Search Terms: Canada; Atheist, Canada; Atheist, U.S.A.; United States
  • More than nothing: Examining the worldview influences of nonreligious college students.
    Scheitle, Christopher P., and Katie E. Corcoran (2020)
    Review of Religious Research 62:2: 249-271.
    Non-religious students are less likely than religious students to cite family or cultural traditions as important worldview influences, & more likely to cite sexual orientation. Those non-religious at a previous time are also less likely to cite family, whether still non-religious or not. Those who become non-religious over time shift from religion & culture to philosophy.
    Associated Search Terms: Culture; Family; Students, undergraduate; World view
  • Religious heterogamy and the intergenerational transmission of religion in China.
    McPhail, Brian L., and Fenggang Yang (2020)
    Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 59:3: 439-454.
    Analyzes 2007 Spiritual Life Survey of Chinese Residents data; having at least one religiously affiliated parent is associated with increased religiosity compared to having 2 nonreligious parents.
    Associated Search Terms: Socialization; Family; China
  • Certainty, uncertainty, or indifference? Examining variation in the identity narratives of nonreligious Americans.
    Frost, Jacqui (2019)
    American Sociological Review 84:5: 828-850.
    Drawings on identity narratives from 50 nonreligious Americans. Finds that uncertainty is as often experienced as positive & motivating as isolating or anxiety-inducing. Although certainty-filled beliefs & identities are available for the nonreligious, they are just as often rejected for more uncertain ones.
    Associated Search Terms: Atheist, U.S.A.; Belief; Certainty
  • Questions you should never ask an atheist: Towards better measures of nonreligion and secularity.
    Cragun, Ryan T. (2019)
    Secularism and Nonreligion 8: 1-6.
    Some measures fail to contrast nonreligiosity with religiosity. Other measures are double-barreled or one-and-a-half barreled, making them impossible for nonreligious individuals to answer. How questions are worded can result in very different estimates of how many nonreligious people & atheists there are in a population.
    Associated Search Terms: Methods; Atheist
  • The Varieties of Nonreligious Experience: Atheism in American Culture.
    Baggett, Jerome P. (2019)
    New York: New York University Press.
    Drawing on questionnaires and interviews with more than five hundred American atheists scattered across the country, The bolume uncovers what they think about morality, what gives meaning to their lives, how they feel about religious people, a&what they think and know about religion itself.
    Associated Search Terms: Atheist, U.S.A.
  • Selection versus socialization? Interrogating the sources of secularity inglobal science.
    Bolger, Daniel, Robert A. Thomson, Jr., and Elaine Howard Ecklund (2019)
    Sociological Perspectives 62:4: 518-537.
    We find some support for work suggesting that scientific training is secularizing. Yet we also show that, across national contexts, the nonreligious disproportionately select into scientific careers. Furthermore, we find that scientists tend not to identify science as the primary factor in their own religious transitions.
    Associated Search Terms: Scientist
  • An introduction to atheism, agnosticism, and nonreligious worldviews.
    Coleman, Thomas J., III; Ralph W. Hood, Jr.; and Heinz Streib (2018)
    Psychology of Religion and Spirituality 10:3: 203-206.
    Introduction to a special journal issue. Reflects on estimated prevalence of atheist & nonreligious individuals, discusses misconceptions associated with nonreligion, notes how investigating secular worldviews is critical for the psychology of religion, & provides a brief overview of the diversity of nonreligion.
    Associated Search Terms: World view; Atheist
  • Rescuing the nones from the reference category: Civic engagement among the nonreligious in America.
    Frost, Jacqui, and Penny Edgell (2018)
    Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly 47:2: 417-438.
    Those who identify as “nothing in particular” (NIP) are much less likely to show interest or engagement in civic life than are atheists, agnostics, & the “spiritual but not religious,” & the image of the nonreligious as uninvolved in civic life is inaccurate & most likely driven by forms of analysis that disproportionately weight the experiences of the “NIPs.”
    Associated Search Terms: Atheist, U.S.A.; Civic engagement
  • Are the politics of the Christian right linked to state rates of the nonreligious? The importance of salient controversy.
    Djupe, Paul A., Jacob R. Neiheisel, and Kimberly H. Conger (2018)
    Political Research Quarterly 71:4: 910-922.
