Site Features
  • ARDA Affiliate: Portraits of American Life Study, 1st Wave, 2006: The Portraits of American Life Study (PALS) is an unprecedented, multi-level panel study focused on religion in the United States, with a particular focus on capturing ethnic and racial diversity. The PALS seeks to show the impact of religion in everyday life, and ultimately the connections between religious change and other forms of change in individuals and families over the course of their lives and across generations. It includes substantive modules on family relationships, deviance, health, civic participation and volunteering, moral and social attitudes, and race and ethnic issues. In time, this panel study is expected to develop into a multi-wave longitudinal study comprising both individual and congregational level data. This study was formerly known as the Panel Study of American Religion and Ethnicity (PS-ARE).
  • Theories, Concepts & Measures: Theories, Concepts & Measures links major Theories to Concepts and Measures from available datasets in an interactive format.
[Viewing Matches 1-2]  (of 2 total matches in Site Features)
QuickStats
[Viewing Matches 1-1]  (of 1 total matches in QuickStats)
Timeline
  • Bishops' Program for Social Reconstruction: The "Bishops’ Program for Social Reconstruction" (1919) was a Catholic initiative supporting guaranteed wages, health insurance, and worker protections.
  • Missionary Member Care Movement: Beginning in 1980, the Missionary Member Care Movement sought to reduce missionary attrition and provide more holistic care to humanitarian workers.
  • White, Ellen Gould: Ellen Gould White (1827-1915) was the co-founder of the Seventh-day Adventist Church. She promoted Saturday as the Christian Sabbath and advocated biblically-based health initiatives.
  • Perkins, John : Christian and social justice advocate John Perkins (1930-present) helped provide education, job skills, and health care access to the poor through his ministries.
  • Church of Scientology: In 1954, L. Ron Hubbard (1911-1986) began the Church of Scientology with teachings on how to reach a blissful "state of clear."
  • Eddy, Mary Baker: Mary Baker Eddy (1821-1910) founded the Christian Science movement.
  • Cayce, Edgar : Edgar Cayce (1877-1945) was a famous 20th-century psychic, clairvoyant and prophet, whose "readings" told of past lives and are credited with curing illnesses.
  • New Thought: Beginning in the mid-19th century, the New Thought movement extolled the power of the mind and God to influence everything from healing to personal success.
  • Antoinette Brown Ordained by Congregationalists: In 1853, Antoinette Brown (1825-1921), a woman's rights activist and abolitionist, became the first woman to be ordained by a Mainline Protestant church.
  • Indian Manual Training School Founded in Oregon: In 1835, Methodist missionaries established a mission and manual labor school for American Indians, which was largely unsuccessful.
  • Hubbard, L. Ron: L. Ron Hubbard (1911-1986) founded Scientology, a controversial new religious movement.
  • Ellen White Helps Found Seventh-day Adventists: In 1863, Ellen G. White (1827-1915), was instrumental in founding the Seventh-day Adventist Church, which worships on Saturday and believes Christ's return is imminent.
  • Anti-Cult Movement: In the 1960s and 1970s, the rise in new religious groups brought accusations of "brainwashing" from opposing groups, who became known as the anti-cult movement.
[Viewing Matches 1-13]  (of 13 total matches in Timelines)
Measurements
[Viewing Matches 1-4]  (of 4 total matches in Measurement Concepts)
ARDA Dictionary
  • Mental Health Measures:Questions covering issues pertaining to an individual's mental health, views of mental health, attitudes toward those with mental health issues, medication, government intervention, etc. Definitions of good mental health vary, as do ways to measure mental health. Particular measures related to mental health, such as views of mental health, attitudes toward those with mental health issues, medication and mental health, government intervention, etc., can be found in the following ARDA datasets: HEALTH2 - 1997 Faith and Community Survey of Four Indianapolis Neighborhoods, MNTLHLTH - 2004 General Social Survey, EVMHP - 1996 General Social Survey, OUTSIDER - 2002 General Social Survey, PSYCMED4 - 2006 General Social Survey, SEENMNTL - 1998 General Social Survey MNTLHLTH - 2002 General Social Survey, SPMENTL - 1996 General Social Survey, KNWMHOSP - 1996 General Social Survey, MHTRTSLF - 2006 General Social Survey.
  • Mental Health:Mental health broadly refers to a person's psychological and emotional condition.
  • National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health):The National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health) is a nationally representative study that follows a sample of adolescents (Wave 1: 1994-1995) as they grow into adults. Add Health combines longitudinal survey data on respondents' social, economic, psychological and physical well-being with contextual data on the family, neighborhood, community, school, friendships, peer groups and romantic relationships, providing unique opportunities to study how social environments and behaviors in adolescence are linked to health and achievement outcomes in young adulthood. As of 2018, four waves have already been collected and made publicly available, with the fifth wave finishing up data collection from 2016-2018. Because Add Health has a number of religion and health survey items, it has been a valuable data source in the study of health and religion (see Nooney 2005; Rostosky, Regnerus and Wright 2003). To download Add Health datasets from the ARDA's Data Archive, click here .
