ARDA Dictionary
  • Agnosticism:A philosophical position neither affirming nor denying belief in a deity. Agnostics believe the question of whether God exists must be left open and unanswered. The concept comes from David Hume (1711-1776), who questioned the idea of causality, and by extension the historical accuracy of biblical miracles. The term "agnostic" was coined by Thomas Huxley (1825-1895), and was used as a method more than a belief system, claiming that one should seek truth until a certain point where the evidence becomes scarce or non-existent (Reid et al. 1990: 31).
  • Secular Humanism:The lack of connection, or desire to connect to the transcendent, the sacred, God or the supernatural (Koenig et al. 2012: 47). It is a philosophy that involves beliefs, behavior and relationships valued by their own intrinsic merit. In this way, humans are believed to be capable of good without the need to believe in God or the divine. Secular humanists often are categorized, along with atheists and agnostics, as “non-religious” given they do not see the need for religion in instilling morality in society.
[Viewing Matches 1-2]  (of 2 total matches in the ARDA Dictionary)
Citations
Citations are taken from the Sociology of Religion Searchable Bibliographic Database, created and updated by Anthony J. Blasi (Ph.D. in Sociology, University of Notre Dame; University of Texas at San Antonio). The ARDA is not responsible for content or typographical errors.
  • Health differences between religious and secular subgroups in the United States:Evidence from the General Social Survey.
    Walker, Mark H., Leah Drakeford, Samuel Stroope, Joseph O. Baker, and Alexander L. Smith (2021)
    Review of Religious Research 63:1: 67-81.
    Analyzes 1988-2018 General Social Survey (U.S.A.) data. When compared to conservative Protestants, theistic nones & atheists had higher levels of self-rated health, agnostics & low-certainty nones did not differ from conservative Protestants.
    Associated Search Terms: Atheist; Belief; Health; United States
  • What do religion scholars really want? Scholarly Values in the scitnific Study of Religion.
    Shults, F. LeRon, Wesley J. Wildman, Ann Taves, and Raymond F. Paloutzian (2020)
    Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 59:1: 18-38.
    Survey data from scholars in the study of religion show that younger members in the Society for the Scientific Study of Religion, compared to others, are more female, liberal, agnostic or atheist, and do not practice a religion.
    Associated Search Terms: Professor; Society for the Scientific Study of Religion
  • The politics of religious nones.
    Schwadel, Philip (2020)
    Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 59:1: 180-189.
    Analyzes 2016 Pew Research center American Trends Panel representative internet survey data. Those with no religion in particular do not differ from the religiously affiliated. Atheists tend to be liberal & in political conflict with their families. Agnostics are likely to vote & feel politically isolated from their families.
    Associated Search Terms: Politics, U.S.A.; Family; Conflict; Atheist, U.S.A.
  • Secularity, religiosity, and health: Physical and mental health differences between atheists, agnostics, and nonaffiliated theists compared to religiously affiliated individuals.
    Baker, Joseph O., Samuel Stroope, and Mark H. Walker (2018)
    Social Science Research 75: 44-57.
    Using a national sample of U.S.A. adults, compares physical & mental health outcomes for atheists, agnostics, religiously nonaffiliated theists, & theistic members of organized religious traditions. Atheists had better physical health than other secular individuals & members of some religious traditions & reported significantly lower levels of psychiatric symptoms than both other seculars & members of most religious traditions. In contrast, physical & mental health were significantly worse for nonaffiliated theists compared to other seculars & religious affiliates on most outcomes.
    Associated Search Terms: Mental health; Health; Atheist, U.S.A.
  • Rescuing the nones from the reference category: Civic engagement among the nonreligious in America.
    Frost, Jacqui, and Penny Edgell (2018)
    Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly 47:2: 417-438.
    Those who identify as “nothing in particular” (NIP) are much less likely to show interest or engagement in civic life than are atheists, agnostics, & the “spiritual but not religious,” & the image of the nonreligious as uninvolved in civic life is inaccurate & most likely driven by forms of analysis that disproportionately weight the experiences of the “NIPs.”
    Associated Search Terms: Atheist, U.S.A.; Civic engagement
  • Looking beyond the church tax: Families and the disaffiliation of Austrian Roman Catholics.