    Rising "none" rates are more common in Republican states in this period. Moreover, when the Christian Right comes into more public conflict, such as over same-sex marriage bans, the rate of religious nones climbs.
    Associated Search Terms: Conflict; Conservative, U.S.A.; Atheist, U.S.A.; Politics, U.S.A.
  • Expanding on the experiences of transgender nonreligious people: An exploratory analysis.
    Mathers, Lain A.B. (2017)
    Secularism and Nonreligion 6:1-10.
    Based on interviews with 11 formerly religious, not religious at present, transgendered people. Scholars of nonreligion should begin analyzing transgender nonreligious people’s experiences in religious settings, with family, & with organizations & networks outside of religion.
    Associated Search Terms: Gender; Atheist; Transgender
  • Organizational variation in the American nonreligious community.
    Schutz, Amanda (2017)
    In Ryan T. Cragun, Christel J. Manning, and Lori L. Fazzino (eds.) Organized Secularism in the United States: New Directions in Research, Religion and its Others. Berlin: DeGruyter, pp. 113-134.
    Associated Search Terms: Congregation; Atheist, U.S.A.
  • Explorando los "sin religión de pertenencia" en Córdoba, Argentina.
    Rabbia, Hugo H. (2017)
    Estudos de Religião 31(3): 131–155.
    Explores the heterogeneity that encompasses the “nonreligious," from autobiographical narratives & object’s elicitation interviews to 18 people from Córdoba, Argentina.
    Associated Search Terms: Life histories; Argentina, Cordoba; Atheist, Argentina
  • Doing death without deity: Constructing nonreligious tools at the end of life.
    MacMurray, Nicholas J., and Lori L. Fazzino (2017)
    In Ryan T. Cragun, Christel Manning, an Lori L. Fazzino (eds.) Organized Secularism in the United States. Berlin, Germany: DeGruyter, pp. 279-300.
    Associated Search Terms: Atheist, U.S.A.; Death
  • No one expects a transgender Jew: Religious sexual, and gendered intersections in the evaluation of religious and nonreligious others.
    Cragun, Ryan T., and J. Edward Sumerau (2017)
    Secularism and Nonreligion 6:1: 1-16.
    Using a comfortable with thermometer, gender categories rank people more than do religious categories, but within the gender categories religious ranking occurs.
    Associated Search Terms: Transgender; Intersectionality; Gender; Atheist
  • From existential to social understandings of risk: Examining gender differences in non-religion.
    Edgell, Penny, Jacqui Frost, and Evan Stewart (2017)
    Social Currents, published online January 10, Doi: 10.1177/2329496516686619.
    The idea of risk is relevant to understanding the relationship between gender & religiosity if risk is understood not as existential but as social. The research on existential risk focuses on religious identification as solely a matter of belief; the authors develop the concept of social risk to theorize the ways that social location & differential levels of power & privilege influence women’s nonreligious choices.
    Associated Search Terms: Risk preference; Atheist; Gender
  • You make the choice: Religious and secular socialization among marginal affiliated and nonreligious individuals.
    Thiessen, Joel. (2016)
    Secularism and Nonreligion 5:6: 1-16.
    Canadian interviews. Shows that marginal affiliates generally had or planned to expose their children to religious belief & practice, while nonreligious individuals were inclined to defer to their children regarding religious or secular perspectives. Marginal affiliates & nonreligious individuals jointly maintained that children should have choice in this matter; as a result, parents did not impose religious or secular views on children.
    Associated Search Terms: Socialization; Family; Atheist, Canada
  • The Nonreligious. Understanding Secular People and Societies.
    Zuckerman, Phil, Luke W. Galen, and Frank L. Pasquale (2016)
    New York: Oxford University Press.
    Associated Search Terms: Atheist
  • American Secularism. Cultural Contours of Nonreligious Belief Systems.
    Baker, Joseph O., and Buster G. Smith (2016)
    New York: New York University Press.
    Analysis of the demographic and statistical trends collected from a number of national surveys, all of which unequivocally point to a growth in secularism. They also combine this sociological analysis with historical vignettes highlighting important moments & figures in American history that “echo” these contemporary changes in the religious landscape.
    Associated Search Terms: Atheist, U.S.A.; Secularism
  • Secularization and the wider gap in values and personal religiosity between the religious and nonreligious.