  • Mental Health, Religion and:Mental health consists of positive and negative dimensions. Positive mental health includes positive emotions (e.g., happiness, peace, etc.) as well as positive cognitive processes (e.g., optimistic thinking and adaptation), while negative mental health involves emotions, cognitions and behaviors that cause dysfunction in social relationships, occupation and recreation, and interfere with adaptation (e.g., anger, violence, addiction, etc.; see Koenig et al. 2012: 298). In the area of religion and health, an estimated 80 percent of studies focus specifically on mental health (Koenig 2012). In general, religiousness tends to improve positive mental health and reduce negative mental health outcomes. Examining hundreds of studies on mental health and religion, Koenig and colleagues (2012) found that religion/spirituality tends to improve mental well-being, increase hope/optimism, reduce loneliness/depression, increase social capital, reduce substance abuse and improve marital outcomes. There are, however, some studies that do not find religion to be a positive factor for mental health. For example, traditional religiousness is associated with the negative personality traits of authoritarianism (Shaffer and Hastings 2007; Watson et al. 2003) and neuroticism (Duriez and Soenens 2006; Jaarmsa et al. 2007). Nonetheless, the general conclusions from previous studies is that religion, as means to promote meaning, happiness and self-control, tends to be positively associated with beneficial mental health outcomes.
  • Spiritual, Religious, and Personal Beliefs (SRPB) Scale:As a subscale of the World Health Organization's Quality of Life (WHOQOL) scale, the Spiritual, Religious and Personal Beliefs (SRPB) scale assesses spirituality in health studies. Studies have found that SRPB was associated with better mental and physical health (see Saxena 2006). However, five of the eight dimensions of the subscale are so closely tied with mental health (e.g., hopefulness, meaning in life, peace, etc.) that the findings become somewhat circular and unclear, according to some researchers (see Koenig et al. 2012).
  • Prayer, Health Benefits of:Studies on the health benefits of prayer tend to be mixed, particularly in the context of intercessory prayer (praying on the behalf of others). Hodge (2007), in his meta-analysis of intercessory prayer studies, found that prayer produced with a small, but significant, association with health benefits among 7 of 17 studies, though the more rigorous studies tended to not produce significant results. In contrast, studies generally find that the person doing the praying, either for oneself or for others, tends to receive mental health benefits from it. A study by Boelens and colleagues (2009) found that prayer sessions with patients at a primary care office tended to lower their depression and anxiety while increasing optimism. However, sometimes prayer and religion is used as replacements for professional medical help, which can be dangerous for health outcomes (see Koenig et al. 2012). In sum, the person doing the praying, and how prayer is used in conjunction with medical services, matter when examining the health benefits of prayer.
  • Physical Health, Religion and:Physical health is broad category of health pertaining to the physical body. Research often focuses on heart disease, hypertension, cerebrovascular disease, dementia, immune functioning, endocrine functioning, cancer and mortality, among other things. In the area of religion/spirituality, studies have found that religiousness/spirituality is inversely related to cardiac problems (Chen and Contrada 2007; Contrada et al. 2004), high blood pressure/hypertension (Al-Kandari 2003; Gillum and Ingram 2006), cancer (Oman et al. 2002), while religiousness was positively related to immune functioning (Lutgendorf et al. 2004) and endocrine functioning (Ironson et al. 2002). Findings were more mixed in the areas of cerebrovascular disease and dementia (see Koenig et al. 2012). Positive coping, beneficial health practices and support from religious communities may all play a role in explaining the results (see Coping Theory; Health Behaviors, Religion and).
  • Subjective Life Satisfaction Measures:These variables measure a respondent's self-assessment of life satisfaction with respect to family life, job, education, etc. Subjective assessments contrast with more “objective” measures, such as quality of life metrics, social status or physical health. Examples of such items can be found in the Measurement Wizard : "Health, Satisfaction with," and "Happiness, Self-rated."
  • Health Behaviors, Religion and:Health behaviors include physical activity, diet and nutrition, weight, cigarette smoking, risky sexual activity and sleep (Koenig et al. 2012). Studies have found that religion/religiosity is generally associated with promoting positive health behaviors and reducing negative ones. For example, religious identification/religiousness is associated with more exercise (Baetz and Bowen 2008; Hill et al. 2006), eating healthy foods (Lytle et al. 2003; Obisesan et al. 2006), less cigarette smoking (Beyers et al. 2004) and less sexually transmitted diseases (Gray 2004). Treating your body as a “temple” according to religious scripture (1 Corinthians 6:19-20) and strict regulation of sexual behaviors may explain some of these results.
  • Faith Healing:A term usually limited to the Christian practice of restoring health by means of prayer, divine power or the intervention of the Holy Spirit (Smith and Green 1995: 355).
[Viewing Matches 1-10] > [View Matches 1-24]  (of 24 total matches in the ARDA Dictionary)
Citations
Citations are taken from the Sociology of Religion Searchable Bibliographic Database, created and updated by Anthony J. Blasi (Ph.D. in Sociology, University of Notre Dame; University of Texas at San Antonio). The ARDA is not responsible for content or typographical errors.
  • When Religion Hurts: Structural Sexism and Health in Religious Congregations.
    Homan, Patricia, and Amy Burdette (2021)
    American Sociological Review 86:2: 234-255.
    Links General Social Survey & National Congregations Study (both U.S.A.) data. Among religious participants, women who attend sexist religious institutions report worse self-rated health than do those who attend more inclusive congregations. Only women who attend inclusive religious institutions exhibit a health advantage over non-participants.
    Associated Search Terms: Health; Gender traditionalism; Practice; Women