    Berghammer, Caroline, Ulrike Zartler, and Desiree Krivanek (2017)
    Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 56:3: 514-535.
    Uses mixed methods including 2008-12 panel data. The church tax was cited as responsible by disaffiliating believers, ideological reasons by agnostics & atheists. Family transitions were important for both groups.
    Associated Search Terms: Catholic, Austria; Family; Atheist, Austria; Austria; Disaffiliation; Panel study
  • Neither ideologues nor agnostics: Alternative voters' belief sysem in an age of partisan politics.
    Baldassarri, Delia, and Amir Goldberg (2014)
    American Journal of Sociology 120:1: 45-95.
    3 subpopulations, each characterized by a distinctive way of organizing its political beliefs, are identified: ideologues, whose political attitudes strongly align with either liberal or conservative categories; alternatives, who are instead morally conservative but economically liberal, or vice versa; & agnostics, who exhibit weak associations between political beliefs. Individuals’ sociodemographic profiles, particularly their income, education, & religiosity, lie at the core of the different ways in which they understand politics.
    Associated Search Terms: United States; Politics, U.S.A.
  • Perceptions of Science and American Secularism.
    Baker, Joseph O. (2012)
    Sociological Perspectives 55:1: 167-188.
    Favorable view of science is more characteristic of secularists than religiously affiliated Americans.
    Associated Search Terms: Science; United States; Evolution; Agnostic; Atheist, U.S.A.; Creationism
  • On the receiving end: Discrimination toward the non-religious in the United States.
    Cragun, Ryan T., Barry Kosmin, Ariella Keysar, Joseph H. Hammer, and Michael Nielsen (2012)
    Journal of Contemporary Religion 27:1: 105-127.
    The strongest predictor of such discrimination was not theological atheism or agnosticism but self-identifying as an atheist or agnostic when asked what one's religion is. Context-specific predictors of discrimination are age, region of the country, rural versus urban location, parents’ religious identifications, educational attainment, ethnicity & race.
    Associated Search Terms: Atheist, U.S.A.; Discrimination; United States; Prejudice, anti-religious
  • Atheists and Agnostics Negotiate Religion and Family.
    Ecklund, Elaine Howard, and Kristen Schultz Lee (2011)
    Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 50:4: 728-743.
    Based on 2005-08 interviews with scientists who do not believe in a religion but join religions for the sake of their families & out of a desire for community. See erratum in Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 51:1 (2012): iv.
    Associated Search Terms: Scientist; Agnostic; Atheist, U.S.A.; Family
[Viewing Matches 1-10] > [View Matches 1-19]  (of 19 total matches in Citations)
Questions/Variables on Surveys
  • DESCREL from Exploring Religious America, 2002
    Please indicate which of the following best describes your religion.
    1) Catholic
    2) Protestant
    3) Christian other than Catholic or Protestant
    4) Jewish
    5) Mormon
    6) Muslim
    7) Hindu
    8) Buddhist
    9) Atheist
    10) Agnostic
    11) Or are you of another religion? (Specify)
    12) No preference (volunteered)
    13) Don't know/Not applicable/Refused
  • ATHEIST1_W4 from National Study of Youth and Religion, Wave 4 (2013)
    ATHEIST1: F:11: [If does not belong religion/denomination, other, or don't know:] Do you consider yourself to be an atheist, agnostic, just not religious, or something else?
    -99) Valid skip
    1) Atheist
    2) Agnostic
    3) Not religious
    4) Something else
  • MARRELIG3_W4 from National Study of Youth and Religion, Wave 4 (2013)
    MARRELIG3: R:30b1: [If divorced and not atheist, agnostic, or not religious or widowed and not atheist, agnostic, or not religious:] How important is it to you to marry someone who is not religious?
    -99) Valid skip
    1) Extremely important
    2) Very important
    3) Somewhat important
    4) Not very important
    5) Not important at all
    6) I do not want or plan to get married
  • ATHEIST1 from National Study of Youth and Religion, Wave 1 (2003)
    Y63. [If teen does not identify with a religion][IF Y61=0,2,3 OR Y62> 7] Do you consider yourself to be an atheist, agnostic, just not religious, or something else? (MAKE SURE NOT PROTESTANT, CATHOLIC, JEWISH, OR MUSLIM; IF SO, SKIP, BACK TO APPROPRIATE CATEGORY.)