    Wilkins-Laflamme, Sarah (2016)
    Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 55:4: 717-736.
    Analyzes 2008 International Social Survey Program data; in regions where the unaffiliated form a greater proportion of the population, differences in sexual attitudes & stances toward abortion & gender roles between the affiliated & unaffiliated are greater.
    Associated Search Terms: Gender role; Abortion; Atheist; Sexual attitudes
  • The religion of the educated classes revisited: New religions, the nonreligious, and educational levels.
    Lewis, James R., Sean E. Currie, and Michael P. Oman-Reagan (2016)
    Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 55:1: 91-104.
    Uses data from censuses. Members of most, but not all, new religions have higher than national averages of bachelor's degrees.
    Associated Search Terms: New Zealand; New religions; Atheist; Australia; Great Britain, England; Great Britain, Wales; Education; Canada
  • "I think some people need religion": The social construction of nonreligious moral identities.
    Sumerau, J. Edward, and Ryan T. Cragun (2016)
    Sociology of Religion 77:4: 386-407.
    Based on 30 semi-structured interviews with self-identified non-religious Americans. Experiencing childhood religion as focused on obedience & conformity, noting religious people's prejudices about non-religious people, & interactions with religious people that led to seeking meaning elsewhere served as pathways to irreligion.
    Associated Search Terms: Socialization; Atheist, U.S.A.
  • Kids, you make the choice: Religious and secular socializations among marginal affiliates and nonreligious individuals.
    Thiessen, Joel (2016)
    Secularism and Nonreligion 5:6: 1-16.
    Associated Search Terms: Atheist; Marginality; Socialization
  • The NonReligious-NonSpiritual Scale (NRNSS): Measuring everyone from atheists to Zionists.
    Cragun, Ryan T., Joeph H. Hammer, and Michael Nielsen (2015)
    Science, Religion and Culture 2:3: 36–53.
    Presents the development and initial validation of a 17-item Nonreligious-Nonspiritual Scale (NRNSS).
    Associated Search Terms: Atheist; Scale; Methods
  • Recognizing the Nonreligious: Reimagining the Secular.
    Lee, Lois (2015)
    Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Drawing on ethnographic fieldwork in southeast England, develops a vocabulary, theory, & methodology for studying the secular. Distinguishes between separate & incommensurable aspects of "secularity" as insubstantial (the mere absence of religion) & substantial (beliefs, ritual practice, & identities that are alternative to religious ones).
    Associated Search Terms: Great Britain, England; Atheist; Participant observation; Secular
  • Nonreligious tolerance: American attitudes toward atheists, America's most unpopular religious group.
    Cox, Daniel, Robert P. Jones, and Juhem Navarro-Rivera (2015)
    In Paul A. Djupe (ed.) Religion and Political Tolerance in America. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, pp. 133-150.
    Associated Search Terms: Atheist, U.S.A.; Tolerance
  • Secular or nonreligious? Investigating and interpreting generic "Not religious" categories and populations.
    Lee, Lois (2014)
    Religion 44: 466-482.
    Investigates what "nonreligious" categories measure & whether they indicate non-identification or disaffiliation as assumed, or an alternative form of cultural affiliation. Findings suggest that generic nonreligious categories are sometimes used to express different substantive positions & public identities.
    Associated Search Terms: Atheist; Great Britain, England; Secularism; Methods
  • Multiple secularities: Religion and modernity in the global age: Introduction.
    Burchardt, Marian, and Monika Wohlrab-Sahr (2013)
    International Sociology 28:6: 605-611.
    Argues for shifting scholarly focus from secularization to secularities: the institutionalized & lived nonreligious
    Associated Search Terms: Modernity; Secularism; Secularization
  • The longevity effects of religious and nonreligious participation: A meta-analysis and meta-regression.
    Shor, Eran, and David J. Roelfs (2013)
    Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 52:1: 120-145.
    Finds the reduction of mortality due to religious participation does not differ from that from other kinds of social participation.
    Associated Search Terms: Social participation; Mortality; Practice
  • Motivating civic engagement: In-group versus out-group service orientations among Mexican Americans in religious and nonreligious organizations.
    Ecklund, Elaine Howard, Celina Davila, Michael O. Emerson, Samuel Kye, and Esther Chan (2013)
    Sociology of Religion 73:3: 370-391.