  • Health differences between religious and secular subgroups in the United States:Evidence from the General Social Survey.
    Walker, Mark H., Leah Drakeford, Samuel Stroope, Joseph O. Baker, and Alexander L. Smith (2021)
    Review of Religious Research 63:1: 67-81.
    Analyzes 1988-2018 General Social Survey (U.S.A.) data. When compared to conservative Protestants, theistic nones & atheists had higher levels of self-rated health, agnostics & low-certainty nones did not differ from conservative Protestants.
    Associated Search Terms: Atheist; Belief; Health; United States
  • Does childhood religiosity delay death?
    Upenieks, Laura, Markus H. Schafer, and Andreea Mogosanu (2021)
    Journal of Religion and Health 60:1: 420-443. doi: 10.1007/s10943-019-00936-1.
    Children reared in highly religious households have a higher risk of mortality than those from moderately religious households, this despite having better health profiles. The surprising link between high childhood religiosity & mortality was confined to those who downgraded their religiosity. Those who intensified from moderate to high religiosity, in fact, seemed to be most protected.
    Associated Search Terms: Mortality
  • Religion and spirituality among American Indian, South Asian, Black, Hispanic/Latina, and white women in the study on stress, spirituality, and health.
    Kent, Blake Victor, James C. Davidson, Ying Zhang, Kenneth I. Pargament, Tyler J. VanderWeele, Harold G. Koenig, Lynn G. Underwood, Neal Krause, Alka M. Kanaya, Shelley S. Tworoger, Anna B. Schachter, Shelley A. Cole, Marcia O'Leary, & 6 others (2021)
    Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 60:1: 198-215.
    Analyzes survey data from American women of various ethnic identities. Reports levels of varieties of religiosity & religious coping by identity group.
    Associated Search Terms: Latino Americans; South Asian Americans; Native Americans; Religiosity; Spirituality; Coping; African Americans
  • Attributing problem-solving to God, receiving social support, and stress-moderation
    Rainville, G. "Chuck"; and Neal Krause (2020)
    Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 59:3: 476-483
    Analyzes AARP Brain Health and Mental Health survey data (U.S.A. adults). Viewing God as a problem solver had a stress-buffering effect among those receiving low social support, and a stress-exacerbator among those already receiving high levels of social support.
    Associated Search Terms: God, image of; Health; Stress; Social support
  • The influence of close ties on depression: Does network religiosity matter?
    Upenieks, Laura (2020)
    Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 59:3: 484-508.
    Analyzes 2006 Portraits of American Life Study data; a greater number of network ties that discuss religion & pray for the respondent are detrimental to the mental health of those of a low religious salience.
    Associated Search Terms: Mental health; Network; Salience
  • The blood of Christ compels them: State religiosity and state population mobility during the coronavirus (covid-19) pandemic.
    Hill, Terrence D., Kelsey Gonzalez, and Amy M. Burdette (2020)
    Journal of Religion and Health https://doi.org/10.1007/s10943-020-01058-9
    More religious American states tend to exhibit higher average mobility scores & slower average declines in mobility. Findings also suggest that state stay-at-home orders have a weaker impact on mobility in more religious states.
    Associated Search Terms: Methods, geo-tracking; Mobility (geographical); Health; Ecology
  • Belief in supernatural evil and mental health: Do secure attachment to God and gender matter?
    Jung, Jong Hyun (2020)
    Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 59:1: 141-160.
    Analyzes 2010 Baylor Religion Survey data (U.S.A.). Belief in supernatural evil is positively associated with anxiety & paranoia, but attachment to God buffers this relationship for women.
    Associated Search Terms: Mental health; Belief; Gender
  • Religious service attendance, religious coping, and risk of hypertension in women participating in the Nurses' Health Study II.
    Spence, Nicholas D., Maryam S. Farvid, Erica T. Warner, Tyler J. VanderWeele, Shelley S. Tworoger, M. Austin Argentieri, and Alexandra E. Shields (2020)
    American Journal of Epidemiology 189:3: 193-203.
    Based on 2001-18 panel data on U.S.A. women. Religious service attendance was modestly associated with hypertension in an inverse dose-response manner & partially mediated through body mass index.
    Associated Search Terms: Health; Practice
  • Culture wars and COVID-19 conduct: Christian nationalism, religiosity, and Americans' behavior during the coronavirus pandemic.
    Perry, Samuel L., Andrew L. Whitehead, and Joshua B. Grubbs (2020)
    Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 59:3: 405-416.
    Analyzes August 2019, February 2020, & May 2020, Public and Discourse Ethics Survey panel data (U.S.A.); Christian nationalism was the leading predictor of Americans engaging in incautious behavior & was the 2nd strongest predictor of taking fewer precautions such as wearing a mask or sanitizing hands. Religiosity, in contrast, was the leading predictor of taking more frequent precautionary actions.
    Associated Search Terms: Religiosity; Science; Health; Christian nationalism
[Viewing Matches 1-10] > [View Matches 1-150]  (of 640 total matches in Citations)
Data Archive
  • General Social Survey 2012 Cross-Section and Panel Combined:
    The General Social Surveys (GSS) have been conducted by the National Opinion Research Center (NORC) annually since 1972, except for the years 1979, 1981, and 1992 (a supplement was added in 1992), and biennially beginning in 1994. The GSS are designed to be part of a program of social indicator research, replicating questionnaire items and wording in order to facilitate time-trend studies. This data file has all cases and variables asked on the 2012 GSS. There are a total of 4,820 cases in the data set but their initial sampling years vary because the GSS now contains panel cases. Sampling years can be identified with the variable SAMPTYPE.

