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  • O'Hair, Madalyn Murray: Madalyn Murray O’Hair (1919-1995) was instrumental in banning Bible readings in public schools and founded one of the largest organizations of atheists in America.
  • Secular Movement: Gaining prominence in the mid-20th century, the modern secular movement pushed for a society without religion.
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ARDA Dictionary
  • Secular Humanism:The lack of connection, or desire to connect to the transcendent, the sacred, God or the supernatural (Koenig et al. 2012: 47). It is a philosophy that involves beliefs, behavior and relationships valued by their own intrinsic merit. In this way, humans are believed to be capable of good without the need to believe in God or the divine. Secular humanists often are categorized, along with atheists and agnostics, as “non-religious” given they do not see the need for religion in instilling morality in society.
[Viewing Matches 1-1]  (of 1 total matches in the ARDA Dictionary)
Citations are taken from the Sociology of Religion Searchable Bibliographic Database, created and updated by Anthony J. Blasi (Ph.D. in Sociology, University of Notre Dame; University of Texas at San Antonio). The ARDA is not responsible for content or typographical errors.
  • Health differences between religious and secular subgroups in the United States:Evidence from the General Social Survey.
    Walker, Mark H., Leah Drakeford, Samuel Stroope, Joseph O. Baker, and Alexander L. Smith (2021)
    Review of Religious Research 63:1: 67-81.
    Analyzes 1988-2018 General Social Survey (U.S.A.) data. When compared to conservative Protestants, theistic nones & atheists had higher levels of self-rated health, agnostics & low-certainty nones did not differ from conservative Protestants.
    Associated Search Terms: Atheist; Belief; Health; United States
  • Making meaning without a maker: Secular consciousness through narrative and cultural practice.
    Smith, Jesse M., and Caitlin L. Halligan (2021)
    Sociology of Religion 82:1: 85-110
    Based on field work in Sunday Assembly (secular) congregations in the U.S.A. & U.K. A sense of otherness, appeals to normative values, & reframing of existential questions in secular terms play a role in the lives of this nonreligious community.
    Associated Search Terms: Atheist; Participant observation; Sunday Assembly
  • One conception of secularism for all? A comparison of conceptions of laïcité among nonbelievers, Catholics, and Muslims in France.
    Cohu, Medhi, Christelle Maisonneuve, and Benoit Testé (2021)
    Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 60:1: 103-112.
    Confirms 2 distinct lay concepts of laïcité differently emphasizing public expressions of religion, state religious neutrality, & equal treatment of religions. Net of religiosity, a restrictive concept was more prevalent among nonbelievers, an inclusive one among Muslims, & both equally prevalent among Catholics.
    Associated Search Terms: France; Catholic, France; Atheist, France; Islam, France; Laïcité
  • A Qualitative Study of Black Atheists: "Don't Tell Me You're One of Those."
    Swann, Daniel (2020)
    Lanham, Maryland: Lexington Books.
    Reviews the literature o Black atheism & points to issues that Black atheists face.
    Associated Search Terms: African Americans; Atheist, U.S.A.
  • The politics of religious nones.
    Schwadel, Philip (2020)
    Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 59:1: 180-189.
    Analyzes 2016 Pew Research center American Trends Panel representative internet survey data. Those with no religion in particular do not differ from the religiously affiliated. Atheists tend to be liberal & in political conflict with their families. Agnostics are likely to vote & feel politically isolated from their families.
    Associated Search Terms: Politics, U.S.A.; Family; Conflict; Atheist, U.S.A.
  • Non-religious identities and life satisfaction: Questioning the universality of a linear link between religiosity and well-being.
    Pöhls, Katharina, Thomas Schlösser, and Detlef Fetchenhauser (2020)
    Journal of Happiness Studies 21: 2327–2353. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10902-019-00175-x
    Analyzes World Values Survey data. Only in religious societies, identifying as non-religious predicts lower life satisfaction. When controlling for the context, a curvilinear relation between (non-)religiosity & life satisfaction emerged. Atheists differed in sensitivity towards the social norm of religiosity from indistinct non-religious individuals—their well-being varied dependent on living in a country with many other secular individuals or not.
    Associated Search Terms: Life satisfaction; Norm; Contextual effects; Atheist
  • None of the Above. Nonreligious Identity in the US and Canada.
    Thiessen, Joel, and Sarah Wilkins-LaFlamme (2020)
    New York: New York University Press.
    Associated Search Terms: Canada; Atheist, Canada; Atheist, U.S.A.; United States
  • How many "nones" are there? Explaining the discrepancies in survey estimates.
    Burge, Ryan P. (2020)
    Review of Religious Research 62:1: 173-190.
    Explains why the General Social Survey (USA) and the Cooperative Congressional Election Study show different percentages of "nones" in the US population.
    Associated Search Terms: Atheist; Methods; Survey
  • Explaining the rise of ‘nonreligion studies’: Subfield formation and institutionalization within the sociology of religion
    Bullivant, Stephen (2020)
    Social Compass 67:1: 86-102.
    Proposes reasons for the growth of the study of atheism & other forms of non-religion by sociologists of religion.
    Associated Search Terms: Sociology of non-religion; Atheist
  • Quo Vadis, Polonia? On religious loyalty, exit, and voice.