    Compares religious & ethnic civic organizations; the latter have more bridging capital. Based on 2008-09 interviews and participant observation in Houston. The religious organizations were parishes.
    Associated Search Terms: Civic engagement; Social capital; Mexican Americans; Migrant; United States, Texas, Houston; Participant observation
  • Religion and volunteering in context: Disentangling the contextual effects of religion on voluntary behavior.
    Lim, Chaeyoon, and Carol Ann MacGregor (2012)
    American Sociological Review 77:5: 747-779.
    If nonreligious people have close friends with religious affiliations, they are more likely to volunteer for religious & nonreligious causes. However, this network spillover effect cannot be inferred from the relationship between volunteering & national or local level religious context—a common approach in the literature.
    Associated Search Terms: Volunteering; Network
  • Second-generation Chinese Americans: The familism of the nonreligious.
    Jeung, Russell (2012)
    In Carolyn Chen and Russell Jeung (eds.) Sustaining Faith Traditions. New York: New York University Press, pp. 197-221.
    Associated Search Terms: Atheist, U.S.A.; Chinese Americans; Familism; Generations
  • The Stereotyping of Nonreligious People by Religious Students: Contents and Subtypes.
    Harper, Marcel (2007)
    Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 46:4: 539-552.
    Stereotypes that South African religious students have of non-religious people.
    Associated Search Terms: Stereotype; Students, undergraduate
  • Giving to secular causes by the religious and nonreligious: An experimental test of the responsiveness of giving to susidies.
    Eckel, Catherine C., and Phillip J. Grossman (2004)
    Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly 33:2: 271-289.
    This article uses experimental data to examine differences in the amount & pattern of giving to secular charities in response to subsidies by self-identified religious & nonreligious participants. The results indicate no significant difference in either the amount or pattern of giving or in the response to subsidies by religious & nonreligious participants.
    Associated Search Terms: Contributions
  • After-life consumption and charitable giving.
    Hrung, Warren B. (2004)
    American Journal of Economics and Sociology 63:3:731-745.
    Contributions to religious organizations should be studied separately from contributions to nonreligious organizations. The results are consistent with theoretical predictions that religious giving is fundamentally different from nonreligious giving. Religious giving is assumed to directly influence after-life consumption, while nonreligious giving is not.
    Associated Search Terms: Contributions; Afterlife
  • Neosecularization and Craft Versus Professional Religious Authority in a Nonreligious Organization.
    Grant, Don, Kathleen M. O'Neil, and Laura S. Stephens (2003)
    Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 42:3: 479-487.
    Secularization as loss of religious authority should be placed in the context of the lessening of secular authority as well. Studies nurses after a clinical pastoral education united was closed; nurses began providing pastoral services non-professionally.
    Associated Search Terms: Nurse; Medical; Secularization; Hospital; Clinical pastoral education
  • Does Adolescent Religious Commitment Matter? A Reexamination of the Effects of Religiosity on Delinquency.
    Johnson, Byron R., Sung Joon Jang, David B. Larson, and Spencer D. Li (2001)
    Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency 38: 22-44.
    The effects of religiosity on delinquency are found independent of the theoretical & statistical controls while being partly mediated by nonreligious variables of social control & socialization.
    Associated Search Terms: Religiosity; Adolescents; Delinquency
  • Voluntary Associations, Churches, and Social Participation Theories of Turnout.
    Cassel, Carol A. (1999)
    Social Science Quarterly 80:3: 504-517.
    rRviews the uneven history of research on nonreligious & religious group involvement in U.S. voting participation. It uses previously un-mined data to examine the influence of voluntary association & church involvement on turnout over time.
    Associated Search Terms: Politics; Social participation
  • Transcending Sacred and Secular: Mutual Benefits in Analyzing Religious and Nonreligious Organizations.
    Demerath, Nicholas J., III, and Terry Schmitt (1998)
    In Nicholas J. Demerath III, Peter Dobkin Hall, Terry Schmitt, and Rhys H. Williams (eds.), Sacred Companies. Organizational Aspects of Religion and Religious Aspects of Organizations. New York: Oxford University Press, pp. 381-400.
    Religious & non-religious organizations should not be studied alone; the religious have secular aspects & the secular have religious aspects.