    The 2012 GSS featured special modules on religious scriptures, the environment, dance and theater performances, health care system, government involvement, health concerns, emotional health, financial independence and income inequality.

    The GSS has switched from a repeating, cross-section design to a combined repeating cross-section and panel-component design. This file has a rolling panel design, with the 2008 GSS as the base year for the first panel. A sub-sample of 2,000 GSS cases from 2008 was selected for reinterview in 2010 and again in 2012 as part of the GSSs in those years. The 2010 GSS consisted of a new cross-section plus the reinterviews from 2008. The 2012 GSS consists of a new cross-section of 1,974, the first reinterview wave of the 2010 panel cases with 1,551 completed cases, and the second and final reinterview of the 2008 panel with 1,295 completed cases. Altogether, the 2012 GSS had 4,820 cases (1,974 in the new 2012 panel, 1,551 in the 2010 panel, and 1,295 in the 2008 panel).

    To download syntax files for the GSS that reproduce well-known religious group recodes, including RELTRAD, please visit the ARDA's Syntax Repository .
    Funded By: National Science Foundation
    Collected: 2012, Uploaded 10/16/2013
  • Nebraska Annual Social Indicators Survey, 2001:
    The Nebraska Annual Social Indicators Survey (NASIS) aims to survey quality of life in the state of Nebraska, covering topics such as the environment, housing, health, recreation, occupation, education, family life, among others. A set of core questions are repeated each year, and additional questions are purchased by those interested in gathering additional data. The 2001 NASIS asks questions about outdoor and recreational activities, the Nebraska Game and Parks Commission, household composition, job situation, the care in nursing homes/assisted living facilities, voting behavior and the Nebraska Department of Roads.
    Funded By: Department of Sociology at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln , Bureau of Sociological Research , and other state agencies and educational and research organizations
    Collected: 2001, Uploaded 10/29/2018
  • National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health, Public Use Contextual Database, Wave I:
    The National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health) is a longitudinal study of a nationally representative sample of adolescents in grades 7-12 in the United States during the 1994-95 school year. The Add Health cohort has been followed into young adulthood with four in-home interviews, the most recent in 2008, when the sample was aged 24-32*. Add Health combines longitudinal survey data on respondents' social, economic, psychological and physical well-being with contextual data on the family, neighborhood, community, school, friendships, peer groups, and romantic relationships, providing unique opportunities to study how social environments and behaviors in adolescence are linked to health and achievement outcomes in young adulthood. The fourth wave of interviews expanded the collection of biological data in Add Health to understand the social, behavioral, and biological linkages in health trajectories as the Add Health cohort ages through adulthood. The fifth wave of data collection is planned to begin in 2016.