    1) Atheist
    2) Agnostic
    3) Not religious
    4) Something else
    777) Don't know
    888) Refused
    999) Not asked
  • ATHEIST1 from National Study of Youth and Religion, Wave 3 (2007-2008)
    (atheist1_w3) [IF DOES NOT CONSIDER SELF ANY RELIGION, DK OR REF OR IF REPORTS BEING "NOT RELIGIOUS," DK OR REF] F:11. Do you consider yourself to be an atheist, agnostic, just not religious, or something else? [MAKE SURE NOT PROTESTANT, CATHOLIC, JEWISH, OR MUSLIM; IF SO, GO BACK TO F:9 OR F:10.]
    1) Atheist
    2) Agnostic
    3) Not religious
    4) Something else
    777) Don't know
    888) Refused
    999) Legitimate skip
  • PATHEIST from National Study of Youth and Religion, Wave 1 (2003)
    P82. [If parent respondent does not identify with a religious tradition/denomination/church or answered "don't know" or "refused"][IF P81 <> 1] Do you consider yourself to be an atheist, an agnostic, just not religious, or something else? [IV INSTRUCTION: MAKE SURE RESPONSE IS NOT PROTESTANT, CATHOLIC, JEWISH, OR MUSLIM; IF SO, SNAP BACK TO P81]
    1) Atheist
    2) Agnostic
    3) Not religious
    4) Something else
    777) Don't know
    888) Refused
    999) Not asked
  • ATHEIST from National Study of Youth and Religion, Wave 3 (2007-2008)
    (atheist_w3)
    1) Atheist
    2) Agnostic
    3) Not religious
    4) Something else
    777) Don't know
    888) Refused
    999) Legitimate skip
  • CIF_31 from Portraits of American Life Study, Merged Dataset, 2006-2012
    [Wave 2] Which of the following does your [spouse/partner] consider [himself/herself]? Is it Christian, Muslim, Jewish, Roman Catholic, Latter-day Saint or Mormon, Buddhist, Hindu, agnostic, atheist, spiritual, doesn't give religious things much thought or something else?
    1) Christian
    3) Jewish
    4) Roman Catholic
    6) Buddhist
    7) Hindu
    8) Agnostic (You are not sure if there is a God.)
    9) Atheist (You believe there is no God.)
    10) Spiritual, but not committed to a particular faith
    11) Doesn't give religious things much thought
    12) Other
  • CI106 from Portraits of American Life Study, Merged Dataset, 2006-2012
    [Response from 2006] Which of the following do you consider yourself? Are you Christian, Muslim, Jewish, Roman Catholic, Latter-day Saint or Mormon, Buddhist, Hindu, agnostic, atheist, spiritual, don't give religious things much thought or something else?
    -4) Don't know
    1) Christian
    2) Muslim
    3) Jewish
    4) Roman Catholic
    5) Latter-day Saint or Mormon
    6) Buddhist
    7) Hindu
    8) Agnostic
    9) Atheist
    10) Spiritual, but not committed to a particular faith
    11) Don't give religious things much thought
    12) Other
  • CI_1 from Portraits of American Life Study, Merged Dataset, 2006-2012
    [Wave 2] Which of the following do you consider yourself? Are you Christian, Muslim, Jewish, Roman Catholic, Latter-day Saint or Mormon, Buddhist, Hindu, agnostic, atheist, spiritual, don't give religious things much thought or something else?
    1) Christian
    2) Muslim
    3) Jewish
    4) Roman Catholic
    5) Latter-day Saint or Mormon
    6) Buddhist
    7) Hindu
    8) Agnostic (You are not sure if there is a God.)
    9) Atheist (You believe there is no God.)
    10) Spiritual, but not committed to a particular faith
    11) Don't give religious things much thought
    12) Other
[Viewing Matches 1-10] > [View Matches 1-150]  (of 559 total matches in Data Archive Questions/Variables)
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