    Associated Search Terms: Sacred; Organization; Sociology of religion
  • Transcending Sacred and Secular: Mutual Benefits in Analyzing Religious and Nonreligious Organizations.
    Demerath, Nicholas J., III, and Terry Schmitt (1994)
    In Arthur L. Greil and Thomas Robbins (eds.), Religion and the Social Order, Vol. 4 Between Sacred and Secular: Research and Theory on Quasi-Religion. Greenwich, Connecticut: JAI Press, pp. 27-49.
    Religious & non-religious organizations should not be studied alone; the religious have secular aspects & the secular have religious aspects. [Same as a 1998 item]
    Associated Search Terms: Sociology of religion; Sacred
  • Avoidance and Conflict: Perceptions Regarding Contact between Religious and Nonreligious Jewish Youth in Israel.
    Tabory, Ephraim (1993)
    Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 32:2: 148-162.
    Analyzes questionnaire data from Tel Aviv area high schools. Focuses on religious & nonreligious Jews' mutual perceptions; avoidance prevents conflict.
    Associated Search Terms: Avoidance; Conflict; Israel, Tel Aviv; Jewish, Israel; Social distance; Stereotype; Students, secondary
  • Missions, Social Change, and Resistance to Authority: Notes Toward an Understanding of the Relative Autonomy of Religion.
    Miller, Jon (1993)
    Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 32:1: 29-50.
    Maintains that western missions in the nonwestern world effected social change & often opposed nonreligious western forces.
    Associated Search Terms: Change; Missions; Relative autonomy
  • The Social Protest of Christian and Nonreligious Groups: The Importance of Goal Choice.
    Donnelly, Brenda W. (1987)
    Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 26:3: 309-326.
    Analyzes samples of Christian & non-religious protest groups in post-Civil War U.S.A. having political goals; the Christian groups were less successful because they had more difficult goals.
    Associated Search Terms: Social movement; United States; Politics, U.S.A.; Historical
  • Parent-University Student Agreement on Religious and Nonreligious Issues.
    Hunsberger, Bruce E. (1985)
    Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 24:3: 314-320.
    Analyzes questionnaire data from Wilfrid Laurier University students & their parents; compares apostates & their parents with others & their parents. There was not much of a generation gap.
    Associated Search Terms: Disaffiliation; Generations; Canada; Students, undergraduate
  • Paranormal Beliefs: Functional Alternatives to Mainstream Religion.
    Emmons, Charles F., and Jeff Sobal (1981)
    Review of Religious Research 22:4: 301-312.
    1978 U.S.A.. Gallup data show religious "nones" or for whom religious beliefs are unimportant are more likely to believe in nonreligious paranormal phenomena & less likely in religious ones.
    Associated Search Terms: Occult; Paranormal; Salience
  • Religiosity, Beliefs, Normative Standards, and Adolescent Drinking.
    Burkett, Steven R. (1980)
    Journal of Studies on Alcohol 41:7: 662-671.
    Protestants were more likely than Catholics, religious adolescents were more likely than the nonreligious, & adolescents who believe that drinking is a sin were far more likely than adolescents who did not share that belief to disapprove of drinking and to abstain from drinking.
    Associated Search Terms: Adolescents; Alcohol; Belief
  • Departures from Conventional Religion: The Nominally Religious, the Nonreligious, and the Alternatively Religious.
    Glock, Charles Y., and Robert Wuthnow (1979)
    In Robert Wuthnow (ed.) The Religious Dimension. New Directions in Quantitative Research. New York: Academic Press, pp. 47-68.
    Based on a 1973 interview survey conducted in the San Francisco Bay Area.
    Associated Search Terms: Ultimate concerns; United States, California, San Francisco Bay Area; Materialism; Salience; Politics, U.S.A.; Moral; New religions
  • Christian Beliefs, Nonreligious Factors, and Anti-Semitism.
    Hoge, Dean R., and Jackson W. Carroll (1975)
    Social Forces 53:4: 581-594.
    Survey of 2 United Methodist & 2 Presbyterian churches in Philadelphia & Atlanta each, replicating Charles Y. Glock & Rodney Stark, Christian Beliefs and Anti-Semitism, 1966. Beliefs were a weak predictor of anti-Semitism.
    Associated Search Terms: Prejudice, anti-Semitism; Belief
[Viewing Matches 1-51]  (of 51 total matches in Citations)
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