    Initiated in 1994 and supported by three program project grants from the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) with co-funding from 23 other federal agencies and foundations, Add Health is the largest, most comprehensive longitudinal survey of adolescents ever undertaken. Beginning with an in-school questionnaire administered to a nationally representative sample of students in grades 7-12, the study followed up with a series of in-home interviews conducted in 1995, 1996, 2001-02, and 2008. Other sources of data include questionnaires for parents, siblings, fellow students, and school administrators and interviews with romantic partners. Preexisting databases provide information about neighborhoods and communities.

    Add Health was developed in response to a mandate from the U.S. Congress to fund a study of adolescent health, and Waves I and II focus on the forces that may influence adolescents' health and risk behaviors, including personal traits, families, friendships, romantic relationships, peer groups, schools, neighborhoods, and communities. As participants have aged into adulthood, however, the scientific goals of the study have expanded and evolved. Wave III, conducted when respondents were between 18 and 26** years old, focuses on how adolescent experiences and behaviors are related to decisions, behavior, and health outcomes in the transition to adulthood. At Wave IV, respondents were ages 24-32* and assuming adult roles and responsibilities. Follow up at Wave IV has enabled researchers to study developmental and health trajectories across the life course of adolescence into adulthood using an integrative approach that combines the social, behavioral, and biomedical sciences in its research objectives, design, data collection, and analysis.

    * 52 respondents were 33-34 years old at the time of the Wave IV interview.
    ** 24 respondents were 27-28 years old at the time of the Wave III interview.

    To provide an array of community characteristics by which researchers may investigate the nature of such contextual influences for a wide range of adolescent health behaviors, selected contextual variables have been calculated and compiled. These are provided in this Contextual Database, already linked to the Add Health respondent IDs.
    Funded By: Department of Health and Human Services , National Institutes of Health , Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development , with cooperative funding from 23 other federal agencies and foundations.
    Collected: 1995, Uploaded 10/19/2015
  • National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health, Public Use Network Data, Wave I:
    The National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health) is a longitudinal study of a nationally representative sample of adolescents in grades 7-12 in the United States during the 1994-95 school year. The Add Health cohort has been followed into young adulthood with four in-home interviews, the most recent in 2008, when the sample was aged 24-32*. Add Health combines longitudinal survey data on respondents' social, economic, psychological and physical well-being with contextual data on the family, neighborhood, community, school, friendships, peer groups, and romantic relationships, providing unique opportunities to study how social environments and behaviors in adolescence are linked to health and achievement outcomes in young adulthood. The fourth wave of interviews expanded the collection of biological data in Add Health to understand the social, behavioral, and biological linkages in health trajectories as the Add Health cohort ages through adulthood. The fifth wave of data collection is planned to begin in 2016.

    Initiated in 1994 and supported by three program project grants from the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) with co-funding from 23 other federal agencies and foundations, Add Health is the largest, most comprehensive longitudinal survey of adolescents ever undertaken. Beginning with an in-school questionnaire administered to a nationally representative sample of students in grades 7-12, the study followed up with a series of in-home interviews conducted in 1995, 1996, 2001-02, and 2008. Other sources of data include questionnaires for parents, siblings, fellow students, and school administrators and interviews with romantic partners. Preexisting databases provide information about neighborhoods and communities.

    Add Health was developed in response to a mandate from the U.S. Congress to fund a study of adolescent health, and Waves I and II focus on the forces that may influence adolescents' health and risk behaviors, including personal traits, families, friendships, romantic relationships, peer groups, schools, neighborhoods, and communities. As participants have aged into adulthood, however, the scientific goals of the study have expanded and evolved. Wave III, conducted when respondents were between 18 and 26** years old, focuses on how adolescent experiences and behaviors are related to decisions, behavior, and health outcomes in the transition to adulthood. At Wave IV, respondents were ages 24-32* and assuming adult roles and responsibilities. Follow up at Wave IV has enabled researchers to study developmental and health trajectories across the life course of adolescence into adulthood using an integrative approach that combines the social, behavioral, and biomedical sciences in its research objectives, design, data collection, and analysis.