    Zubrzycki, Geneviève (2020)
    Social Compass 67:2: 267-281.
    The Catholic Church openly supports a populist right-wing government while retaining the loyalty of a significant portion on the Polish population; resistance to that political alliance takes the form of Catholic factions demanding a depoliticization of the Church, people leaving the Church & embracing atheism, & a notable Jewish revival.
    Associated Search Terms: Politics, Poland; Jewish, Poland; Catholic, Poland; Atheist, Poland
[Viewing Matches 1-10] > [View Matches 1-150]  (of 348 total matches in Citations)
Data Archive
  • Google Ngrams Data, 1800-2000:
    Despite the importance of trend data for understanding key substantive and theoretical questions on American culture and religion, almost no such data exist. By searching the massive Google Books collection, however, the Google Ngram Viewer provides quantitative data on cultural and religious trends over time. The Ngram Viewer searches the entire collection of Google Books and reports on the number of times an Ngram is used annually in the books. Ngrams are most commonly words, but can be any given sequence of text. In an effort to democratize access to these trend data, the ARDA has created a dataset with more than 400 Ngram variables generated by the Ngram Viewer and more than 20 historical trend variables taken from the Historical Statistics of the United States and other sources. When available, we also included measures on education and clergy training.

    The Ngram variables included in this file were generated by using both specific terms and composite data, where scales are created out of similar words (e.g., Atheist scale = atheist + Atheist + atheism + Atheism). These Ngram data were drawn from Google's American English corpus, which contains more than 3 million books. The Ngram variables were calculated as rates and can be interpreted as how often "xyz" is used, as a proportion of the total words in Google's American English Corpus. We would caution, however, that the Ngram data included in this file are based on very simple searches. The Ngram Viewer also allows users to customize measures by using a wildcard search, inflection search, case insensitive search, part-of-speech tags and ngram compositions. For many research projects, users will want to refine the searches to better provide the measure desired. See the Finke and McClure working paper for more details.
    Funded By: The John Templeton Foundation
    Collected: 2015, Uploaded 6/29/2015
[Viewing Matches 1-1]  (of 1 total matches in the Data Archive Files)
Questions/Variables on Surveys
  • ATHEISTS from General Social Survey, 2018
    What is your personal attitude towards members of the following religious groups? Atheists?
    0) Not applicable
    1) Very positive
    2) Somewhat positive
    3) Neither positive nor negative
    4) Somewhat negative
    5) Very negative
    8) Don't know
    9) No answer
  • V88 from International Social Survey Programme 2008: Religion III
    Optional_Q8f. What is your personal attitude towards members of the following religious groups? Atheists or non-believers
    0) Not available
    1) Very positive
    2) Somewhat positive
    3) Neither positive nor negative
    4) Somewhat negative
    5) Very negative
    8) Can't choose
    9) No answer
  • NORELGSP from General Social Survey, 2021
    Do you consider yourself to be atheist, agnostic, something else, or nothing in particular?
    1) Atheist
    2) Agnostic
    3) Something else
    4) Nothing in particular
  • WCDSTRL from Data from the ARDA National Profiles, 2005 Update: Religion Indexes, Adherents and Other Data
    Re-coding of World Christian Database State Religion variable (Grim and Finke, 2006)
    0) Atheist
    1) Secular
    2) Religious
    3) Specific religion
  • RELIDESC from General Social Survey, 2021
    How well does the term (Christian/Catholic/Jew/Buddhist/Hindu/Muslim/atheist/agnostic/non-religious/N/A) describe you?
    1) Extremely well
    2) Very well
    3) Somewhat well
    4) Not very well
    5) Not well at all
  • RELIDINS from General Social Survey, 2021
    If someone criticized (Christians/Catholics/Jews/Buddhists/Hindus/Muslims/Atheists/Agnostics/people who do not identify with a religion/your religion), to what extent would it feel like a personal insult?
    1) A great deal
    2) Somewhat
    3) Very little
    4) Not at all
  • RELIDWE from General Social Survey, 2021
    When talking about (Christians/Catholics/Jews/Buddhists/Hindus/Muslims/atheists/agnostics/people who do not identify with a religion/your religion), how often do you say 'we' instead of 'they'?
    1) Never
    2) Rarely
    3) Some of the time
    4) Most of the time
    5) All of the time
  • RELIDIMP from General Social Survey, 2021
    When thinking about religion, how important is being (a Christian/a Catholic/a Jew/a Buddhist/a Hindu/a Muslim/an atheist/an agnostic/someone who does not identify with a religion/ a member of your religion) to you?
    1) Extremely important
    2) Very important
    3) Somewhat important
    4) Not too important
    5) Not at all important
  • DESCREL from Exploring Religious America, 2002
    Please indicate which of the following best describes your religion.
    1) Catholic
    2) Protestant
    3) Christian other than Catholic or Protestant
    4) Jewish
    5) Mormon
    6) Muslim
    7) Hindu
    8) Buddhist
    9) Atheist
    10) Agnostic
    11) Or are you of another religion? (Specify)
    12) No preference (volunteered)
    13) Don't know/Not applicable/Refused
  • ATHEIST from Baylor Religion Survey, Wave V (2017)
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