    * 52 respondents were 33-34 years old at the time of the Wave IV interview.
    ** 24 respondents were 27-28 years old at the time of the Wave III interview.

    This network data includes network variables constructed from the Add Health in-school data and friendship nominations.
    Funded By: Department of Health and Human Services , National Institutes of Health , Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development , with cooperative funding from 23 other federal agencies and foundations.
    Collected: 1995, Uploaded 10/19/2015
  • National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health, Public Use In-Home, In-School, and Parent Questionnaire Data, Wave I:
    The National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health) is a longitudinal study of a nationally representative sample of adolescents in grades 7-12 in the United States during the 1994-95 school year. The Add Health cohort has been followed into young adulthood with four in-home interviews, the most recent in 2008, when the sample was aged 24-32*. Add Health combines longitudinal survey data on respondents' social, economic, psychological and physical well-being with contextual data on the family, neighborhood, community, school, friendships, peer groups, and romantic relationships, providing unique opportunities to study how social environments and behaviors in adolescence are linked to health and achievement outcomes in young adulthood. The fourth wave of interviews expanded the collection of biological data in Add Health to understand the social, behavioral, and biological linkages in health trajectories as the Add Health cohort ages through adulthood. The fifth wave of data collection is planned to begin in 2016.

    Initiated in 1994 and supported by three program project grants from the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) with co-funding from 23 other federal agencies and foundations, Add Health is the largest, most comprehensive longitudinal survey of adolescents ever undertaken. Beginning with an in-school questionnaire administered to a nationally representative sample of students in grades 7-12, the study followed up with a series of in-home interviews conducted in 1995, 1996, 2001-02, and 2008. Other sources of data include questionnaires for parents, siblings, fellow students, and school administrators and interviews with romantic partners. Preexisting databases provide information about neighborhoods and communities.

    Add Health was developed in response to a mandate from the U.S. Congress to fund a study of adolescent health, and Waves I and II focus on the forces that may influence adolescents' health and risk behaviors, including personal traits, families, friendships, romantic relationships, peer groups, schools, neighborhoods, and communities. As participants have aged into adulthood, however, the scientific goals of the study have expanded and evolved. Wave III, conducted when respondents were between 18 and 26** years old, focuses on how adolescent experiences and behaviors are related to decisions, behavior, and health outcomes in the transition to adulthood. At Wave IV, respondents were ages 24-32* and assuming adult roles and responsibilities. Follow up at Wave IV has enabled researchers to study developmental and health trajectories across the life course of adolescence into adulthood using an integrative approach that combines the social, behavioral, and biomedical sciences in its research objectives, design, data collection, and analysis.

    * 52 respondents were 33-34 years old at the time of the Wave IV interview.
    ** 24 respondents were 27-28 years old at the time of the Wave III interview.

    Included in this dataset are the in-home interviews, in-school questionnaire, and parent questionnaire.
    Funded By: Department of Health and Human Services , National Institutes of Health , Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development , with cooperative funding from 23 other federal agencies and foundations.
    Collected: 1995, Uploaded 10/19/2015
  • National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health, Public Use Grand Sample Weights, Wave I:
    The National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health) is a longitudinal study of a nationally representative sample of adolescents in grades 7-12 in the United States during the 1994-95 school year. The Add Health cohort has been followed into young adulthood with four in-home interviews, the most recent in 2008, when the sample was aged 24-32*. Add Health combines longitudinal survey data on respondents' social, economic, psychological and physical well-being with contextual data on the family, neighborhood, community, school, friendships, peer groups, and romantic relationships, providing unique opportunities to study how social environments and behaviors in adolescence are linked to health and achievement outcomes in young adulthood. The fourth wave of interviews expanded the collection of biological data in Add Health to understand the social, behavioral, and biological linkages in health trajectories as the Add Health cohort ages through adulthood. The fifth wave of data collection is planned to begin in 2016.

    Initiated in 1994 and supported by three program project grants from the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) with co-funding from 23 other federal agencies and foundations, Add Health is the largest, most comprehensive longitudinal survey of adolescents ever undertaken. Beginning with an in-school questionnaire administered to a nationally representative sample of students in grades 7-12, the study followed up with a series of in-home interviews conducted in 1995, 1996, 2001-02, and 2008. Other sources of data include questionnaires for parents, siblings, fellow students, and school administrators and interviews with romantic partners. Preexisting databases provide information about neighborhoods and communities.

    Add Health was developed in response to a mandate from the U.S. Congress to fund a study of adolescent health, and Waves I and II focus on the forces that may influence adolescents' health and risk behaviors, including personal traits, families, friendships, romantic relationships, peer groups, schools, neighborhoods, and communities. As participants have aged into adulthood, however, the scientific goals of the study have expanded and evolved. Wave III, conducted when respondents were between 18 and 26** years old, focuses on how adolescent experiences and behaviors are related to decisions, behavior, and health outcomes in the transition to adulthood. At Wave IV, respondents were ages 24-32* and assuming adult roles and responsibilities. Follow up at Wave IV has enabled researchers to study developmental and health trajectories across the life course of adolescence into adulthood using an integrative approach that combines the social, behavioral, and biomedical sciences in its research objectives, design, data collection, and analysis.

    * 52 respondents were 33-34 years old at the time of the Wave IV interview.
    ** 24 respondents were 27-28 years old at the time of the Wave III interview.

    Included here are weights to remove any differences between the composition of the sample and the estimated composition of the population. See the attached codebook for information regarding how these weights were calculated.
    Funded By: Department of Health and Human Services , National Institutes of Health , Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development , with cooperative funding from 23 other federal agencies and foundations.
    Collected: 1995, Uploaded 10/19/2015
  • Baylor Religion Survey, Wave V (2017):
    Wave V of the Baylor Religion Survey (2017), also known as "The Values and Beliefs of the American Public - A National Study," was administered by Gallup and funded by the John Templeton Foundation. It covers topics of the geography of religion; religious behaviors and attitudes; morality and politics; mental health and religion; intersection of technology and religion; race and ethnicity; the religious, political and ideological values of Trump voters; and basic demographics.
    Funded By: The John Templeton Foundation
    Collected: 2017, Uploaded 4/20/2020
  • Portraits of American Life Study, Merged Dataset, 2006-2012:
    The Portraits of American Life Study (PALS) is an extensive, national-level panel study focused on religion in the U.S., with a particular focus on capturing ethnic and racial diversity. PALS seeks to understand the impact of religion in everyday life, and ultimately the connections between religious change and other forms of change in individuals and families over the course of their lives and across generations. It includes substantive modules on family relationships, deviance, health, civic participation and volunteering, moral and social attitudes, and race and ethnic issues. It currently includes two waves, collected in 2006 and 2012. This file contains only the respondents who were in both waves (N=1,314).

    ARDA Note: The ARDA coded the variable names in a way that is easy to identify across waves. The variable names have stems (e.g., CA23), and the suffix (e.g., W1) will tell you wave of the corresponding variable. "W1" refers to Wave 1, "06" refers to Wave 1 variables that may not have been in the original Wave 1 dataset, and no suffix means that the variable is a Wave 2 variable. For example, CA23W1 belongs to Wave 1 and CA23 belongs to Wave 2. In all instances, examine the variable description, which contains the wave information (e.g., [Wave 2]) and the full question wording.
    Funded By: Lilly Endowment Inc. Kinder Institute, Rice University University of Notre Dame
    Collected: 2012, Uploaded 6/8/2015
  • Portraits of American Life Study, 1st Wave, 2006:
    The Portraits of American Life Study (PALS) is an unprecedented, multi-level panel study focused on religion in the United States, with a particular focus on capturing ethnic and racial diversity. The PALS seeks to show the impact of religion in everyday life, and ultimately the connections between religious change and other forms of change in individuals and families over the course of their lives and across generations. It includes substantive modules on family relationships, deviance, health, civic participation and volunteering, moral and social attitudes, and race and ethnic issues. In time, this panel study is expected to develop into a multi-wave longitudinal study comprising both individual and congregational level data. This study was formerly known as the Panel Study of American Religion and Ethnicity (PS-ARE).
    Funded By: The Lilly Endowment Inc. University of Notre Dame Rice University
    Collected: 2006, Uploaded 4/23/2010
  • National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), Demographic and Examination Data, 2007-2008:
    The National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) is a program of studies designed to assess the health and nutritional status of adults and children in the United States. The NHANES combines personal interviews and physical examinations, which focus on different population groups or health topics. These surveys have been conducted by the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) on a periodic basis from 1971 to 1994. In 1999 the NHANES became a continuous program with a changing focus on a variety of health and nutrition measurements which were designed to meet current and emerging concerns. The sample for the survey is selected to represent the U.S. population of all ages. Many of the NHANES 2007-2008 questions were also asked in NHANES II 1976-1980, Hispanic HANES 1982-1984, NHANES III 1988-1994, and NHANES 1999-2006. New questions were added to the survey based on recommendations from survey collaborators, NCHS staff, and other interagency work groups. Estimates for previously undiagnosed conditions, as well as those known to and reported by survey respondents, are produced through the survey.

    In the 2007-2008 wave, the NHANES includes 69 datasets. These have been combined into three datasets for convenience. Each starts with the Demographic dataset and includes datasets of a specific type.

    1. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), Demographic & Examination Data, 2007-2008 (The base of the Demographic dataset + all data from medical examinations).

    2. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), Demographic & Laboratory Data, 2007-2008 (The base of the Demographic dataset + all data from medical laboratories).

    3. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), Demographic & Questionnaire Data, 2007-2008 (The base of the Demographic dataset + all data from questionnaires)

    Variable SEQN is included for merging files within the waves. All data files should be sorted by SEQN.

    Additional details of the design and content of each survey are available at the NHANES webssite .
    Funded By: National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS).
    Collected: 2008, Uploaded 2/1/2016
[Viewing Matches 1-10] > [View Matches 1-150]  (of 169 total matches in the Data Archive Files)
Investigators/Researchers
[Viewing Matches 1-10] > [View Matches 1-88]  (of 88 total matches in Investigators)
Questions/Variables on Surveys
  • ABINSPAY from General Social Survey, 2018
    People use their health insurance to help cover the cost of receiving health care. Do you think people should be able to use their health insurance to help cover the cost of receiving an abortion?
    1) People should be able
    2) People should not be able
    8) Don't know
    9) No answer
  • INSTYPE from General Social Survey 2012 Cross-Section and Panel Combined
    What kind of health insurance do you have?
    0) Inapplicable
    1) Have no health insurance
    2) National, public health insurance (including coverage by public welfare) (A)
    3) Private insurance (B)
    4) Employer/union based insurance (C)
    5) National, public health insurance and private/complementary insurance (A+B)
    6) Public/national and employer/union based insurance (A+C)
    7) Employer/union based and private/complementary insurance (B+C)
    8) Employer/union based, private/complementary and national/public health insurance (A+B+C)
    9) Other
    10) Military
    98) Don't know
    99) No answer
  • HLTHBEH from General Social Survey 2012 Cross-Section and Panel Combined
    Severe health problems may have many causes. How much do you agree or disagree with the following statements? People suffer from severe health problems: because they behaved in ways that damaged their health
    0) Inapplicable
    1) Strongly agree
    2) Agree
    3) Neither agree nor disagree
    4) Disagree
    5) Strongly disagree
    8) Don't know
    9) No answer
  • DEPRESS from General Social Survey 2014 Cross-Section and Panel Combined
    Now I would like to ask you some questions about general health conditions. Has a doctor, nurse, or other health professional ever told you that you had: Depression?
    0) Inapplicable
    1) Yes
    2) No
    9) No answer
  • DIABETES from General Social Survey 2014 Cross-Section and Panel Combined
    Now I would like to ask you some questions about general health conditions. Has a doctor, nurse, or other health professional ever told you that you had: C. Diabetes or high blood pressure?
    0) Inapplicable
    1) Yes
    2) No
    9) No answer
  • HLTHDMG from General Social Survey 2012 Cross-Section and Panel Combined
    People should have access to publicly funded health care even if they: behave in ways that damage their health?
    0) Inapplicable
    1) Strongly agree
    2) Agree
    3) Neither agree nor disagree
    4) Disagree
    5) Strongly disagree
    8) Don't know
    9) No answer
  • ARTHRTIS from General Social Survey 2014 Cross-Section and Panel Combined
    Now I would like to ask you some questions about general health conditions. Has a doctor, nurse, or other health professional ever told you that you had: B. Arthritis or rheumatism?
    0) Inapplicable
    1) Yes
    2) No
    8) Don't know
    9) No answer
  • HYPERTEN from General Social Survey 2014 Cross-Section and Panel Combined
    Now I would like to ask you some questions about general health conditions. Has a doctor, nurse, or other health professional ever told you that you had: A. Hypertension or high blood pressure?
    0) Inapplicable
    1) Yes
    2) No
    8) Don't know
    9) No answer
  • HYPERTEN from General Social Survey, 2018
    Now I would like to ask you some questions about general health conditions. Has a doctor, nurse, or other health professional EVER told you that you had hypertension or high blood pressure?
    0) Not applicable
    1) Yes
    2) No
    8) Don't know
    9) No answer
  • MHTREATD from General Social Survey, 2018
    Did you get treatment for your mental health problem?
    0) Not applicable
    1) Yes
    2) No
    9) No answer
[Viewing Matches 1-10] > [View Matches 1-150]  (of 8471 total matches in Data Archive Questions/Variables)
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